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AT ' 








i o . 3 57 


VOLUMES IV., V., AND VI. 1888-89-90. 




H. DODGE 337 




LEONARD F. Ross 145 






The State Capitol of Iowa 97 

Battle of Horse-Shoe Bend, June 16, 1832 405 

Battle of Wisconsin Heights, July 21, 1832 415 

iv INDEX. 



BOLLINGER, J. W., Davenport, Iowa 308 

BRAINERD, HON. N. H., Iowa City, Iowa 65 

BULLOCK, REV. M. A., Iowa City, Iowa 290 

BYERS, MAJOR S. H. M., Oskaloosa, Iowa 129, 261, 365,467 

CHASE, S. C., Webster City, Iowa 430 

CHILDS, C. C., Dubuque, Iowa 32 

CLU'TE, REV. O., Ann Arbor, Mich 49, 94, 223, 557 

DAVIS, M. W., Iowa City, Iowa 41, 136, 234, 284 

Editor 45, 46, 47, 87, 92, 94, 142, 144, 145, 190, 191, 192 

193, 230, 239, 241, 281, 287, 288, 335, 383 
384, 431, 432, 480, 526, 528, 529, 566, 576 

EVANS, REV. T. R., Iowa City, Iowa 311 

FULTON, A. R 478 

GEAR, HON. JOHN H., Burlington, Iowa 68 

GOODRELL, MAJOR WM. H., Iowa City, Iowa 125 

GORDON, Miss ELLA E., Sioux City, Iowa 20 

KEMPKER, REV. FATHER JOHN F., Missouri Valley, Iowa 17, 40, 84 

KIRKWOOD, HON. SAMUEL J., Iowa City, Iowa 565 

LATHROP, HON. H. W., Iowa City, Iowa 97, 562 

LEA, CAPT. ,HENRY MILLER, Corsicana, Texas . . . 535 

LEVERING, CAPT. N., Los Arigeles, California ..:.... 13, 361, 424, 553 

MATHENY, HON. JAMES H., Springfield, Ills 183 

MURDOCK, HON. SAMUEL, Elkader, Iowa 28 

McCLAiN, CHANCELLOR EMLIN, Iowa City, Iowa . . . '. 319 

PARVIN, HON. T. S., Iowa City, Iowa 201, 249, 385, 433 

PARROTT, CAPT. J. C., Keokuk, Iowa 523 

PERKINS, JAMES H., Author of Annals of the West. ... ..... 283 

PERRY, RT. REV. WM. STEVENS, Davenport, Iowa 277 

PICKARD, J. L., LL.D., Iowa City, Iowa 256,304,422 

PIERCE, REV. CHAS. C., U. S. A., Fort Supply, I. T. . \ 279 

PRAY, CAPT. GILBERT A., Webster City, Iowa 225, 374 


SALTER, REV. WM., D. D., Burlington, Iowa . . . . i, 212, 326, 337, 391,445 

SMYTH, REV. FATHER P., Iowa City, Iowa 300, 316 

TAYLOR, HON. HAWKINS, Washington, D. C 39, 516 

THOMPSON, GEN. WM., Bismarck, N. D ^. 481 

WINTERSTEIN, S. P., Elberon, Iowa. . 38 




Address of Hon. John H. Gear, before the Fourth Reunion of the Tri- 

State Old Settlers' Association. . 68 

Address, Old Settlers' 183 

Anecdotes of Camp Life 527 

Anecdotes of Early Days in Iowa 424 

Anecdotes, War of 1812 361 

April 3oth, 1789-1889 256 

Army, Rebel, Ten Days in 467 

Books and Pamphlets 190 

Brigade, Crocker's, in War ai.d Peace 374 

Brigade, Crocker's Iowa / 430 

Burning of Columbia, S. C., The 125 

Bushwhacking in Missouri 553 

Camp Life, Anecdotes of 527 

Capitals and Capitols of Iowa, The 97 

Catholicity in Shelby County, Iowa 84 

Christianity, Co-operative 212 

Church of George Washington, The 277 

Clarke, James i 

Columbia, S. C., The Burning of 125 

Centennial Anniversary of the Inauguration of George Washington, First 
President of the United States, The Observance of in Iowa City . . . 289 

Counties, Names of Iowa 32 

County, Shelby, Iowa, Catholicity in 84 

Crocker's Brigade in War and Peace 374 

Crocker's Iowa Brigade 430 

Deaths, Recent 45, 92, 1^2, 191, 239, 287, 335, 383, 431, 480, 526, 576 

Delusion, A Minister's 39 

Des Moines Origin and Meaning 40 

Dewey, Nelson, The Late Ex-Governor of Wisconsin 422 

Dodge, Henry, Governor of the Original Territory of Wisconsin. 337, 391, 445 

Donations to the Historical Society Library 41, 136, 234, 284 

Draft, Iowa and the 65 

Dragoons, The First United States 523 

Early Days in Iowa, Anecdotes of 424 

Early Explorations in Iowa 535 

Early Law Makers, To Iowa's 478 

Explorations in Iowa, Early 535 

First Iowa, The, at Wilson's Creek 129 

First School in Iowa, Who Taught the, and Where? 201 

First Territorial Legislature of Iowa, The . . 516 

First United States Dragoons, The 523 

Fort, A Western . . .-5-50 

vi INDEX. 

Frontier Life, An Incident in 279 

Governor, Letters of a War 565 

Grimes, A Pleasing Recollection of Governor . . . 38 

Historical Society Library, Donations to the 41, 136, 234, 284 

Hughes, Thomas 433 

Incident in Frontier Life, An 279 

Indians, Report on. . ^ 566 

Iowa and the Draft. 65 

Iowa, Anecdotes of Early Days in 424 

Iowa Brigade, Crocker's 430 

Iowa, Early Explorations in 535 

Iowa in War Times 281 

Iowa's Early Law Makers, To 478 

Iowa School System, The 249 

Iowa, The Capita-Is and Capitols of . . . 97 

Iowa, The First Territorial Legislature of 516 

James, Reuben 334 

Jennings, Berry man Iowa, Oregon 385 

Law Makers, To Iowa's Early 478 

Lee, James , . 193 

Legislature, The First Territorial, of Iowa 516 

Letters of a War Govenor 565 

Love Story a Century Old, A 283 

March to the Sea, The 261 

Miller's Article, Mr. Justice, on the State of Iowa, in Harper's Magazine, 

July, 1889 326 

Minister's Delusion, A 39 

Missouri, Bushwhacking in 15153 

McCrary, Geo. W 557 

Names of Iowa Counties 32 

New Publications 46 

Notes .... ... 47, 94, 144, 192, 239, 288, 335 

384, 432, 480, 528, 576 

Old Settler's Address, An 183 

Old Settlers' Association, Address of Hon. John H. Gear before the Fourth 

Reunion of the Tri-State 68 

Out West in the Forties 365 

Pioneer Women, Address at the Old Settler's Reunion, Warsaw, 111. . . 20 

Prehistoric Races 28 

Priests, The First in Iowa, before the Arrival of Bishop Loras .... 17 

Publications, New 46 

Races, Prehistoric . 28 

Rebel Army, Ten Days in 467 

Recent Deaths : . 45, 92, 142, 191, 239, 287 

335. 383, 43 !> 4 8o > 5 26 - 57 6 
Recollection of Gov. Grimes, A Pleasing 38 

INDEX. vii 

Reuben James . . . . .. . ; . ...... ... .. . . .' . . . . . 334 

Report on Indians . . . . . . . . .,....; 566 

Ross, General Leonard F. '. ... . . . . . 145 

School System, The Iowa . . 249 

Shelby County, Iowa, Catholicity in 84 

Sherman, Governor Buren R 241 

Sixteenth Iowa, A Tribute to 225 

Spirit Lake Stockade, The 13 

Straw Hat, A 223 

Ten Days in the Rebel Army 467 

Thompson, General William 481 

Tribute to the Sixteenth Iowa, A 225 

Trick that was not Successfully Played, A. A Gilpin Ride 562 

Trowbridge, Col. S. C. 529 

United States Dragoons, The First 523 

War Anecdotes of 1812 361 

War Governor, Letters of a 565 

War Memories 87, 230 

War Times, Iowa in 281 

Washington, George, The Church of 277 

Western Fort, A 330 

Whitney, Leonard 49 

Wilson's Creek, The First Iowa at 129 


VOL. IV. JANUARY, 1888. No. i. 


HE Territory of Iowa included the vast region lying 
north of the State of Missouri to the British posses- 
sions, between the Mississippi river and a line 
drawn due north from its headwaters, on the east, and the 
Missouri and the White Earth rivers, on the west. It had a 
political existence of eight years and five months ; that is, from 
the 4th of July, 1838, when it was constituted by act of Con- 
gress, until the 3d of December, 1846, when the Territorial 
government lapsed in favor of the State of Iowa, and the first 
Governor of the State took his oath of office. 

The Territory of Iowa had three Governors, namelv, Robert 
Lucas, John Chambers, and James Clarke. A memoir of 
Governor Lucas was published in the Annals of Iowa for 
January, April, and July, 1870. A memoir of Governor 
Chambers was published in the Annals for July, 1871. 

James Clarke, the third Governor of the Territory, was 
born on the 5th of July, 1812, in the Ligonier Valley, West- 
moreland Countv, Pennsylvania. He was the third son of 
John Clarke, who became in the year 1839 prothonotary 
(chief clerk of the court) of Westmoreland County. 


In early youth he left home, and learned to be a printer, 
finding employment, among other places, at Harrisburg, in an 
office where the State printing was done. Here he improved 
his opportunities to observe the ways of political life, and he 
became well informed as to public affairs and public men. 
Visiting Philadelphia in the month of June, 1833, he saw 
General Jackson, then President of the United States, and was 
introduced to him by Major Gaullagher, of Harrisburg. His 
mind inclined to the study of law, but want of means was in 
his way. 

In the spring of 1836 he concluded to go west. In the 
course of his journey he visited his elder brother, John B. 
Clarke, who was then residing at Madison, Indiana, where he 
was also kindly received by the family of the Hon. William 
Hendricks, who was a native of the same town with Mr. 
Clarke. Mr. Hendricks had been Governor of Indiana, and 
was then in his second term as Senator in Congress. He was 
an uncle of the late Thomas A. Hendricks, Vice-President of 
the United States. 

Continuing his journey, Mr. Clarke came to St. Louis, and 
found employment in the office of the Missouri Republican, at 
twelve dollars a week. He wrote to his brother that he paid 
three dollars a week for board, and was saving money, and 
added that there were some excellent openings in the Upper 
Mississippi, and that if he could manage it he meant to take 
advantage of one of them. 

Upon the organization of the original Territory of Wiscon- 
sin, from which the Territory of Iowa was set off two years 
later, Mr. Clarke embarked with Mr. John B. Russell in the 
publication of a newspaper at Belmont, in the County of Iowa 
(now in Lafayette County), where the First Legislative 
Assembly of the Territory was convened by appointment of 
Governor Henry Dodge, October 25th, 1836. The paper was 
called the Belmont Gazette. It had four pages, 21 x 14 inches, 
six columns to a page. It was published from October 25th, 
1836, to April, 1837. A bound copy of it is preserved in the 


Library of the State Historical Society of Wisconsin. The 
publishers were appointed printers for the First Legislative 
Assembly, with the compensation allowed the printers to Con- 
gress. In the appropriation bill of that session, they received 
$1,589.50 as printers to the House of Representatives, $978.91 
as printers to the Council, and $75.00 for publishing the laws 
in the Gazette. 

Pursuant to an act of the Legislative Assembly of Wiscon- 
sin Territory at Belmont, its second session was held at 
Burlington, Des Moines County, November 6th, 1837. In 
anticipation of this meeting, Mr. Clarke established the Wis- 
consin Territorial Gazette and Burlington Advertiser at Bur- 
lington the previous July. This was the first newspaper 
published in Burlington. With some change of name at 
different periods, as the Iowa Territorial Gazette, Iowa State 
Gazette, etc., it has had a continuous life for more than half a 
century, making it the longest established newspaper now 
existing in the State of Iowa. Mr. Clarke was again given 
the public printing. He was appointed bv Governor Dodge 
Librarian of the Territorial Library, and arranged the books, 
says Moses M. Strong, in his History of the Territory of Wis- 
consin, "in a convenient and handsome style, in a commodious 
room procured for that purpose." He employed James W. 
Grimes as assistant Librarian. His father wrote to him from 
Pennsylvania, January 22d, 1838: 

" I am highly pleased with your paper, and am led to think your Legisla- 
tive body is getting along with as much order and dignity as in the older 
States, and perhaps a little more. I can hardly file your paper; the people 
here are so anxious to see it; they seem to consider it as coming from beyond 
no place, and read it with avidity. I hope you will continue to order your 
walk and conversation so as to get the esteem and friendship of the good peo- 
ple of this world, and above all to realize a blessed immortality in the world to 
come, for without this we will have but a thorny death-bed." 

Again, he wrote, August i3th, 1838: 

" Your relations and friends in this county felt much flattered by your 
prospect in the Far West, and seemed much pleased and very proud, 
that a poor young man with originally so small means was likely to rise 


to eminence. I hope both for your pecuniary interest, and chiefly for your 
honor, that their fond anticipations may be fully realized." 

An extract from a familiar letter to his father, of July 22d, 
1839, furnishes his views of matters of public interest at the 
beginning of the second year of the Territory of Iowa : 

" My own prospects are still fair. Another paper has been started in this 
place by the Whigs, but it has in no manner diminished our patronage. 
Indeed, our subscription and advertising custom is steadily on the increase; 
though, from the constant drain which the entry of lands has been upon the 
country, money is more scarce than formerly. Over a million of dollars has 
been taken at the Land Office in this place during the last year. I am pleased 
with the move of getting up the Whig paper. It will tend, more than any- 
thing else, to draw party lines in the Territory, and that is what I want. We, 
the Democrats, can beat them easily ; and in that case our office would enjoy a 
monopoly of the government patronage. 

" Conway, the Secretary, from your State, has behaved shamefully to his 
political friends since his arrival here. You must have observed last winter 
the dispute* between him and Governor Lucas, who is as pure and honest a 
man as breathes the breath of life. Conway's object was to render the Gov- 
ernor odious, and get his place; but his exertions in the end will signally react 
upon him. Every Democrat of influence in the Territory is out against him, 
and they will ask of the President his removal. The agents of the general 
government who are known to and have influence with the President, viz., the 
Governor, three Supreme Judges, four Land Officers and Marshal, have 
determined, I understand, to petition for his removal, arid at the same time ask 
that I may be appointed in his stead. If tendered to me I would accept it, 
though I never expressed a desire to have it. Be this as it may, it is exceed- 
ingly gratifying to me to know that I am possessed of the confidence of the 
men above enumerated. You will mention it to no one. Gov. Lucas also 
tendered to me the honorable appointment as one of his staft", which for reasons 
good and sufficient I declined. 

Upon the death of Mr. Conway, in November, 1839, Presi- 
dent Van Buren appointed Mr. Clarke Secretary of the Terri- 
tory. He filled the office until 1841, when President Harrison 
appointed O. H. W. Stull in his place. It was the duty of the 
Secretary to record the laws and proceedings of the Legisla- 
tive Assembly, and the acts of the Governor, and transmit 
copies of the same to Washington. He was also charged 
with the Congressional appropriation for the expenses of the 
Legislative Assembly, for printing the laws, and other inci- 

*An account of the dispute is in the Annals of Iowa, 1870, pp. 156-165. 


dental expenses. His salary was twelve hundred dollars a 
year. On the eve of his marriage, he was annoyed by a delay 
in receiving from Washington the appropriation for the Terri- 
tory. The creditors of the government, he says, "being both 
very numerous and hungry, it would submit me to much cen- 
sure and blame, should I be absent when the drafts arrive." 
With the devotion of a true lover, he added, "I have partially 
made up my mind not to be disappointed, but to take my trip, 
and return when it suits my own convenience, and let them 
abuse me as much as they please for it." On the 27th of 
September, 1840, he was married to Miss Christiana H. 
Dodge, daughter of the Hon. Henry Dodge, Governor of 
Wisconsin Territory, at her father's house in Dodge's Grove 
in that Territory, by the Rev. Samuel Mazzuchelli. 

The same fall Mr. Clarke called together the members of 
the Masonic order who were living in Burlington and its 
vicinity, and the Burlington lodge was organized November 
loth, 1840, the first Masonic lodge in Iowa. He was a mem- 
ber of the Territorial Democratic Convention that met at Iowa 
City, June 26th, 1843, which nominated the Hon. A. C. Dodge 
as Delegate to Congress for his second term. Such was his 
general reputation for integrity and fairness that he was elected 
Mayor of Burlington, without opposition, in February, 1844. 
He was a member of the First Constitutional Convention that 
convened October yth, 1844, whose work was rejected by the 
people, not on its merits, but because Congress, by act of 
March 3d, 1845, section 4, made a curtailment of the bound- 
aries adopted in convention a fundamental condition of the 
admission of the State into the Union. In view of the con- 
tingencies thus created, the matter not being finally disposed 
of by the people until August 4th, 1845, and in respect for 
Governor Chambers from his personal acquaintance with him, 
President Polk, at the beginning of his administration, deferred 
a change in the Governor of the Territory, but in November 
lie appointed Mr. Clarke to that office, who received his com- 
mission on the 1 8th of that month. 


In his message, December 3d, 1845, to the Eighth and the 
last Legislative Assembly of the Territory, Governor Clarke 
referred to his own recent sickness and to the prevalence of 
severe sickness in the Territory the previous season; he 
regretted the rejection of the State Constitution, and promised 
his hearty co-operation with such new measures as might be 
adopted to incorporate Iowa into the Union; he spoke of the 
gratifying increase of the population and of the extension of 
settlements to within a short distance of the Missouri river, 
of the removal of the Sac and Fox Indians the past fall west 
and south of that river, of the pending negotiations for the 
removal of the Pottawattamies and the Winnebagoes, of the 
Missouri, boundary line dispute ; he recommended a change in 
the disposition of mineral lands, that they should be sold, not 
leased; also, the improvement of the navigation of the Des 
Moines river; he deprecated the accumulation of the public 
debt of the Territory, and closed with a warning against over- 
legislation. A few extracts from the message will show his 
enlightened consideration of a question now under discussion, 
the private ownership of land: 

" The system which at present prevails of leasing the mineral lands is 
justly obnoxious to those engaged in the uncertain occupation of mining, and 
should be abolished at the earliest possible day. Unlike some of the despotic 
establishments of the old world, where excess of tribute is extorted from the 
people under almost every imaginable plea, we have a government in this 
country which aims at the happiness of the governed; and when this happiness 
is most equally and generally diffused, then may the government be said to 
have best performed the object for which it was instituted; then is it strongest. 
It would be a gross perversion of the spirit of our institutions, were the govern- 
ment as proprietor of our vast landed domain to refuse to sell any portion of 
such domain to individual purchasers; but, transforming itself into a grasping 
landlord, require of every settler the payment of a certain per cent, upon the 
products raised by him as rent. And yet such is the operation of the system 
now pursued in relation to the mineral lands. The government extorts a 
heavy tax from all who work them. Instead of aiding and encouraging the 
enterprise of the citizen, the effect of the policy is to cripple his energies and 
palsy his industries. I conceive the whole system to be eminently unjust in 
its bearing upon a large number of the inhabitants of this Territory, and hope 
soon to have the pleasure of witnessing its overthrow." 


Among the appointments made by Gov. Clarke were the 
following to be District Prosecutors: J. F. Kinney, Lee 
County; J. C. Knapp, Van Buren County; J. C. Hall, Des 
Moines County; Wm. Thompson, Henry County; A. B. 
Hendershott, Wapello County; John Bird, Louisa County; 
James Grant, Scott County; W. E. Leffingwell, Clinton 
County; John P. Cook, Cedar County; Gilman Folsom, John- 
son County; John J. Dyer, Jackson County; L. A. Thomas, 
Dubuque County; Reuben Noble, Clayton County. 

On the 1 7th of January, 1846, the Governor approved an 
act to provide for the election of delegates at the township 
election in April to a convention, which should meet at Iowa 
City on the 4th of May, to form a constitution and State gov- 
ernment for the future State of Iowa. On the pth of Septem- 
ber he issued a proclamation declaring that the constitution 
adopted by the convention had received at the general election, 
August 3d, a majority of votes in its favor, and was formally 
ratified and adopted by the people ; and acting under that con- 
stitution, article xiii., he designated the 26th of October as the 
day for holding an election of State officers and members of 
the State Legislature. After that election, on the 5th of 
November, he issued a proclamation designating the 3oth of 
November for a meeting of the State Legislature. 

Upon the outbreak of the Mexican war in the spring of 
1846, and the requisition of President Polk for a regiment of 
infantry from Iowa, the Governor issued a proclamation calling 
for enlistments from the "citizen soldiery" of the Territory. 
The force was promptly raised, and reported by the Governor 
to the President as ready for orders. 

At a Fourth of July celebration in Burlington that year, 
Governor Clarke presided at one of the tables at a public din- 
ner given in the Congregational Meeting House, then in course 
of erection, and responded to the following toast in his honor, 
which was proposed by Fitz Henry Warren : " The Execu- 
tive of Iowa His history is an example that the highest 
offices of the Republic are open to capacity, integrity, and 


worth." Among other speakers upon this occasion were C. 
C. Shackford, S. J. Burr, H. T. Reid, J. W. Grimes, J. B. 
Newhall, George Partridge. 

In the month of August, the Governor visited Fort Atkin- 
son, to have " a talk " with the chiefs of the Winnebagoes, and 
induce them to send a delegation to Washington for the pur- 
pose of making a treaty by which they would relinquish their 
title to the "Neutral Ground," then said to be the fairest por- 
tion of Iowa. Although he was not able to obtain a council 
on account of the absence of the chiefs, the result was accom- 
plished a few months later. An illicit whiskey traffic was 
carried on near the Fort, and made great trouble among the 
Indians and among the soldiers. Two companies of Iowa 
soldiers were sent there by the Governor to take the place of 
United States dragoons, who had been ordered to Mexico. A 
letter to the Governor from Capt. John Parker gives the fol- 
lowing view of the situation. 

" FORT ATKINSON, Oct. 6th, 1846. 

" The company I have the honor of commanding by your appointment was 
mustered into service on the gth of September, and has been in active service 
ever since, but has experienced considerable inconvenience from the want of 
arms to put in the hands of those sent out to patrol and search for whiskey ; 
notwithstanding, there has been a great deal of good done in the way of stop- 
ping the whiskey business. We procured a few spare muskets from Captain 
Morgan, and these are all the guns we have. If it were certain that any 
length of time would elapse before we get our guns, we could procure arms, as 
most of the men own rifles which could be obtained without much trouble. 

" Capt. Morgan has ordered a quarter house to be built within three miles 
of Sodom, the headquarters of the whiskey sellers. The mode of operation 
hitherto pursued by those engaged in the traffic has been to carry the liquor 
within a mile or two of the fort, and there hide it; then give some countersign 
by which the men knew where to go and get it. This I think is about stopped, 
through the vigilance of the men placed at the quarter house. 

"The only difficulty now to be overcome relates to the Indians. They 
have an idea 'that the soldiers have no right to interfere with them in the 
bounds of Clayton County. My opinion is, that we have the right to drive 
them away from the houses where they are furnished with liquor; or, finding 
them with it, have as much right to take it away from them in Clayton County 
as on the Indian land. To put an entire stop to this traffic, the military ought 
to have almost unlimited control over those parts of the counties that border 
on the Neutral Ground. This, I suppose, the border settlers would not relish 
very well, or at least some of them. 


"The company under my command are a set of fine, sober, steadv men, 
not more than six or eight at most at all inclined to be dissipated." 

"Conformably to the request of many highly respectable per- 
sons belonging to the several religious denominations, and in 
obedience to a venerable and generally approved of usage," 
the Governor named the last Thursday of November, 1846, as 
a day of general thanksgiving throughout Iowa. " It is meet," 
he said, "on an occasion like the present, when we are about 
assuming new and important responsibilities, that light and 
wisdom should be invoked from above." And he recounted 
the blessings of which "the year had been fruitful to our 
favored Territory." 

On the 2d of December, Governor Clarke delivered his 
message to the First General Assembly of the State. A few 
extracts from this paper will show the condition of Iowa at 
that interesting period of its emergence from Territorial 
dependence to "a free and independent government": . 

" In eight years, under the fostering protection of the general government, 
Iowa as a Territory has gone on to increase in wealth, population, and the 
development of her resources, until a majority of her citizens have become 
impressed with the conviction that it is their duty to establish and sustain a 
government of their own. Upon this civil revolution in our form of govern- 
ment, effected not through coercion, but by the silent force of public opinion, 
I beg leave most respectfully to congratulate the members of the State Legis- 
lature. With a constitution republican in its character, containing guards 
against improvidence and restrictions upon class legislation, we may hope to 
escape many of the abuses and evils which of late years have brought ruin and 
blight upon other portions of our common country" 

The message considers the following topics: i. The Mex- 
ican War; 2. Taxation; 3. The School Lands; 4. The Land 
Grant for the Improvement of the Navigation of the Des 
Moines River; 5. Revision of the Laws; 6. The Militia; 7. 
The Disputed Boundary with Missouri; 8. The Penitentiary; 
9. Extinction of Indian Titles in the State. 

Upon the second topic, the Governor recommends the abo- 
lition of all useless offices, a reduction of fees, and of the 
county machinery, by devolving the duties of two or more 
offices upon a single person, as " a reform called for by con- 


siderations of economy, and desirable as a check upon the 
thirst for public station, which is known to prevail in Iowa 
in common with other portions of the country." 

Upon the eighth topic, the message reports that the number 
of convicts has been from six to two during the past year, the 
latter the number in confinement at the close of the year. 
" At present there is no discipline ; the convicts are more fre- 
quently employed without than within the walls, and can easily 
make their escape when disposed to do so." 

Upon the last topic the following historical information is 
given : 

" Within the last year treaties have been concluded with the Winnebago and 
Pottawattamie Indians, by which all the lands owned by these tribes, lying 
within Iowa, are ceded to the United States. The country acquired from the 
Winnebagoes constitutes what is known as the ' Neutral Ground,' a strip of 
land forty miles in width, extending from the Mississippi to the Des Moines, and 
embraces about four millions of acres of choice and valuable land. The 
Pottawattamie purchase, greater in extent than the 'Neutral Ground' by about 
a million of acres, lies on the Missouri river, and is also valuable. By these 
treaties the Government acquires the title to all the Indian lands remaining in 
the State, and we may expect at an early day to be entirely rid of our Indian 
population. The occurrence of this event will be a signal for a rush of immi- 
gration to the newly acquired lands, which must materially augment the popu- 
lation and wealth of the State." 

In 1848, Mr. Clarke resumed his connection with the Gazette 
newspaper in Burlington, of which he was the founder. The 
same year he was a delegate to the Democratic National Con- 
vention that nominated Lewis Cass to be President, and was 
one of the Vice-Presidents of the convention. He gave a 
vigorous support to Mr. Cass, and in a letter addressed to him 
in September, assured him that the first electoral vote to be 
given by Iowa would be given for him. Mr. Cass replied : 
" The Whigs have counted much upon your State, and I am 
happy to find from one who knows so well as you do, that she 
will join her Democratic sisters of the Northwest." 

Upon the consolidation, in 1849, ^ tne s ' lx or more separate 
school districts into which Burlington had been previously 
divided, Mr. Clarke was called bv his fellow-citizens to be 


President of the Board of Directors, and gave his counsel and 
influence to put in operation the present system of Public 
Schools in that city. 

In the summer of 1850, Burlington was stricken with a 
virulent attack of epidemic cholera, sparing no age or condi- 
tion. In the family of Governor Clarke, the first victim was 
James, his youngest son, aged three years and four months. 
He died on the nth of July. Mrs. Frances Wise, of Wapello, 
was visiting the family at the time, and gave her kindly assist- 
ance to the sick and dying child. She was herself soon seized 
with the disease, when Mrs. Clarke at once nursed her with 
loving devotion, until she also was prostrated. In their dis- 
tress, a dear friend, Miss Jane Stull (daughter of General O. 
H. W. Stull, Secretary of the Territory, 1841-3), came to 
their relief; but on witnessing the scene she too fell a victim 
to the epidemic. It was a dark night in Burlington, July 
I3th-i4th, when these three amiable and accomplished women 
in pure devotion and friendship followed one another into the 
shades of death, within a few hours of each other. It was a 
fearful blow to Governor Clarke, from which he was not des- 
tined to rally. The Hon. Charles Mason took him to the 
salubrious air of his residence in the country, but the insidious 
disease followed him. He died on the 28th of July, 1850, 
aged 38 years. The funeral took place the next day from the 
Congregational Church, which adjoined his late residence. 
The pall-bearers were David Rorer, W. H. Starr, J. C. Hall, 
M. D. Browning, A. W. Carpenter, O. H. W. Stull, J. G. 
Foote, j. P. Wightman. 

Governor Clarke was possessed of an active and discrimin- 
ating mind, of a gentle and firm disposition, of strict conscien- 
tiousness and integrity, with a fine modesty and reserve in his 
manners. As a printer and an editor, he was master of the art 
that is preservative of all arts, and of a pure, direct and vigor- 
ous style ; he was acknowledged as a leader among his brethren 
of the craft and the fraternity, as he was among the first to 
bring the press to Iowa. Mr. James G. Edwards, the founder 


of the Hawk-Eye, said of him: "An acquaintance of thirteen 
years, most of the time in the same employment, although 
antagonistic to each other, afforded a good opportunity to 
understand his character, disposition, and abilities. I esteemed 
him as the fairest opponent I ever encountered." His career 
affords an illustration of American institutions. By faithfulness 
in business, by enterprise and perseverance, by substantial 
qualifications, he acquired favor and distinction. Self-educated 
for the most part, he informed himself thoroughly in public 
affairs, and enriched {iis mind with general knowledge. 
Entirely unobtrusive, he won his advancement by merit. 
Affectionate and tender in his domestic relations, he was a 
good neighbor and enjoyed the universal esteem of his fellow 
citizens. He filled the official trusts that were committed to 
him with fidelity, and with zeal for the public service. It was 
his fortune to hold the highest station in Iowa at a peculiar 
juncture in its history, and he discharged the duties of the 
occasion with the quiet and simple dignity becoming an Amer- 
can citizen. 

The next General Assembly that convened after his death 
gave his name to one of the new counties which was organ- 
ized. It adjoins the county of Lucas. The names of the first 
and last Territorial Governors will thus go down through long 
generations side by side. 

Of the children of Governor Clarke, Mrs. Wm. H. Ellery, 
of Burlington, is the only survivor. . Two daughters of his 
deceased daughter, Christiana, the wife of Mr. Theodore 
Rodolf, are living at La Crosse, Wisconsin. His son, Henry 
Dodge Clarke, was a soldier in the Eleventh Pennsylvania 
Cavalr^ Company A, during the war, and was appointed by 
the Secretary of War (Mr. Stanton) a second lieutenant in the 
Eleventh Regiment U. S. Infantry, in 1866, upon the special 
recommendation of Senator Grimes. His health, which had 
been impaired by exposure during the war, soon afterwards 
entirely failed. He died March 24th, 1871, at the home of 
his uncle, the Honorable A. C. Dodge, in Burlington. 






INE day while Sawyers was quite busy with his men 
at work on the stockade, a little son of Mr. Thomas, 
the hotel-keeper in Spirit Lake, brought a message 
to him, stating that there was a man at the hotel who wished 
to see him. Sawyers promptly replied to the message, by 
saying in effect that if the gentleman wanted to see him to 
come where he (Sawyers) was. 

After the boy had left, Sawyers began to think that perhaps 
this stranger might be some one who had important business 
with him, and that he had better walk down to the hotel and 
see who it was; accordingly he quit work and went. Arriv- 
ing there he met a well dressed and fine appearing man, who 
said to him, "This is Lieutenant Sawvers, I suppose?" "Yes, 
sir." "Where is your captain?" "In Sioux City." "Drunk 
pretty much all the time, I reckon?" "Do not think so; never 
saw him drink a drop; regard him as strictly temperate." 
"What are you doing here?" "Building a stockade." "Who 
told you to build it?" "No one." "What made you build 
it?" "Because I thought it the best thing to do under the 
circumstances." "How manv men have you?" "Forty- 
two." These questions were put in a bluff, bull-dozing manner, 
and the answers were given in a similar style. By this time 
the Lieutenant's good nature was about exhausted, and a more 
portentous element was assuming its place, when he very 
gruffly remarked to the stranger, "What the devil is it your 
business, anyway?" The stranger, seeing that he had game 
on his hands, looked for a moment in the Lieutenant's eye, 
smiled, and remarked, "Maybe you think that I am overstep- 
ping the rules of politeness and civility. Come in and I will 
show you my authority." They went into the hotel, when 
the stranger drew a large roll of papers out of his valise, say- 


ing at the same time, "Here is my authority." Lieutenant 
Sawyers replied: "I have no time to read them; just tell me 
what you want." The stranger then said his name was S. R. 
Ingham; that Governor Kirkwood had sent him up there to 
see what protection the northwestern frontier required; that 
he had authorized Captain Ingham, of Estherville, to raise a 
company of mounted riflemen, and that he wanted him (Lieut. 
Sawyers) to co-operate with him in acting for the best inter- 
ests for the frontier. The Lieutenant's reply was an emphatic 
"You bet I will!" Lieutenant Sawyers then requested him 
to go with him to the stockade and see what they were doing. 
Ingham looked at his watch and replied that it was growing 
late, and he was obliged to return to Estherville that evening, 
and would see him again ; hoped his abrupt manner would not 
seem out of place. The Lieutenant replied, "Oh, that is all 
right." They separated with the best of feeling toward each 
other, the Lieutenant returning again to his work, feeling that 
he was yet in the line of duty and had nothing to fear from 
any one. Strengthened in the line of duty, he resolved on 
more decisive and effectual steps of defense. He at once sent 
a team in charge of I. C. Furber to Sioux City, with orders to 
Quartermaster Stewart, who had , charge of the arms and 
ammunition stored there, to send him forty rifles, with six- 
thousand rounds of ammunition, to pack them in the bottom 
of Furber's wagon-box and place the rations on top of this. 
The order was promptly and faithfully carried out. 

They arrived in due time. The stockade with all the 
necessary appurtenances was soon completed, and was re- 
garded as an impregnable barrier to the attacks of the red 
invaders. The scouts reported no signs of Indians, which 
allayed the fear of the settlers in a great measure, and many 
of them returned to their homes to resume work upon their 
farms. Lieut. Sawyers now gave special attention to drilling 
his troops, that they might be in every way effectual should an 
emergency demand their services to measure pluc^ with Mr. 
Lo. He gave much attention to the bugle drill, and so thor- 


oughly were his men drilled in every call in the regulation that 
it was a marvel to see them go through the drill by the sound 
of the bugle, with the most exquisite precision and without the 
slightest error. 

Governor Kirkwood, believing that further steps should be 
taken for the protection of the frontier, convened the Legisla- 
ture and made such suggestion to that body as his wisdom 
dictated. The Legislature at once authorized him to raise 
five or more companies of mounted riflemen and station them 
in the most exposed places along the frontier. The Governor 
at once commissioned S. R. Ingham, with the rank of Colonel, 
to raise the companies. He at once proceeded to Ft. Dodge and 
commissioned Capt. Williams to raise a company there ; thence 
to Webster City, where he authorized Capt. Cropper to raise 
a company; thence to Denison and the Boyer, where Capt. 
Butler was authorized to raise a company. At Sioux City 
and Onawa Capt. J. M. White was authorized to raise a com- 
pany. Capt. Ingham, of Estherville, had a company already in 
the field. Lieut. Sawyers knew nothing of what was going 
on in the military line outside of his own command, until Col. 
S. R. Ingham dropped down upon him to count his trophies 
of war in raven colored locks, or see whether the Lo family 
were holding a scalp dance at the stockade. The Colonel 
found the Lieutenant and command with their scalps in good 
state of preservation and anxious to hold a picnic with their 
red country cousins. Col. Ingham inspected the stockade 
with all the appurtenances thereto belonging, and expressed 
himself well pleased, after which Lieut. Sawyers put his men 
through the dragoon and infantry drill. So well was it per- 
formed that Col. Ingham passed a high compliment upon the 
Lieutenant as a drill officer, and his men as experts in tactics. 
A w r arm attachment now sprang up between the two officers. 
The Colonel, in his profuse compliments, said that Sawyers 
reminded him very forcibly of Gen. Tuttle. He now urged 
Sawyers to accompany him around the line of posts and assist 
in a distribution of the troops to the best advantage. Lieut. 


Sawyers was now the owner of what was known as the 
"Frenchman's three-minute mare," which he hitched to his 
buck-board, side of trusty and fleety "Tom." They lit out 
Vanderbilt fashion and were not long in making the rounds. 
Capt. White's company was stationed at Correctionville, 
Lieut. Rush with a small squad at West Fork and a squad at 
Melbourne Sod House, Capt. Butler at Cherokee, Capt. 
Cropper at Peterson and Ocheydan, Capt. Ingham at Esther- 
ville and Emmet City, and Capt. Williams at Chain Lakes. 

After this work was accomplished, the Colonel said: 
" Lieut. Sawyers, I want you to take command of these five 
companies." The Lieutenant replied : " Colonel, I cannot, as 
I have enlisted for three years in the United States service and 
cannot get out." "Oh," replied the Colonel, "I'll fix that for 
you; just send in your resignation and I'll see that it is 
accepted, and then I'll order an election for a Lieutenant- 
Colonel in the Northern Border Brigade." The Lieutenant 
replied: "If it is your desire, I will do so." The resignation 
was at once sent in and accepted, when the election was 
ordered. Lieut. Sawyers and Capt. Williams, of the Ft. 
Dodge company, were the competitors. The election waxed 
warm, but Sawyers was elected by a large majority, about 
three to one. He was soon installed in his new position and 
assumed command of the five companies, retaining command 
at Spirit Lake. He made frequent visits to the different posts 
to see that the stockades were being built in accordance with 
the plans given by Col. Ingham. While in the discharge of 
these duties, he received an order from Capt. Millard to 
remain at Spirit Lake until relieved by an order from him. 
Col. Sawyers did.'tiot regard the order with much considera- 
tion, but took Capt. C. B. Rustin as his Adjutant and con- 
tinued his duties in looking after the State troops. Col. Ingham 
was a faithful officer and economized for the best interests of 
the State. After the lapse of a few months, Capt. Williams' 
company was mustered out, and Capt. Ingham's First Lieu- 
tenant, with a small squad of men, was stationed in his place, 


thus curtailing the expense by one company less. The other 
companies were soon after relieved by United States troops, 
under Gen. Cook, who was relieved in a brief period by Gen. 
Alfred Sully. Thus ended the State service and the Indian 
war in Northwestern Iowa. 


T the time of the creation of the Diocese of Dubuque, 
in 1837, the country was but little developed, and 
the priests who had given their services for the 
care of souls in this region were few in number. Since the 
time of Father Marquette and of Father Hennepin, it is not 
definitely known that any one of ther number set foot within 
the present limits of Iowa, until about the year 1828. From 
that year until 1831, Fathers J. A. Lutz, C. F. Van Quicken- 
born, and St. V. Badin, made several visits in this region; 
however, the accounts of these are very meagre, nor did they 
find much opportunity of exercising their apostolical zeal, since 
the settlements were very insignificant, and scattered at long 
intervals along the banks of the river. Rev. St. V. Badin was 
the first priest ordained in the United States, belonged to the 
diocese of Bardstown, and in an extended visit to the North- 
west came as far as Prairie du Chien, where a little later he 
sojourned seven months for the spiritual welfare of the early 
settlers. Rev. J. A. Lutz was a very zealous and amiable 
young German priest of the diocese of St. Louis, with an 
appointment in that city. Although it is known of him that 
he made repeated visits along the river, taking passage on the 
steamboats then plying in these waters, the only account that 
can be found of these is the mention of a protracted visit in 
1831 to the people of Prairie du Chien, by whom he was very 
highly esteemed. Rev. C. F. Van Quickenborn was a zealous 
and most exemplary Jesuit priest of the province of St. Louis, 


who, during these years, had charge of Sangamort County 
and the vicinity in Illinois; and of him it is said that he held 
divine service in the lead mines of Dubuque in 1832, or about 
that time. 

The Very Rev. Samuel Mazzuchelli was another pioneer of 
the Northwest. The son of a banker in Milano, he became a 
student in a seminary in Rome for five years, immigrated to 
the United States in 1828, and upon the completion of his 
ecclesiastical education he was ordained as a priest of the 
Dominican Order at St. Joseph's Monastery in Perry County, 
Ohio, and shortly thereafter was sent as missionary priest to 
the Northwest, with stations at Mackinaw Island, Green Bay, 
Fort Winnebago, Prairie du Chien, and amongst the many 
other fruits of his pious labors .counted the conversion and 
baptism of nearly fifteen hundred Indians in this region, from 
the time of his arrival until 1835. 

During this time Rt. Rev. Bishop Rosati, of St. Louis, made 
a permanent appointment of a pastor for Galena and its vicin- 
ity, and the first incumbent of this office was Rev. J. McMahon, 
who arrived in the autumn of 1832, and took up his residence 
at Galena, under whose charge came all the contiguous 
country, also the lead mines of Dubuque, where he is said to 
have held divine service in 1833. He exercised the sacred 
ministry with great perseverance and devotion; but on the 
ipth of June, 1833, fell victim to the cholera scourge, having 
been pastor about nine months. 

In the early part of 1834, R fcv - C. J. Fitz-Maurice came 
as the duly authorized pastor from St. Louis, and after 
most indefatigable exertions of three months he also was 
snatched away by the dire scourge. Father Fitz-Maurice 
divided the time equally between Dubuque and Galena, alter- 
nating with divine service on Sundays, taking up his residence 
part of the time in Dubuque, and whilst exerting himself 
energetically for the building of a church, as well in Galena as 
in Dubuque, he accomplished nothing in this direction in the 
former place, but in the latter was so successful that he 


entered claims for church grounds, obtained a subscription for 
$1,100.00, had the boards and timber engaged, and the con- 
tract for building given out to a carpenter; but with his early 
demise all the building arrangements were abandoned. In the 
same year Dubuque witnessed the construction of a church by 
another denomination. 

In the following year, the early summer of 1835, the Very 
Rev. Samuel Mazzuchelli succeeded to the pastorate of Galena, 
and at once commenced the construction of churches, both in 
Galena and in Dubuque, extending his missionary visits also 
to many other places of the vicinity. 

When Father Loras was consecrated as Bishop of Dubuque, 
be appointed Father Mazzuchelli as his Vicar General in the 
new diocese during the time of his absence. 

Amongst other places Father Mazzuchelli visited Davenport 
as early as 1835, commenced the building of a church there in 
1837, and completed the same in 1838. The blessing of this 
last named church took place on the 23d of May, 1839, by 
Bishop Loras. 

The first priest who extended his visits to the southern part 
of the State, was Rev. P. P. Lefeber, the pastor of St. Paul's 
Church in Rails County, Missouri (on the Salt river). He 
came in 1834, founded two or three little missions in the 
"Black Hawk Purchase," and made occasional visits until 
1837. In that year Father August Brickwadde, of Quincy, 
received charge of the Iowa district, then known as the Wis- 
consin Territory, and for several years visited the people of 
Fort Madison, West Point, and "Sugar Creek." 

The first church in Lee County was built of logs by the 
early settlers at Sugar Creek in the summer of 1838; and the 
Dubuque, Davenport, and Sugar Creek churches were the 
only edifices of worship for the Catholics in Iowa upon the 
arrival of Bishop Loras on April I9th, 1839, excepting, how- 
ever, an Indian chapel at Council Bluffs. 

At the close of the month of May, in 1838, Fathers Verreydt 
and DeSmet, Jesuit missionaries, took up their quarters at 


Council Bluffs, where they were solemnly received by a num- 
'ber of Indians and their chiefs. A deserted government fort 
was at once converted into a chapel, over which the cross was 
raised aloft, and several other log cabins were built in the 
neighborhood as a residence for the good fathers and a school 
for the Indian neophytes. Here they continued their Indian 
mission for several years in the most disinterested and self- 
sacrificing manner, until the dispersion of the Indians breathed 
decadence on their noble labors. 

These few priests are the only names known to the author 
of this paper prior to the arrival of their bishop in Iowa. 
They merit mention on the most excellent pages of THE 
RECORD, not only on account of the sublime mission to which 
they devoted their lives, but also on account of the grandeur 
and steadfastness with which they followed their sacred calling 
as pioneer priests among the first settlers. 


Riverside, Iowa. 





BOUT four months ago there was a great excitement 
among the children of a little red farm house in 
southern New Hampshire, for the father 
and mother of this home had decided that the time had come 
when it was wise for them to leave the old farm with its sterile 
soil, its rocks and its boulders, and to seek for fairer fortune in 
Northwestern Iowa, in the valley of the Missouri. For the 
children, there was nothing but joy and gladness, they could 
talk of nothing but the long journey and the wonderful land 
to which they were going. Mingled with the anticipations of 


the father and mother was the feeling of sadness that needs 
must come with the thought of leaving old friends and familiar 
associations. But the aged mother who is to remain in the old 
farm house cheers her daughter by saying "It is best for your 
children that the change be made. You will be three days 
from home that does not sound so dreary as the words of 
fifteen hundred miles and we will write to each other every 

One morning early in April the good-byes are said and they 
take the train for Fitchburg, where connection is made with 
one of the trunk lines for the \vest. By ten o'clock they are 
aboard the through sleeper, comfortably settled for a forty 
hours' ride. They can sleep, or read, or play games as thev 
choose. Tea and coffee will be brought to them at meal 
times, and when they tire of their lunch thev can either go to 
the dining car or have their meals brought to them in their 
own car. They left home Monday morning, and by six 
o'clock Wednesday morning they are in Chicago. They 
choose to spend the day here, though thev might go on, if 
they wished. Nine o'clock that night, rested and refreshed, 
they start for Western Iowa. Early Thursday morning they 
cross the Mississippi, and by four o'clock of the same day 
they reach their destination. Their furniture is awaiting them, 
and before many days, with all their household goods around 
them, they begin the life in the new land. They miss many 
of the comforts and conveniences of the old home. They feel 
lonely at first without the mountains, with their white caps of 
fleecy clouds and their green robes of pine and maple. There 
are no tiny, brown, sparkling rivers, no forests where grow 
the mosses and ferns; but there are the bracing air and the 
golden sunshine of the great northwest, and, better than all, 
taking the place of the ash-colored, sterile soil of New Eng- 
land, there is the rich alluvial deposit that makes such 
"dreadful mud," but that will yield many times an hundred 

The church of their faith is not far away; in the country 


school house near them is taught a school much better than 
the one they left. Before many months a roomy farm house 
will take the place of the small one they now occupy, and 
then, if not till then, they can say, "This is really and truly 
our home." 

Fifty-five years ago, in the same little red farm house of 
which I have spoken, there was a scene similar to the one I 
have described, similar I say, yet sadly different. 

Even so long ago as 1832, there was such a thing as busi- 
ness failure, and in consequence, sorrow and trouble. 

The outlook for the future was dark. The father and 
mother had decided that the one chance left for them to repair 
their failing fortune, was to remove to the then almost unknown 
land, the valley of the Mississippi. Their removal is a theme 
for neighborhood discussion. The emigration of one of the 
neighbors to Japan would create no more excitement. Many 
are the dismal prophecies heard on all sides. "The journey 
is so long and hard you will never live through it." "And if 
you do, you will not dare to come back." "Postage is twenty- 
five cents and you can afford to write but once a year." "You 
will have no church privileges for yourselves, nor schools for 
your children." But the mother thinks of the future of her 
children and resolutely steels her heart aganst the feeling of 
home sickness and loneliness that threatens to overcome her, 
and looking into her husband's face, says, "I am ready." The 
few household goods that are absolutely necessary are taken 
to Boston and shipped by way of New Orleans to their future 
home; after four months' time they reach their destination. 

One morning in September the sad farewells are spoken, 
the daughter feeling that in all probability it is the last good- 
bye to both father and mother. They take the stage for 
Schenectady, New York; this ride requires two days, and at 
the end of the time they are as tired as were the friends, who 
came west last spring, at the end of the journey. At 
Schenectady they take a canal boat and in five days they 
reach Buffalo. One dav on a steamer to Erie and thev are 


ready for the hardest part of the journey, which is a five days' 
ride in a road wagon from Erie to Pittsburg. Eight days 
from home, a five days' journey over rough, untraveled roads, 
before them, and then they will be but on the border land of 
the wilderness. At Pittsburg they take a steambQat surelv 
now the worst is over! but there are sand-bars and a treach- 
erous river ahead of them, and on the Mississippi they must 
go against the current. They change boats four times, and it 
is sixteen days before they reach their future home. Twenty- 
eight days from home, they have traveled over two thousand 
miles, and yet are but twelve hundred miles from home. Is 
the hardest over, do you say? Think of the long winter in 
the log cabin, far from home and friends, far from church and 
schools, far from books and all those social reunions that make 
life pleasant. Think of the spring when there is everything 
to do and nothing to do it with. And as the days lengthen 
into weeks and months, think of the dreary, homesick feeling 
that must have come to the mother, as she realized that she 
could not go back, that she must stay and fight it out. Think 
of these things and honor the memory of our pioneer women. 

But why the difference in the two pictures I have sketched 
for you? History and story tell us of the drearv loneliness, of 
the desolate emptiness of the west of sixty years ago; to-day 
there are great commercial centers, flourishing villages and 
beautiful country* homes. Why the difference between '27 
and '87? I seek an answer to this question in your news- 
papers, biographies, and county histories, and I learn that this 
wonderful change has been produced by John, and James, and 
William, by Peter, and Samuel, and Thomas, and Jeremiah, 
who, with their brothers, came west at such and such a time 
and surveyed roads, planted orchards, built mills and did this 
and that in an honest, manly, courageous way, and so laid the 
foundation of this mighty empire. 

I am proud of John, and Thomas, and Jeremiah. I glory 
in their courage. I point to them and say, "See the men who 
dared to carve for themselves a place in the world," who did 


not stay whining around the flesh pots of Egypt, but with 
their own strong right arms won for themselves a place among 
the men of the nation. And yet as I travel over the fair and 
beautiful west, as I visit at farm houses, at city and village 
homes, I find traces of an influence that has not been accounted 
for. I find that a noble work has been done that I know 
neither Samuel nor James nor William ever did. I find 
homes, the center of refinement, culture and inspiration. I visit 
libraries, I visit scientific and art museums, I visit churches, 
public schools and Sunday schools, I find men and women, 
who were trained when they were children in the principles of 
honesty and virtue, and I know that Thomas, and Jeremiah, 
and Peter, busy with their mills, and railroads, never found 
time for all this work. They did what they could to help, but 
the main part of the work was done by some one else. 

Again I search through history and biography for some 
recognition of the unknown worker, but I search in vain. 

Not long ago, in a rapidly growing city in the Missouri 
valley, a grand new hotel was opened to the public. A ban- 
quet was given in honor of the occasion. The orator of the 
evening improved the opportunity to glorify the new north- 
west. In eloquent words he described the little frontier trad- 
ing post of thirty years ago; he then pictured in glowing 
colors the rapid growth of the new city; he waxed eloquent 
over its oil mills, its iron foundries, its pork houses, and its ten 
railroads. He talked for thirty minutes, and just at the close 
said, "And we must not forget the religious, the educational, 
and the charitable organizations of our city." That was all, 
in a thirty minutes' speech, one sentence in regard to all that 
ministers to the higher life of men and women. When he had 
finished, a lady turned to me and with puzzled face, inquired, 
"Were there no women here in early times? Have the 
women had nothing to do with the growth of this city?" 

Is it not true, O friends of the Old Settlers' Association, that 
but one-half of your history is written? I do not criticise the 
half that is written. As I have said before, I am proud of the 


pioneer men. I glory in their courage, their strength and 
their patience; but were not the women also strong, and 
brave, and patient? The men sacrificed all, but did not the 
women do as much? The men felled the trees, and broke 
the raw prairie, but did not the one who kept the home, 
cooked the food, and made the clothes, work just as hard? I 
claim that women helped to develope the material resources 
of the new country. Our political economists tell us that he 
alone creates wealth who increases the natural yield of life- 
giving products. The woman, who by her skill and energy, 
produced butter and cheese, eggs, poultry and fruit, not only 
for the home, but for the market, created wealth just as truly 
as did the man who raised the golden corn and the fragrant 
hay. But she did more than this, for "man cannot live by 
bread alone." 

We notice in the evolution of society, that the finer forces, 
that determine and control life, are the last to be recognized. 
In the first stages of development, phvsical strength alone is 
desirable. The man who can throw the heaviest spear is the 
chief of his tribe. As we approach the higher civilization, 
mental and moral strength is the determining force .and then 
for the first time the worth of woman's w r ork is recognized; 
then her influence in 'fashioning and moulding society is 
acknowledged as one of the important factors in the growth 
of the State. 

It is said that when darkness settles over the Adriatic Sea 
and the fishermen are far from land, their wives and daugh- 
ters, just before putting out the lights in their humble cottages, 
go down to the shore, and in their clear, sweet voices sing the 
first lines of the "Ave Maria." Then they listen eagerly, and 
across the waters are borne to them the deep tones of those 
they love, singing the strains that follow, and thus each knows 
that all is well. "I often think," says Frances Willard, in 
speaking of this custom, "that from the home life of the 
nations there sound to those away in the darkness of tempta- 
tion the notes of, to us, the dearer song, ' Home, Sweet Home.' " 


It is to the makers and keepers of our pioneer homes that I 
pay homage. I offer homage to the woman who, given a log 
cabin and her wits, could make a home comfortable, restful, 
attractive ; I pay homage to the woman who, given pork, corn 
and coffee, could furnish three good meals a day with a varied 
bill of fare. I honor the woman who, without church and 
school, with but few books and papers, so carefully trained by 
precept and example, the boys and girls, that, despite their 
narrow, hard lines and lack of refined surroundings, they grew 
to manhood and womanhood, sturdy, brave, and honest. I 
honor that woman who, with such indomitable energy, patience 
and perseverance, made dark places bright, crooked places 
straight, hard places easy, and yet with it all, kept peace in 
the family. I honor that woman who, through poverty, 
drouth and pestilence, through disappointment, sickness and 
death, kept her faith in the eternal goodness, her belief in the 
final triumph of the right and her love for all humanity. I 
reverence her memory as I would reverence the memory of a 
sea captain, who, with contrary winds, opposing currents, a 
leaking ship, and a broken rudder, brought his vessel safe to 
port. When the great novelist wrote, "that things are not so 
ill with you and me as they might have been, is half owing to 
the men and women who have lived faithfully a hidden life 
and rest in unvisited tombs," she must have been thinking of 
our pioneer men and women. "Lived faithfully;" may we, 
who succeed you, prove ourselves worthy our heritage. 

To the "mothers in Israel," who are still with us to comfort 
and cheer, we bring to-day our tribute of grateful praise. 
Your faces, with the look of sweet content that can come 
only after a life of unceasing conflict, tell a pathetic story of 
the past. As you lay on our shoulders your burdens and give 
into our keeping the keys of the future, we promise you that 
we will try to be as true to the new light of to-day as you 
were to that of the past. But there are many vacant places 
to-day. Many there are who have gone on before to the 
fairer home not made with hands. Their hearts no longer 


keep time to anxious thoughts. What heart-aches and dis- 
appointments, what lost hopes and defeated ambitions, lie 
buried in these humble graves, we can never know. Their 
names are emblazoned on no monument; their conflicts with 
despair and discouragement are not the theme for history's 
page: they are unsung by poet, unknown to fame; and yet, 
O noble women, you are still the inspiration of your sons and 
daughters, who will see to it that some where, some time 
when the REAL history of the country is written, your names 
shall have an honored place therein. And to-day, remember- 
ing your brave, noble living, we bring a tribute to your mem- 
ory in the words of one of woman's truest friends. 

" One low grave, yon trees- beneath, 
Bears no roses, wears no wreath ; 
Yet no heart more high and warm 
Ever dared the battle storm. 

Never gleamed a prouder eye 
In the front of victory; 
Never foot had firmer tread 
On the field where hope lay dead, 

Than are laid within this tomb, 
Where the untended grasses bloom ; 
Where no colors wrap the breast 
As a hero sank to rest. 

Heart of duty, dauntless will, 
Dreams that life could ne'er fulfil; 
Here lie buried here in peace, 
Tireless service found release. 

Kneeling where a woman lies, 
Spent in willing sacrifice; 
I strew lilies on the grave, 
Of the bravest of the brave." 




ROM the very earliest ages down to the advent of 
the white man, it is evident that the valley of the 
Mississippi river afforded an abundant supply of 
everything that was necessary for the support and increase of 
savage races. 

Not until the Indian had glided out of sight did we begin to 
suspect that he himself was but the successor of other and 
distinct races who had preceded him in this great valley, and 
who, like himself, had yielded to that inevitable fate that 
befalls animate and inanimate life alike, and gradually that 
suspicion grew, until it has at last developed into a fixed and 
permanent reality that throughout the length and breadth of 
this vast continent other and distinct races from the Indian 
once held the sway of empire, and permanently occupied the 
soil; and one of whom, from the peculiar form of his earth- 
works, we call the " Mound-builder." 

In the erection of these animal mounds, great labor was 
required, and while they exist their purpose will ever be a 
subject of discussion and conjecture; and when we see this 
class of mounds commingling together with the long and 
round mounds in the same locality, or even scattered wide 
apart, we are led sometimes to think that they differ in point 
of age, and that they are the commingled works of two or 
more races instead of one. 

We know that the long mounds would exactly fill the pur- 
pose of interment for a large number of dead killed in battle, 
and although but few human remains have been found in them, 
and these of a doubtful age, yet the battles and the erection of 
these mounds may have occurred so long ago that every 
vestige of their remains has had time enough to perish. 

It is a hard matter to judge and compare the relative ages 


of two or more earth-works, for one of a century will look to 
the eye as old as one of ten centuries; but in passing along 
the ridges, the long mounds are very much denuded or flat- 
tened, and in many instances are onlv discernible by an experi- 
enced eye, while the round mounds of the same material, on 
the same ridge, and seemingly a part of the same system of 
works, have a fresher look, are less denuded and flattened, 
and often contain more or less human skeletons, some of which 
are at present in a good state of preservation. 

The raw material composing the bones of the "Mound 
builder " is greater and more compact than those we have met 
of the civilized races, and all circumstances considered, would 
outlast the latter in the ground by many ages, yet w r ith all, 
their durability is but a question of time. 

There is to be found on all the clay ridges that abound with 
earth-works a little mouse, of what order we cannot stop to 
inquire, and this little rodent works its way down into the 
tomb of the " Round Mound-builder," and often builds its nest 
in his skull, while age after age the progeny feed upon the 
other bones, until they are all consumed, when it emigrates to 
more plentiful deposits, and we are inclined to think, if the 
truth is generally known, that this mouse is no respecter of 
races; but it is here that we see a sure and powerful assistant 
in the obliteration of human bones. 

All these facts could fill these long mounds with the dead of 
men killed in battle, and belonging to a race who may have 
preceded the "I^pund Mound-builder," by many ages. 

But when we come to the "Round Mound" we find that it 
generally contains more or less adult human skeletons, and 
this being the rule, we are warranted in asserting that all of 
them have been erected for one and the same purpose, and 
that either from the causes we have mentioned, or from some 
other unknown cause, the remains have disappeared from 
some of them; and if we are right in this conjecture, then the 
number of subjects that are now, and have heretofore been in 
these round mounds is, and has been enormous. 


From fifteen to twenty well preserved adult skeletons in a 
single mound is no unusual find, and these are generally found 
lying on their backs, with their heads outwards, and their 
lower limbs crossed in a such a manner that hardly a part of 
one can be dislodged without disturbing some parts of another, 
and in this manner they present themselves to the eye of the 
philosopher and the curious, to bid them solve the mystery of 
their origin, their life, their death, and their sepulcher. 

This is a command and a task not easy to perform, and 
much of which, if undertaken in regard to living races, would 
prove a failure. 

It is now generally conceded that the " Mound-builder " was 
distinct and separate from all other races of the globe; that 
the race is now, and has been for centuries, totally extinct, and 
that none of the living civilized or savage races of the earth 
have ever left us the slightest truthful history or tradition of 
the existence of a living " Mound-builder," and it is therefore 
certain that they arose up, passed over continents beyond the 
line of written history, and far beyond the reach of the tradi- 
tions of living savages, and alone to their bones and their 
earth-works must we therefore look for a solution of the mys- 
tery that has ever hung around them. 

It does not appear that their heads have ever been artifi- 
cially deformed, but are in the shape in which nature formed 
them, and they generally slope from all sides to a cone, form- 
ing a solid bony ridge or bump on the whole well braced with 
good material, and bearing a strong resemblance in shape and 
form to the mound from which they were procured; and if we 
can believe that a people with uniform heads will produce 
none but uniform ideas, that always culminate into uniform 
works, and that high and conical crowns are indicative of great 
reverence, fear and superstitution, then we have touched the 
key that unlocks the mystery which has so long hung over the 
sepulcher and the fate of the " Mound-builders," leaving their 
origin and their history to be traced in the future back through 
the deposits of glacial mud to that early morning of primeval life. 


Certain it is that civilization has never been found growing 
wild on any part of the earth, and some writer has observed 
that it can onlv result from the cross or amalgamation of two 
or more races into one, whereby the uniform ideas of each, are 
changed in the progeny into discordant thought and action, 
and which in turn produces doubt, discussion, inquiry and 
experiment, until at last a system of law and order is gradually 
conceived by which life, liberty and the accumulation of prop- 
erty are all protected. 

On this continent alone the works of the " Mound-builder" 
are too laborious and too extensive to be accomplished by the 
mandate of any form of government known to savage races; 
and no ties of kindred or affection for the ordinary dead has 
ever been found, either among the savage or the civilized 
races, that was strong enough to impel the labor necessary for 
their construction. Many of these mounds, with their skele- 
tons in preservation, are found on steep and almost inaccessi- 
ble points and bluffs, while others are several miles distant 
from \vater and on high and sterile ridges, with no indications 
of former habitations near them, and when uncovered, many 
of theae skeletons about their heads present the appearance of 
a movement before death occurred and after the body had 
been placed in position. 

Near clusters of these round mounds we have in many 
places found a singular heap of earth and stone which, when 
uncovered, proved to be an excavation in the ground walled 
round with rock, calcined by heat, across which is found the 
charred remains of a stick, and the cavity filled with ashes, 
charcoal and charred human bones, many of which are split 
lengthwise and all broken up into fragments, and if we are 
not here dealing again with the commingled works of two or 
more races instead of one, then the " Round Mound-builder" 
\vas a cannibal of the very worst type. But we must here 
conclude by saying to the reader that we have given the 
"Mound-builder," as we have seen and judged him from our 
own standpoint, and we cheerfully turn him over to others 


who, from fuller investigation may arrive at a different and a 
more rational conclusion concerning him. 


IIXTY-SIX counties in Iowa derive their names from 
three sources, American statesmen, the revolution, 
and the Indians. The remaining thirty-three take 
theirs from various sources. 

Of this remaining number five come from early pioneers. 
First of these is Dubuque, one of the two original counties 
into which the whole State was divided, and taken from the 
early French trader who was the first white man to live in 
what is now Iowa. He settled at a point two miles below 
where the city of his name now stands, in 1788, and lived there 
until 1810, when he died. Boone County was named for 
Daniel Boone, the typical pioneer of the west. Shelby County 
is from the hardy Kentucky pioneer of that name, who was 
afterward Governor of the State. Page County is from Capt. 
Page, of the United States army, who was in that section in 
an early day; although a man named Edward Page, from 
Pennsylvania, was connected with the government survey 
there, and claims it was named for him. It was certainly for 
one of them, and they were both pioneers in that portion of 
the State. Two counties are named from Territorial Gov- 
ernors, Lucas and Clarke, and it would not be amiss to put 
them with the pioneers; also Dickinson County, we believe, is 
named for the earliest settler and pioneer in its borders, Mr. 
Dickinson. This county contains the highest land in Iowa. 

The Legislature honored six counties in the State after 
heroes of the Mexican war. They were Scott and Taylor; 

*The authorship of this explanation of the origin of the names of the 
counties of Iowa, taken from a late number of the Dubuque Herald, may be 
attributed, we think, to Mr. C. C. Childs, of Dubuque, who has done much in 
gathering early Iowa history. ED. 


names that will be recognized at once. Gen. Worth was 
remembered in one, a veteran of that campaign, who died only 
a few years ago at Troy, N. Y. Col. John J. Hardin was the 
Colonel of one of the Illinois regiments, who proved a brave 
and stalwart fighter. Major Ringgold was the hero of one of 
the early battles of the war, who acquired great celebrity at 
the time in the artillery service. A young Lieutenant named 
Robert Mills went out from Burlington with the Iowa troops 
and was killed in one of the battles. Mills County was 
named for this brave young hero. We understand that 
Guthrie County was named for a young Iowa officer in the 
Mexican war, though it has been put down for James Guthrie, 
of Kentucky, who was Secretary of the treasury under Presi- 
dent Pierce. Three counties in the State were named for 
three of the battles of the Mexican war, Buena Vista, Cerro 
Gordo, and Palo Alto. 

Three counties take their names from Iowa rivers, Des 
Moines, Iowa and Cedar, one French, one Indian and one 
English. It may not be amiss to call attention to the fact that 
but four counties have French names, Dubuque, Des Moines, 
Audubon and Fayette, although there is plenty of nationality 
in other names, English, Irish, Spanish, Mexican, American, 
Indian, Hungarian, Swede and one German. Many of the 
counties were named, as will be inferred, just after the close 
of the Mexican war, when the names connected with it were 
as common in the mouths of the people as the names of the 
heroes and the battles of the war of the rebellion have been 
during the past twenty years. About the same time occurred 
the Irish rebellion of 1848, and as the people of Iowa had 
then as now strong sympathy with the oppressed and down- 
trodden of that unhappy land, the names of not less than three 
of the Irish patriots were transferred to Iowa counties. Mitch- 
ell, O'Brien for Smith O'Brien, and Emmet for the famous 
Irish orator, Robert Emmet, of an earlier date. 

Two counties are named for eminent naturalists, one for the 
great American ornithologist, John James Audubon, who died 


in New York in 1851, and the other from Alexander von 
Humboldt, the eminent scientist who died in 1859 a * the r ^P e 
age of ninety years. It is a curious fact that notwithstanding 
Iowa has so large a German population, this is the only dis- 
tinctive German name among all her counties. German 
immigration did not set in here until the counties were nearly 
all named. Two counties of the State are named for eastern 
localities. Delaware County from Delaware County, New 
York, whence came some of its earlier settlers who thus 
remembered their old home; Plymouth County, evidently 
christened by some warm admirer of the old pilgrim rock. 
The gallant men in the early Legislatures gave ladies' names 
to three counties, Louisa said to have been named at an early 
day from a Dubuque lady, Miss Louisa Massey. Ida a name 
given by Eliphalet Price, of Clayton County, but who or what 
for we cannot tell; and Bremer for the famous Swedish 
novelist, Frederika Bremer, a name given to the new county 
by Gen. A. K. Eaton, now of Osage, but at that time, 1852, 
member of the Legislature from Delaware County, and an 
active member of the committee on counties that organized 
and named many of them. He was a warm admirer of Miss 
Bremer's writings, then very popular, and himself gave the 
name. A small post-office in the county has always been 
called Frederika. 

Decatur is the only one of our many naval heroes who has 
been remembered in the naming of counties. In 1851-52 the 
name of Kossuth, the Hungarian patriot, was in every one's 
mouth, and naturally was selected for a county by some 
admirer. Gen. Fremont had a great reputation as an explorer 
before he ran for the Presidency in 1856, and it was for Fre- 
mont, the explorer, not the candidate, that the Iowa county 
obtained its name. 

Some patriot in the Legislature applied the term Union to 
one of the counties. But a single county in the State bears 
the name of any person, place or thing connected with the 
rebellion of 1861, and that is Lvon, named at the next session 


of the Legislature for Gen. Nathanial Lyon, killed at the 
battle of Wilson's Creek, August i2th, 1861. 


Following are the counties and the derivation of their names : 
Adair, Gen. John Adair, sixth Governor of Kentucky. 
Adams. Two Presidents of the United States. 
Allamakee. This was the way the Winnebago Indiaus pro- 
nounced the name of Alex. McGee, an Indian trader. 
Appanoose. An Indian chief. 
Audubon. Scientist. 
Benton. Thos. H. Benton. 
Blackhaiuk. Indian chief. 
Boone. Daniel Boone, of Kentucky. 
Bremer. Frederika Bremen 
Buchanan. James Buchanan. 
Buena Vista. Battle of Buena Vista, Mexico. 
Butler. Gen. Wm. O. Butler. 

Calhmui. John C. Calhoun. 

Carroll. Chas. Carroll, of Carrollton. 

Cass. General Cass. 

Cedar. River. 

Cerro Gordo. Battle of Cerro Gordo, Mexico. 

Cherokee. Indian tribe. 

Chickasaiu. Indian tribe. 

Clarke. Governor James Clarke, of Iowa. 

Clay. Henry Clay. 

Clayton. John M. Clayton of Delaware. 

Clinton. DeWitt Clinton. 
. Cra-M/ord. William H. Crawford, of Georgia. 

Dallas. Vice-President George M. Dallas. 

Davis. Garret Davis, of Kentucky. 

Decatnr. Commodore Decatur. 

Delaware. Delaware County, New York. 

Des Moines. Des Moines river. 

Dickinson. Daniel Dickinson, or a pioneer. 


Dubuque, Julien DuBuque. 
Emmett. Irish patriot. 
Fayette. General LaFayette. 
Floyd. John B. Floyd, of Virginia. 
Franklin. Benjamin Franklin. 
Fremont. General John C. Fremont. 
Greene. General Greene, of the revolutionary war. 
Grundy. Felix Grundy. 

Guthrie. Guthrie, who went from Burlington to the Mexi- 
can war and was killed there. 

Hamilton. Alexander Hamilton. 

Hancock. John Hancock. 

Hardin. -Colonel John J. Hardin, of Illinois, 

Harrison. Gen. W. H. Harrison. 

Henry. -Patrick Henry. 

Howard. Tilghman A. Howard, of Indiana. 

Humboldt. Humboldt, the traveler and naturalist. 

Ida. A fancy name suggested by Eliphalet Price. 

Iowa. Tribe of Indians. 

Jackson. General Jackson. 

Jasper. Sergeant Jasper. 

Jefferson. Thomas Jefferson. 

Johnson. Gen. "Dick." Johnson, of Kentucky. 

Jones. Gen. Geo. W.Jones. 

Keokuk. Indian chief. 

Kossuth. Hungarian patriot. 

Lee. The Virginia Lees. 

Linn. Louis F. Linn, of Missouri. 

Lotiisa. Miss Louisa Massey. 

Lucas. Gen. Lucas, Iowa. 

Lyon. General Lyon, of Wilson Creek fame. 

Madison. James Madison. 

Mahaska. Indian chief. 

Marion. General Marion. 

Marshall. Chief justice. 

Mills. Lieut. Mills, of Burlington, killed in Mexico. 

Mitchell. Irish patriot. 


Monona. Indian name. 

Monroe. President Monroe. 

Montgomery. General James Montgomery. 

Muscatine. Indian name of the island opposite that town, 
means fire island. 

O'Brien. The Irish patriot. 

Osceola. Indian chief. 

Page. Either from Capt. Page, of the United States army, 
who commanded at Palo Alto, or Edward Page, who was 
connected with the government surveys in that countv, who 
claims that it was named after him. 

Palo Alto. Battle in Mexico. 

Plymouth. Plymouth Rock. 

Pocahontas. Indian name. 

Polk.]*s. K. Polk. 

Pottaivattamie. Indian tribe. 

Poweshiek. Indian chief. 

Ringgold. Major Ringgold, of the Mexican war. 

Sac. Indian tribe. 

Scott. General Scott. 

Shelby. Governor Shelby, of Kentucky. 

Sioux. Indian tribe. 

Story. Judge Story. 

Tama. Tamoah, Indian chief. 

Taylor. General Taylor. 

-> J 

Union. United States. 
Van Buren. Martin Van Buren. 
Wapello. Indian chief. 
Warren. General Warren. 
Washington. General Washington. 
Wayne. General Wayne. 
Webster. Daniel Webster. 
Winnebago. Indian tribe. 
Winneshiek. Indian chief. 
Woodbury. Levi Woodbury. 
Worth. General Worth. 
Wright. Silas Wright. 




N the summer of 1837, my father, Nicholas Winter- 
stein, settled on a claim fourteen miles above the 
little village of Burlington, in what was then 
called the "Black Hawk Purchase." That village is now the 
flourishing city of Burlington, Iowa. Before leaving his former 
home in Ohio, he had gone security for a brother-in-law, sup- 
posed to be a "well to do" merchant in Chillicothe, Ohio. 
But just as father had his farm improved and well stocked, 
some seven years after his first settlement in the new country, 
the brother-in-law failed and the debt from Ohio came against 
him. His stock and farm were sold at sheriff's sale. 

Governor Grimes, then a struggling young lawyer at Burling- 
ton, attended the sale and bought the farm. The second day 
after the sale he sent word to father to come and see him. 

On father's coming into his office he handed him a written 
order to one Westfall, a neighbor, to turn over fifteen head of 
cows and young cattle valued at $200. He explained to father 
that he had sold the farm to Westfall for the same money it 
had cost him, and the two hundred dollars worth of cattle 
besides. But father protested that he would not be able to 
pay for the cattle; but Grimes insisted as the cattle had cost 
him nothing, it was his duty and pleasure to give them to 
father. He said that, in fact, that had been his motive in buy- 
ing the farm, to save something for father. His generosity 
seems the more remarkable when we remember that the man 
he was so anxious to befriend was only a farmer a chance 
acquaintance, living fourteen miles in the country, a man 
who never figured in politics and not at all likely to be able to 
repay the kindness in any thing but friendship. And in all of 
Grimes' public life, I am quite sure this incident was never 
used to his personal advantage, only as father told it to his 
most intimate friends. L. P. WINTERSTEIN. 

Elberon, Iowa, 



HAT we used to call " Hummerism " at Keokuk, 
was a most remarkable phase of what has come 
to be known as Spiritualism. It had its start in Cedar 
Rapids. Miss Legare, of Charleston, S. C., started a college 
at Cedar Rapids. It failed, and she turned it over to the 
Presbyterians, and they removed it to West Point, in Lee 
County. Michael Hummer, then in charge of the Presbyter- 
ian church at Iowa City, was selected to go to New York to 
raise funds to endow the college. When he got to New 
York he became possessed by the delusion that he was named 
bv the spirts as one of the six to dig up the "Kidd treasure," 
but to be at none of the expense. 

The spirits sent Hummer, contrary to his will, to Keokuk, 
Governor R. P. Lowe going with him. 

Old settlers will recollect how Hummer went back to Iowa 
City to get the bell of the church, and that when he let it 
down some of the citizens removed the ladder and left Hum- 
mer on the roof while they ran off with the bell and hid it in 
the Iowa river. Afterwards the bell was recovered by some 
Mormons, who took it to Salt Lake, where in after years it 
was used to summon the saints to their worship. 

Judge Tuthill, of Tipton, made the Hummer Bell immortal 
in his classic verse. 

.The chain of episodes, ludricrous and dramatic, growing 
out of the strange infatuation which possessed Hummer, who 
had brilliant qualities and a deeply religious nature, form an 
interesting part of early Iowa history. 

Washington, D. C. HAWKINS TAYLOR. 



[ATHER KEMPKER, in his "History of the Cath- 
olic Church in Iowa," gives the following explana- 
tion of the origin and meaning of the words, 
designating the Capitol, one of the chief rivers, and one of the 
counties of Iowa, which is taken from Nicollet's Report of the 
Upper Mississippi to Congress in 1841, as given in the History 
of Lee County. 

The Des Moines is one of the most beautiful and important 
tributaries of the Mississippi, north of the Missouri, and the 
metamorphosis which its name has undergone from its original 
appellation is curious enough to be recorded. 

We are informed that Father Marquette and M. Joliet, during their voyage 
in search of the Mississippi, having reached the distance of sixty leagues below 
the mouth of the Wisconsin, observed the foot-prints of a man on the right 
side of the great river, which served as a guide to those two celebrated 
explorers to the discovery of an Indian trail, or path, leading to an extensive 
prairie, and which they determined to follow. Having proceeded about 
two leagues, they first saw one village on the bank of the river, and then two 
others upon the slope, half a league from the first. The travelers, having 
halted within hailing distance, were met by the Indians, who offered them 
their hospitalities, and represented themselves as belonging to the Illinois nation. 

The name which they gave their settlement was Moningowinas (or Moin- 
gona, as laid down on the ancient maps of the country), and is a corruption of 
the Algonquin word Mikouang, signifying at the road, by their customary 
elliptical manner of designating localities, alluding, in this instance, to the 
well-known road in this section of the country, which they used to follow as a 
communication between the head of the lower rapids and their settlement on 
the river which empties itself into the Mississippi, to avoid the rapids; and this 
is still the practice of the present inhabitants of the country. 

Now, after the French had established themselves on the Mississippi, they 
adopted this name, but with their custom (to this day also that of the Creoles), 
of only pronouncing the first syllables, and applving it to the river as well as to 
the Indians who dwelt upon it, so they would say 'la riviere des Moines (the 
river of the Moines), allez chez les Moines (go to the Moines people). But in 
later times, the inhabitants associated the name with that of the Trappist 
Monks (Moines de la Trappe), who resided with the Indians of the American 

It was then concluded that the true reading of "riviere des Moines" was 
the river Des Moines, or "river of Monks," by which name it is designated on 
all modern maps. 



from Historical Society, Pennsylvania, 

Magazine of History and Biography, July and October, 1887. 
from Department of State, Washington, D. C., 

Index to the Consular Reports No. i to 59. 

Reports from the Consuls Nos. 79 to 84. 

Forestry of Europe. 

Statistical Abstracts from Foreign Countries. 

Index to the Consular Reports, 1880-85. 
from City of St. Paul, Minnesota, 

Annual Report of Chamber of Commerce, 1886. 
.From Worcester Society of Antiquity, Worcester, Mass., 

The Abolitionists Vindicated in a Review of Eli Thayer's 

paper on the N. E. Emigrant Aid Company. 
From Wisconsin Historical Society, 

-Catalogue of Books on the War of the Rebellion and Slav- 
ery in their Library. 

Biographical Sketches of Lyman C. Draper and Mortimer 

Melville Jackson. 
from H. D. Rowe, Esq., 

Five miscellaneous bound books. 
From Genealogical and Biographical Sociefv, JVe-iv York. 

Record for July and October. 
From Yale University, 

Obituary Record of Graduates of Yale for the year ending 
June, 1887. 

Catalogue 1887-8. 

Report of the President. 
From Hon. T. S. Parvin, Secretary, 

Annals of the Grand Lodge of Iowa, 1887, 

Annals of the Grand Lodge of Iowa, Vol. X. Part III. 

Annals of the Grand Lodge of Iowa, Vol. X. 1885-87. 
from Geographical Society, Neiv York, 

Bulletin for July and September. 


From "Johns Hopkins University, 

Notes on the Literature of Charities. 

The study of History in England and Scotland. 

Seminary Libraries and University Extension. 

The Prediction of Hamilton and De Tocqueville.. 
From iV. E. Historic and Genealogical Society, 

Register for July and October. 
From Secretary of State, Des Moines, 

Five copies Horticultural Report, 1886. 

Twenty copies Supreme Court Reports, Vol. 70. 
From University of California, Berkeley, 

Register for 1886-7. 

College of Agriculture Report. 

Library Bulletin No. 9. 
From Rhode Island Historical Society, 

Collections of Society, Vol. 6. 
From Signal Office, Washington, 

Weather Reviews for July, August, September and October. 
From C. D. Bradlee, Boston, 

Thirteen Pamphlets. 
From Bureau of Statistics, Washington, D. C., 

Quarterly Report ending March. 

Quarterly Report No. 4. 
From American Antiquarian Society, 

Proceedings, Vol. IV. Part 4. 
From y. P. Walton, Esq. Muscatinc, 

Report of Old Settlers' Re-union of Muscatine County, 

August 3ist, 1887. 
From Biireau of Labor, Washington, D. C., 

Second Annual Report of Commission, 1886. 
From U. S. Catholic Historical Society, New fork. 

Historical Magazine for April and July, 1887. 
From Library Company, Philadelphia, 

Bulletin for July, September, 1887. 
From New Jersey Historical Society, 

Proceedings of Society, Nos. 3 and 4 of Vol. IX. 



From Dr. William Salter, Burlington, Iowa, 

In Memoriam, Mrs. Eleanor T. Broadwell. 
From Department of State, Washington, 

Senate and House Journals, ist and 2d session 4pth Congress. 
From Nebraska Historical Society, 

Transactions and Reports of Society, Vol. 2. 
From Prof. W. J. Me Gee, Washington, D. C., 

Article on Ovilos Cavifrons from Loess, of Iowa. 
From Hon. Isaac Smucker, Newark, Ohio. 

His serial article on American History. 
From Prof. S. Calvin, Iowa City, 

Constitution of the Baconian Club of Iowa Citv. 


From Bureau of Navigation, Washington, D. C., 

Report of Commission of Navigation, 1886. 
From Dr. J. F. Kempker, Riverside, loiva, 

History of the Catholic Church in Iowa. 
From Canadian Institute, Toronto, 

Proceedings of Institute for October. 
From Department of Interior, 

U. S. Geological Survey. 
From Mrs. S. B. Maxwell, State Librarian, Des Moines, 

Biennial Report of Librarian, 1887. 
From Essex Institute, 

Historical Collections, April, May and June, 1887. 
From Delaware Historical Society, 

Minutes of the Council of the Delaware State, 1776-1792. 
From Bureau of Education, Washington, D. C., 

Report of Mexican Border Commission, 1873. 

Report of Commission of Education, 1884-5. 

The Study of History in Colleges and Universities. 

Circular of Information No. i. 1887. 
From Indiana Historical Society, 

Longhery's Defeat and Pigeon Roost Massacre. 
From Dr. J. L. Pickard, Iowa City, 

Pickard Reception . Memorial, held at Platteville, Wiscon- 
sin, August u, 1887. 


From Hon. M. Romero, Minister from Mexico, 

The Republic of Mexico in 1876. 
From Publisher, 

Manifesto as Published. 
From A. Munsell, Diibuque, Iowa, 

Dubuque Trade Journal, 1885-87. 
From Publisher, 

American Antiquarian. 
From Buffalo Historical Society, 

Annual Report of Society, 1887. 
From Dr. C. M. Hobby, Iowa City, 

Pamphlet on Sympathetic Ophthalmia. 
From Boston Public Library, 

Bulletin No. 4, Vol. 7, 1887. 
From Bir chard Library, Fremont, Ohio, 

Proceedings at the Unveiling of the Soldiers' Monument on 

site of Fort Stephenson, Fremont, Ohio. 
From F. J. Horak, Iowa City, 

Historical sketch of Kosciusko Lodge, No. 6, I. O. O. F. 
From Geological Survey Office, Washington, D. C., 

Cockrell's Report of Geological Survey. 

Six Pamphlets on Minerals. 
From Bureau of Navigation, Washington, D. C., 

Annual Report of the Commissioner. 
From Massachusetts Historical Society, 

Tributes of the Massachusetts Historical Society. 
From Publisher, Boston, 

Education, as published. 



LUKE BALDWIN, a native of Boston, who came to Iowa in 
1854, died at Marengo, his home since 1857, last November, 
in his 95th year. 

CHARLES CARTWRIGHT, a native of North Carolina, one of 
the oldest settlers of Johnson County, his home for over forty 
years, died August i4th, 1887, at Marengo, Iowa County, 
aged 76 years. Mr. Cartwright was well fitted by nature for 
participation in the hardships of the pioneers. His ardent relig- 
ious nature was blended with a patient and cheerful disposition 
which made him a tender friend and an agreeable companion. 

MOTHER MARY CLARKE, the head of the order of Sisters 
of Charity in this country, died recently, near Dubuque, aged 
85. Over fifty years ago, she founded the order of the Sisters 
of Charity at Philadelphia. She came to Dubuque in 1854 
with Father Donahue who bought lands at Table Mound, 
Dubuque County, and erected the mother-house, where she 
died. She had been elected, some years before, the mother of 
the order for the term of her life. 

JAMES BUCHANAN, aged 85, died at his home in Solon, 
November 18, 1887. He was of Scotch descent, of Vermont 
birth, and came to Iowa in 1837. He assisted in making the 
first permanent white settlement at Cedar Bluffs, in Cedar 
county. Subsequently, in advance of government survey, he 
staked out, partly on Federal and partly on Indian land, his 
claim to the ground where he died. Here he was a near 
neighbor of the Indian chief Poweshiek, who frequently visited 
him in his log cabin. Such was the friendship subsisting 
between him and his Indian neighbors, and his confidence in 
their fidelity, that his cabin would frequently be filled over 
night with them, and he, the only white man in the company, 
sleep soundly, with no distrust. Mr. Buchanan acted as chain- 
man in the survey and location of the Government road from 
Prairie du Chien to Iowa City. 



HISTORY of the Catholic Church in Iowa, Part I. by John F. 
Kempker, Riverside, Iowa, is a work of 64 pages, published 
in neat pamphlet form by the Republican Publishing Company 
of Iowa City. It contains " information of the early days, 
origin and progress of the Diocese of Dubuque, Missions 
amongst the Indian Tribes, together with a chapter on Rt. 
Rev. Dr. Smyth and Rt. Rev. Dr. Hennessey." The work of 
the Catholic Missionaries, among the pioneers and Indians of 
Iowa in her Territorial days is an indissoluble part of the early 
history of our State, and some of it is here presented by 
Father Kempker, in an interesting manner, and with indis- 
putable accuracy. 

THIRD Re-union of the Second Iowa Cavalry, held in Mus- 
catine, Iowa, October 12 and 13, 1887, is a pamphlet attractive 
to the eye, and convenient to the hand, issued by the Journal 
Printing Company of Muscatine, which in 39 pages gives an 
account of the third Re-union of most of the survivors of the 
regiment named, which mustered such men as Elliott, Hatch, 
Coon, Hepburn, Reeder, Noyes, Love, Sanford and Cadle. 
This gallant Regiment, first under Gen. W. L. Elliott, and 
afterwards under Gen. Edward Hatch, (who was "mortally 
wounded " but still lives as the Colonel of the pth U. S. 
cavalry,) won more laurels in the civil war than any other 
cavalry regiment from Iowa. Serving successively under the 
immediate eye of first Grant, then Sherman, and afterwards 
Thomas, wherever these great commanders led, there they 
went, dashing and clattering along in the charge. They were 
at Island No. 10, at the sabre charge at Farmington, in the 
siege of Corinth, at luka, at Nashville, and everywhere within 
their reach where fighting was done. Laurels and glory to 
the Second Iowa Cavalry. 

THE Rights of Labor and Property; their Fundamental 
Importance in American Society. A Discourse delivered at a 
Union Service in Burlington, Iowa, upon the Day of National 

NOTES. 47 

Thanksgiving, November 24, 1887, by William Salter. Mon- 
mouth Printing Company. This is the title of a pamphlet 
which comprises a Thanksgiving Sermon delivered a few 
weeks ago. To those who have read Dr. Salter's contributions 
to THE HISTORICAL RECORD we need not say the subject of 
this discourse, now paramount to all others in the public mind 
of America, is treated in a scholarly, practical and philosophical 
manner, and in a more sprightly style than the average sermon. 


A WORD of thanks is due to those who during the past 
three years by contributions of valuable articles to the RECORD 
have aided our work. The list is too long for us to mention 
all by name. Rev. Dr. Salter, of Burlington, who in this num- 
ber has a memoir of Governor Clarke : U. S. Senator James 
F. Wilson, who in the last number gave a sketch of C. W. 
Slagle; Major S. H. M. Byers, the author of the lyric "Sher- 
man's March to the Sea," which will be sung till the great 
American civil war is forgotten, whose stirring description of 
the battle of luka appeared in the last October issue ; Col. Jno. 
P. Irish, the orator and the editor of the San Francisco Alta 
California; his brother C. W. Irish, U. S. Surveyor General 
of Nevada; and F. B. Wilkie, the well known author and 
journalist, for able and valuable papers, have placed us under 
obligations which it is a sincere pleasure to acknowledge. No 
less are we indebted to Capt. N. Levering, of Los Angeles, 
who has been leaned upon by us as an unfailing editorial prop: 
Hon. Hawkins Taylor, another sure support; and Hon. T. S. 
Parvin, a sort of minute man, ever ready with loaded arms. 
The State University has been drawn on through President 
Pickard and Profs. Calvin, Hobby, Leonard and Parker, 
whose contributions are scattered through the pages of THE 
RECORD for the last three years. The Christian Ministry has 
given us as contributors, besides Rev. Dr. Salter, Rev. G. W. 
Brindell, Rev. O. Clute, Rev. Father Kempker and Rev. A. 
B. Robbins. As vet we can boast of but two lady contribu- 


tors, Miss Josephine C. Mayo, of Illinois, who had in a recent 
number some notes on the Indian School at Genoa, Nebraska, 
and Miss Ella E. Gordon, whose address before an old settlers 
gathering, appears in this issue. Hons. D. C. Bloomer, H. 
W. Lathrop, Samuel Murdock, and T. S. Wilson are also 
entitled to our thanks. During the years referred to, death 
has taken Suel Foster, of Muscatine, one of our most valued 
contributors, a pioneer, whose memory was laden with the 
occurrences of the early days, and who described them in his 
own quaint way. 

A MEMORIAL and historical tablet was erected in the pres- 
ence of Governor Larrabee and other State officials, on the 
1 2th of last August, in the Court House at Webster City, 
Iowa. It is the tribute of Hamilton County, given "in grate- 
ful memory of the heroic volunteers from Hamilton Count}-, 
Iowa, in the Spirit Lake expedition commanded my Major 
William Williams, of Fort Dodge, for the relief of the settlers 
who survived the Indian massacre of March 8-13, 1857." The 
tablet is of polished brass, oblong in shape, and deeply and 
richly engraved. A palm branch symbolical of victory is 
recieved in an upright panel at either side. The sentence 
quoted above stands across the upper part, and just below this 
is a panel in which is engraved in large characters, "Roster 
of Company C," after which follows the names of the officers 
and privates, and below is this inscription : " This tablet was 
erected at the public expense, to commemorate the patriotism, 
valor, and sufferings of those gallant men, in one of the sever- 
est marches recorded in Indian border warfare. In memory also 
of Mrs. William L. Church, who shot an Indian while defend- 
ing her babes, and of her sister, Druscilla Swanger, who was 
severely wounded." The tablet is received against a back- 
ground of grey Champlain marble. This beautiful memorial 
was designed and placed in position by Messrs. J. & R. Lamb, 
of New York, The interesting papers, by Capt. N. Lever- 
ing, published in this and preceding numbers, have reference 
to the events commemorated bv this tablet. 


VOL. IV. APRIL, 1888. No. 2. 


||N the fall of 1874 I became minister of the Unita- 
rian church in Keokuk. No sooner had I entered 
upon my work than I began to meet daily with 
evidences of the strong influence over the congregation and 
the people of the city which had been wielded, during his life, 
by the Rev. Leonard Whitney, organizer and first minister 
of the church. During my four years as pastor there I 
heard from strong men and women of all classes words of 
loyal friendship and high appreciation of him. And now as I 
go from time to time to visit friends in Keokuk, or to preach 
to the congregation Mr. Whitney organized, I see and hear 
the testimony that though dead he yet speaketh. I would 
gladly have left the preparation of this paper to one of the 
friends who knew him in life. But many of these have passed 
on, and those remaining hesitate to undertake the work. Hap- 
pily some who knew him best have given most able help in 
this tribute to a noble man. And many others, whose names 
can not even be mentioned here, have recounted to me their 
memories of their friend and minister. 

From the homes of New England have gone forth a multi- 
tude of men and women who have shaped the thought and 


activities of all the mighty West. In one of these homes in 
Conway, Mass., Otis Whitney was born in 1781. In 1803 he 
moved to Waterbury, Vt., and here in March, 1805, was mar- 
ried to Sarah Edmunds, daughter of Joseph and Rosamond 
Barton Edmunds. Joseph Edmunds had been a privateers- 
man during the Revolutionary war, and his many stories of ad- 
venture had a strong fascination for the boys and young men of 
his acquaintance. The father of Joseph Edmunds had been a 
Quaker preacher, and had transmitted to his son a noble strain 
of independence. Rosamond Barton, wife of Joseph Ed- 
munds, was one of the Rhode Island Bartons, and was related 
to the Bartons of Revolutionary fame, hence in the veins of 
Sarah Edmunds, wife of Otis Whitney, there pulsated a pure 
and strong love of justice and liberty for every human being, 
and of that religion of the Spirit that rises above the narrow 
technicalities of creeds. And, personally, she was a woman 
of strong mental and moral qualities. 

Otis Whitney was a descendant of a sturdy family that 
before his day and since has produced many able farmers, 
mechanics, and merchants; many brilliant clergymen, lawyers, 
and statesmen. Otis was a man of clear head and practical turn. 
His efficiency provided his family with the comforts usually 
found in a well-to-do New England home. He was a farmer, 
and his children were born and grew up amid the freedom, 
the independence, the intelligence and industry that then char- 
acterized the rural population of New England. Both he 
and his wife were members of the Baptist church, in which 
faith they lived honorable lives and met peaceful deaths. 

Among the children born to Otis and his w r ife came Leon- 
ard, on October 23, 1811. With such a parentage he received 
vigor of body and mind. In such a home his native qualities 
developed healthfully. He grew to an active boy, and became 
leader of all the sports and mischief in the neighborhood. He 
was strong, quick, impulsive, wayward, generous. He was 
by no means distressingly "good," in the Sunday-school-libra- 
ry-book style. His parents and his teachers found him difficult 


to manage. But he was the friend of the weak. He responded 
readily to what was generous, just, and kind. The district 
school and the academy gave him his early education, which 
his father urged the restless boy to continue by going to col- 
lege. But he had dreams of adventures amid strange scenes, 
fostered, perhaps, by the sea-tales of his grand-father, Joseph 
Edmunds, the old privateers-man. When sixteen years old 
he went to Boston, and shipped for a voyage. But before the 
vessel sailed he had seen enough of the charms of sea-life to 
change his mind. He succeeded in getting free from the 
engagement, and never after had a return of the longing for 
the sea. 

The experiences of his Boston trip, acting on a mind sing- 
ularly receptive, turned his attention to the sober purposes of 
life. He worked with interest on his father's farm. He at- 
tended school at Hinesburg, Vt., and made good progress in 
his studies. He chose the profession of law as his work for 
life, and for several years gave himself to its study. In 
August, 1835, he was admitted to practice at the Chittenden 
County Court, Burlington, Vt., "by the unanimous consent of 
the bar." He spent several years in the practice of law at 
Ann Arbor, Mich., and at Auburn, N. Y. There is no record 
accessible to me as to his success at the bar. Probably it was 
not promising. I suspect he was not by nature fitted in mind 
and morals to succeed in any but the higher fields of law- 
practice, and circumstances never allowed him to enter those 
fields. Work, study, anxiety brought him poor health, and 
he went to Saratoga Springs to rest. While here he visited 
not infrequently at the home of an old family friend, who was 
settled near by as the pastor of the Baptist church in Union 
Village, the Rev. William Arthur, father of the late Presi- 
dent Arthur. His old friend had a strong influence over the 
young lawyer. During the summer he united with Mr. 
Arthur's church, decided to give up law, and to become a 
Baptist minister. That fall he began his ministerial work as 
pastor of the Baptist church at Bennington, in his native state. 


Here he met the lady to whom next year he was married, 
Ann Jeanette Harwood, only daughter of Asahel Harwood, of 
Bennington. He preached with ability and sincerity, and his 
work was acceptable among his people. Leaving Bennington 
he preached at Penton, Vt., at Reading, Pa., at the Navy 
Yard Baptist church at Washington, D. C., and then with the 
church at Canandaigua, N. Y. All the while his religion was 
growing too large for his creed. His humanity was too deep 
and loving to allow him to excuse crimes because they were 
popular and national. He preached justice and liberty for all, 
even if their skins were black. His moral perception was so 
strong and so sensitive that he was roused mightily by the 
Fugitive Slave Law, and poured his impassioned feeling into 
his sermons. Those sermons were not without wide influ- 
ence. A friend who had heard one of them wrote to him as 
follows : 

WASHINGTON, n Jan., 1851. 

FRIEND WHITNEY: I want you to send me a copy, prepared for publica- 
tion, of the sermon preached by you in which you say: "They had fugitive 
law in old times. The authorities commanded that if any knew where Jesus 
was they should deliver him up. Undoubtedly many knew where he was; and 
doubtless, too, the chief priests preached, as the doctors of divinity do now, 
that it was their duty to obey the civil authorities and deliver him up. But in 
all Judea there was found but one Silver Grey." 

One of the merchant, princes of New York, and a man high in influence as 
Well as information, says he will print it in fine form, for gratuitous distribu- 
tion, if I will procure the copy. Grave Senators scream, and yell almost with 
joy when the argument is thus told to them. They say that the minute it gets 
out it will go through all the papers ; that it is just one of those things that must 
carry ; that as soon as it is named the wonder is that somebody had not thought 
of it before. Such was the effect when I told it at a dinner party of Senators, 
members of congress, etc. So make it elevated, concise, sufficiently moderate, 
but unyieldingly conclusive and severe, and send it along. It will come into 
good hands. Very truly yours, 


His religious opinions had been gradually changing for some 
years. Probably the Anti-Slavery agitation had much to do 
in helping this change. He soon found himself out of sym- 
pathy with the beliefs of a part of his Canandaigua flock, 


and with difference of opinion there came among some of his 
people bitterness of feeling. His conscience urged him on. 
He could not stifle his thoughts. He could not put a padlock 
on his lips. His hearers who disagreed with him, were, doubt- 
less, just as earnest and faithful. They believed the Baptist 
system, and it was their right to expect their minister to teach 
that system. A conflict came. A church meeting was called, 
and Mr. Whitney was excluded from the church for heresy. 
But many of his congregation were with him: These, and 
others who became interested, organized the " Free Church 
of Canandaigua," rented a hall, and invited Mr. Whitney to 
be their minister. He accepted, and for five years preached 
to them the word of the Spirit as his eager ear. caught its 
enchanting message. All the time his thought was enlarging. 
He became acquainted with Dr. Hosmer, minister of the 
Unitarian church in Buffalo, and with the noble Samuel J. 
May, of Syracuse, with both of whom he exchanged pulpits, 
and found himself in essential sympathy with both. 

He went west as a religious pioneer. He was called to a 
church in Peoria and to the new movement in Keokuk. His 
ambition was never great. Keokuk was the smaller place, 
with the smaller salary. He accepted its call, and became its 
minister in October, 1853. He had been only a short time in 
Keokuk when he had an invitation to the pastorate of the 
Unitarian church in Rochester, N. Y., which he declined. His 
society in Keokuk erected a building which was dedicated in 
1856, and Mr. Whitney entered upon his years of valuable 
service. His geniality as a man, his generosity as a friend, 
his eloquence as a preacher, his power as a thinker, and the 
genuine religiousness of his nature called into his church a 
company of men and women of remarkable ability, some of 
whom have since reached a wider than national fame and influ- 
ence. Hon. Samuel F. Miller, now senior justice on the United 
States Supreme Bench, was then a young lawyer in Keokuk. 
lie became one of Mr. Whitney's most faithful friends. Hon. 
Geo. W. McCrary, a rising young man from Van Buren 


county, Iowa, went to Keokuk to study law. He and his amiable 
wife also found in the Unitarian church a congenial religious 
home. Mr. Briggs, editor of the Gate City, then as now one 
of the most influential papers in Iowa, became an attendant on 
Mr. Whitney's preaching, and one of his warmest admirers. 
Dr. Freeman Knowles, who had brought from his birth-place 
in Maine a keen New England mind, and his wife, whose 
religious nature and mental power fitted her for the noblest 
society, and their daughter Emma, were drawn to his preach- 
ing. Able business men were there not a few. George Wil- 
liams, C. H. Perry, E. H. Harrison, Wm. Leighton and their 
wives, were all fed mentally and spiritually by the power of 
their preacher. J. M. Hiatt, S. W. Tucker, R. B. Ogden and 
their wives found in him a leader whom they could gladly 
follow. Most of these early friends have crossed the river, or 
have removed to other fields of business. But all \vhom I 
have met are heartily loyal to this spiritual leader of their 
early or mature manhood, and womanhood, and all are enthu- 
siastic in their appreciation of his genius. 

Still the strong man and the able leader found his labors 
hindered because some of those who loved him as a man, and 
who were in sympathy with his religious philosophy, could 
not agree with him in all respects in the practical application 
of that philosophy. Slavery was the all-absorbing topic in 
society, and in politics. Mr. Whitney's soul was on fire with 
the love of liberty. His direct mind and sensitive moral nature 
went, sure as the needle to the pole, straight to the immediate 
freedom of the slave. Not all his people were able to think 
with him. He could not rest except in sermon and in prayer 
his love of justice and freedom found frequent and burning 
expression. Not all his people could see that duty demanded 
this constant and ardent utterance. Just then the Rebellion, 
terrible in its suffering and bloodshed, but glorious in the 
reward of justice and liberty it won, was urged on by the 
sadly mistaken South. Mr. Whitney's heart and mind could 
then rest only in active service. He had spoken for liberty; 


he now wanted to work for liberty. He sought and obtained 
the appointment of chaplain to the Eleventh Illinois Cavalry, 
of which R. G. Ingersoll was Colonel. He gave up his parish 
and joined his regiment with enthusiasm. 

For this work he was peculiarly fitted. He was genial in 
spirit; he met all men in a happy way. He had an apprecia- 
tion of man; he could detect the divine-human through the 
lowliest and most sinful guise. He was unselfish; he gave 
gladly his last crust to the suffering. He was entirely without 
sanctimonious pretense; he went among the men as a brother, 
a friend, a sympathetic helper. The officer^ and men were 
drawn to him at once. The relations between him and them 
were cordial and brotherly. He was their minister in the true 
sense their helper, their leader in the best things. Of the 
appreciation in which he was held in the regiment the follow- 
ing letter from his honored colonel gives generous testimony: 

NEW YORK, January 6th, 1888. 

REV, O. CLUTE. My Dear Sir: It gives me great pleasure to write a few 
words in reference to the Rev. Leonard Whitney. He was one of the best, 
one of the purest, one of the noblest men I ever knew. He was in the highest 
sense a deeply religious man that is to say, he lived in accordance with his 
ideal. There was about him neither cant nor hypocrisy. He did not pretend 
to be better than others he wished only to make others better. 

While I knew him. his entire time was occupied in doing good to others- 
He was a perpetual consolation to the sick and wounded, an example for all. 
He won the respect of every man who knew him, and his influence was only 

He was a thorough believer in the religion of good works, and he lived in 
exact accordance with his belief. 

He as truly gave his life for his country, as though he had died on the field 
of battle. Yours truly, 


Not long after his regiment took the field it was engaged in 
one of the fiercest battles of the war, Pittsburg Landing. 
The story of that fight I need not write. It is known to all. 
But all do not know the self-sacrificing service that the chap- 
lain gave to the sick, the wounded, the suffering, the dying. 
His was the large nature that rose nobly to the large occasion. 


Those who saw him on the field, amid the ghastly suffering, 
have tears in the voice as they tell to-day the story. " It is 
related of him that seeing a wounded soldier unable to leave 
the field, he leaped from his horse, put the poor fellow in the 
saddle, and directed him to the nearest hospital-boat. To 
another he gave his blankets; to others he gave his clothes, 
tearing up his shirts and handkerchiefs to make bandages for 
the wounded. Many a maimed soldier remembers with grate- 
ful heart and tearful eyes his heroic acts of love and mercy on 
that bloody field." In a letter to his wife, written after the 
battle, when faint, weary, and sick, and talking of coming 
home, he says : " I have no horse, saddle, bridle, quilt, blanket 
or encumbrance of any sort or kind. I gave them all up to 
the wounded on the battle-field, and have not seen them since; 
they helped those in sad need, and they are welcome to them." 

The exposure to pitiless rain, to the chilling night air, to 
sleeping on the wet ground, to insidious malaria, brought on a 
fever. He was sent on a hospital boat to St. Louis in charge 
of the " Sisters of Mercy," who gave to him, and to all in 
their care, the most faithful attention. He went from St. 
Louis to his. home and friends in Keokuk. The disease made 
rapid advances. His family, his many devoted friends, gave 
him every care. But care could not avail; love could not beat 
back the march of that enemy that at some time overtakes us 
all. On June 12, 1862, his struggle ended, his soul went 

In estimating the work and character of Mr. Whitney it is 
fortunate that we have the help of some of the able men who 
were influenced by his ability, and warmly drawn to him in 
personal friendship. One of these, widely and highly hon- 
ored, writes: 

WASHINGTON, D. C., December 21, 1887. 

RKV. OSCAR CLUTE My Dear Friend: Your letter of the i5th insl. 
was received by me about the 2oth, when I was so busy in disposing of the 
business of the court, preparatory to the recess of the Christmas holidays, that 
I had no time to make any response, so that it has been delayed until now. I 
hope it is not too late, for it gives me great pleasure to speak of the Rev. Leon- 


ard Whitney, with whom my relations were of the most intimate character. 
Indeed, I fear that what I may say about him will be rather the result of the 
most affectionate remembrance of a devoted personal friend, than a critical 
historical statement. 

I do not know precisely in what year Mr. Whitney came to Keokuk; some- 
where I should think between 1852 and 1854. There was no organized con- 
gregation of Unitarians there when he came, but a number of the most intel- 
ligent citizens of the place had been Unitarians in other localities, or were 
inclined to some more liberal form of Christian doctrine than was taught in 
any of the orthodox churches! A room was rented, and Mr. Whitney preached 
to these persons and to all others who came to hear him. This continued for 
several years, the place of worship changing as the exigencies of the case 

Mr. Whitney was, I think, a native of Vermont, where families of Whitneys 
are numerous, and I ha\ - since met more than one person bearing his full 
name of Leonard Whitney. He was, I should thir.k, forty years of age when 
he came to Keokuk, and, as I understood, had been a Baptist minister, but had 
left the ministry of that church because he could not longer hold to its princi- 
ples. This change of conviction may have led to his over-estimate of the evils 
incident to creeds. Certainly, he was an aggressive preacher, and gave much 
of his time and energy in the pulpit to showing the untruthfulness of popular 
doctrines. And if there was in the character of his preaching anything which 
to me seemed objectionable it was the vigor with which he denounced what he 
thought to be the erroneous principles of the prevailing creeds of the Christian 
churches generally. , 

This developed a seeming inconsistency in his character, for his social rela- 
tions, not onlv with the members of the other churches of Keokuk, but with 
their clergymen, were of the most cordial character. He was respected and 
beloved by all of them, and in his intercourse with the world at large, with his 
friends and with his family, he was the kindest and tenderest friend and the 
most affectionate father and husband. But he seemed impelled by a solemn 
sense of the duty which had fallen to his lot to expose those errors in the 
orthodox creeds which he believed led to contention and evil in the Christian 
churches, and in accordance with the energy of his nature and the strength of 
his convictions he was not choice in the selection of the words by which he 
denounced those errors. 

He was a man of very vigorous thought, and still more vigorous language. 
Some of the illustrations of his arguments have remained with me through 
long years and absence from the theatre of his services. Perhaps I can not 
better show the man than by reproducing one of these. 

The vears 18^7 and 1858 found the people of the city of Keokuk utterly 
prostrated bv the financial crisis which pervaded the United States, but which 
fell with peculiar force upon that place, because it had been a prosperous town, 
and its citizens venturesome in their desire to make money by speculation, and 
particularly in real estate. The result of this crisis was to leave many per- 
sons, who believed that they had accumulated fortunes, struggling with abso- 
lute poverty and in debt bevond any hope of relief. This condition of things 


was accompanied or followed, as is very often the case, by a great religious 
revival, in which under the influence of religious zeal the occasion was im- 
proved to turn the attention of those who had been thus unfortunate, to a land 
where sorrows never come. The interest awakened was very extended, and 
the number who joined the different churches during this revival was quite 
remarkable. As Mr. Whitney did not believe in this mode of adding to the 
church, nor in a permanent good influence on persons who professed a change 
of life and heart under this kind of teaching, he took occasion to preach a 
sermon upon the subject of revivals, in which he, with his usual force, pointed 
out his belief that such motives as had induced the additions to the churches 
under the circumstances then existing were not of a character to prove lasting 
with the individual nor creditable to those bodies in the end. In illustration of 
his view of the matter he said : "Those who have thus been seriously dis- 
tressed by losses of corner lots in Keokuk have only transferred the same 
earthly affection to their faith in the corner lots which they desire to secure in 
the New Jerusalem.'' 

I do not know that this illustration was original with Mr. Whitney. I am 
very sure I never heard it before or since, and its force as a mental photograph 
of what he supposed to be the moving principle in such revivals of religion 
can hardly be equaled. 

It is with more pleasure, however, that I give illustrations of his warmth of 
heart, showing the practical benevolence of his nature. On a Sabbath in mid- 
winter when he was expected to preach to his congregation, not then very- 
large, he failed to appear, so that after some singing and reading from the book 
of prayers the people dispersed. During the succeeding week it was ascer- 
tained that Mr. Whitney had that morning started in a snow-storm from his 
home, which was some distance from the place of worship. On his way he 
had to pass the house of a widow, who was in very poor circumstances, and it- 
occurred to him to drop into the house and enquire into her situation. He 
found her with a family of children, without fire, without wood to make one, 
and if she had anything to eat, no means of cooking it. He instantly set him- 
self to work, went to some neighboring house and got a few sticks of wood, 
sawed them into the requisite lengths, split them up, started a fire in the wid- 
ow's stove, and saw that she had something to eat. With his attentions to her 
the time passed so quickly that before he had finished, it'was too late for him 
to preach. Of course this became kno\vn to a few of his congregation, and the 
next Sunday, when he addressed the members who attended, in a short and 
modest way he stated the cause of his detention, and said that he had no 
regrets for himself and no apology to make for his failure to attend upon the 
previous Sabbath. 

The circumstances attending Mr. Whitney's death constitute a tribute to the 
tenderness of his heart and the nobility of his character which must endear 
him to the memory of his friends as long as they live to remember anything. 
In the early part of the late civil war he was appointed by Col. Robert G. 
Ingersoll as chaplain of his regiment, the Eleventh Illinois Cavalry. I do not 
stop here to make any criticism upon Col. Ingersoll's religious principles, either 
then or now, but it seems probable that the friendship between him and Mr. 


Whitney may have been strengthened by the fact that at that day, over thirty 
years ago, each of them was aware that the other was struggling for light on 
the great subjects of religious thought. Whatever may be your opinion or 
mine in regard to Col. Ingersoll's present opinions on those subjects, no one 
can deny the integrity of his character or the purity of his purposes in the 
course he pursues on that subject. 

Mr. Whitney accepted the place of chaplain, immediately joined his regi- 
ment, and within a verv few days found himself at the battle of Pittsburg 
Landing, as w call it, or the battle of Shiloh, as it is called bv the men who 
fought on the other side. It will be remembered that after a hard day's fight 
our soldiers laid down on the ground, where the darkness had overtaken them, 
and that a rain fell during a large part of the night. Notwithstanding the bad 
weather and his fatigued condition, Mr. Whitney occupied the entire night in 
going around over the field, looking after the sick, the wounded, and the dying, 
and in doing all that he was capable of in the wav of relieving their sufferings. 
Many of these wounded he found without covering, cold, unprotected, and to 
one he gave his overcoat, to another his coat, to another his waist-coat, and still 
continued to go on through the rain and cold. 

I do not desire to harass the feelings of your readers by descriptions of the 
sufferings which he attempted to relieve, nor of those which he must himself 
have encountered in this first essay of his duties as chaplain of his regiment, 
nor by recalling the unfortunate result to Mr. Whitney and to his congregation 
at Keokuk. The feelings of affection and distress to myself which are recalled 
by the incident, compel me to be brief. I can only add that during that 
night he contracted a disease from which he died within two or three weeks, 
and, indeed, was hardly able to be brought home before that event occurred. 

His grave lies in the most beautiful part of the cemetery of Keokuk, among 
those of other citizens who have died and been buried there. Adjoining this 
is a National cemetery, where the bodies of those who died in the army have 
been interred. On Decoration Day once a year, the people of that city, as of 
other sections, meet and scatter roses on the graves of their friends and heroes. 
For many years after his death, and as long as I was able personally to attend 
those decoration services, I never failed to visit the grave of my departed 
friend and contribute my floral testimony to his memory. It was a pleasant 
thing, as I would sit near his last resting place and watch the people who came 
to see it, to note that no grave in all that city of the dead received more con- 
sideration or was visited by more sorrowing hearts than that of Leonard 

Mr. Whitney died in the prime of life, died regretted and mourned by the 
population of an entire city, died without an enemy, and his loss was an irre- 
parable one. He left a widow and four children. Through the kindness of 
Col. Perrv, and some others, he had secured a comfortable house in a pleasant 
part of the city. He was indifferent to making money, perhaps too much so, 
and his wife and young children were left in struggling circumstances. Per- 
haps the pervading influence of his earnest example, of his devotion to duty, of 
his generous character, and of his self-denying consecration to the cause of 


humanity and the Christian religion, as he understood them, were worth more 
to those he left behind than any money could have been. 

He was a true man, with a noble heart and a commanding intellect. He 
died a martyr to his sense of duty. " Of such is the kingdom of Heaven." 


Desiring a word from one or two who had known Mr. 
Whitney in the army that I could incorporate into this paper, 
I addressed a note to Col. R. G. Ingersoll. In response came 
the cordial letter printed a few pages in advance. Afterwards 
I found among Mr. Whitney's papers the following letter from 
Col. Ingersoll, written a short time after Mr. Whitney's death : 

CORINTH, July i9th, '62. 

MRS. LEONARD WHITNEY My Dear Madam: Your letter did not reach 
me till vesterdav.* I immediately made out the proper certificate, and, as I 
think, properly attested, though I am very little acquainted with the regula- 
tions on the subject. I hope, however, that it may prove sufficient. 

I was very glad to receive your letter, and glad to learn that I was remem- 
bered by your husband, to whom I was greatly attached. Mr. Whitney won 
the respect and esteem of the whole command by uniform kindness to all, and 
was considered by every man in the regiment as a noble, generous gentleman. 

During the time he was with us he was almost constantly by the sick and 
wounded, and was as kind to them as though they had been his own children. 
At the battle of Shiloh he gave his blankets to the wounded, then slept upon 
the ground uncovered, with the chilling rain pouring upon him the whole 
dreary night, and at that time, as I believe, laid the foundation for the disease 
that terminated his life. 

Permit me to sav that I sympathize with you deeply in your irreparable loss. 
Generous men are not indigenous to this world. They are exotics from the 
skies. There is no such thing as being consoled for their loss. Their memory 
is worthy of and demands the bitterest of tears. And yet, believing as you 
do in the immortality of the soul, the dark cloud of grief now enveloping your 
heart, if not dissipated, will at least be adorned and glorified by the sweet bow 
of Hope. 

I shall ever be pleased to be of assistance to you in any manner possible, 
and I hope you will feel no delicacy in commanding me. If the certificate 
herewith sent should prove incorrect, inform me, and it shall be made right. 

I am, my dear madam, vour friend, 


Twenty-three years after Mr. Whitney's death his congre- 
gation in Keokuk, desiring to express their love for him, and 
to tell the children and young people of the church something 


of its noble founder, held a memorial service in his honor. 
The congregation and the Sunday-school met together in the 
beautiful church dedicated in 1874, standing on the site of the 
one built soon after Mr. Whitney first came to them, a church 
in striking contrast with the humble hall in which his people 
first listened to his inspiring words. 

Congregation and school joined in a devotional service and 
in memorial hymns. Then those who had personally known 
him, or who had come to honor him by learning of his work 
and his character, spoke about him with sincere loyalty. Rev. 
R. Hassall, Messrs. M. R. King, S. W. Tucker, J. M. Shaf- 
fer, R. B. Ogden, and J. M. Hiatt gave addresses, and letters 
were read from some who were unable to be present. It 
would be a pleasure to quote liberally from all the speakers, 
but I must confine myself to some brief extracts. J. M. Hiatt 

" Sham, and cant, and hypocrisy Whitney hated as fiercely as did Carlyle. 
But not, as with Carlyle, did his hatred run into bitterness and misanthropy. 
It was because he loved mankind and the truth, and reverenced the divinity 
incarnate, that he hated these things. They were obstacles to human progress 
and happiness, and opposed to divine verity, hence his unresting war upon 
them. While fully recognizing moral worth and intellectual culture, he could 
not perceive the factitious distinctions that exist among men. The cabman 
and the king alike had immortal souls, and to him stood upon the same plat- 
form. The worldly-wise would say he betrayed great want of tact, of policy, 
in his lack of discrimination. That he failed in consequence to aggrandize 
himself, his church, and his cause as he otherwise might have done. Policy 
was no part of his character. He lived too near the soul of things. What 
the truth could not gather, to him must remain ungathered. He would not 
have played upon human weakness, or pandered to human vanities to have 
been made the world's emperor." 

S. W. Tucker, whose family received Mr. Whitney as a 
welcome guest -on his first arrival in Keokuk, said: 

"The admirers and appreciators of Mr. Whitney were not confined to his 
society. He had frequent hearers from the other denominations. His efforts 
were mostlv arguments. He had a natural gift in argument, which may have 
been confirmed by his study of law. This style was attractive to inquirers out- 
side of his immediate people." 


From one who knew him in the field comes this hearty 
word : , 

WASHINGTON, D. C., January 4th, 1888. 

REV. OSCAR CLUTE My Dear Sir: I considered Mr. Whitney one of 
the most faithful, laborious and devoted men in the ser%'ice. Although not in 
his regiment, jet the Fifteenth Iowa, of which I was in 1862 a field officer, 
was near the Eleventh Illinois Cavalry, and I had occasional opportunities for 
observing the conduct of Mr. Whitney. I was at once impressed by his energy 
and thorough devotion to the men, and their interests. As nurse as well as 
chaplain, he met their wants. He smoothed the pillow of the sick, and gave 
good words to the ears of the despondent, and dying. In season and out of 
season, on that slow, tedious, muddy, toilsome, and sickening march from 
Shiloh to Corinth, where the wasting weakness of that camp disease which 
is the terror of all soldiers, reduced the men to skeletons and the ranks by 
numbers, Mr. Whitney cheered the faltering, nerved the weak, and was, 
whenever I saw him, thoroughly equal to the occasion. 

Very truly yours, 


Hon. Geo. W. McCrary, who has exemplified as member 
of congress, as a cabinet officer, and as United States Judge 
of the Eighth Judicial Pistrict, the principles, which, when a 
student and a young lawyer, he heard in the sermons of Mr. 
Whitney, sends me the following communication: 

KANSAS CITY, Mo., December iSth, 1887. 

REV. OSCAR CLUTE My Dear Sir : You ask me for some personal rec- 
ollections of Rev. Leonard Whitney, and it is with pleasure that I respond, 
prompted as I am by a great admiration for his talents and character, and a 
sincere regard for his memory. 

Mr. Whitney was, I believe, the pioneer Unitarian minister of Iowa. Others 
had preached within the bounds of the state before him, but if I am not mis- 
taken he was the first minister of the Unitarian faith regularly settled over a 
church within the state. He was installed over the Keokuk church, I think, 
in 1853. When I went to that place to commence the study of the law in the fall 
of 1854, he was preaching to a small congregation of exceptionally strong 
people, in a hall near the corner of Main and Fourth streets. The Keokuk 
church at that time numbered among its supporters such men as Samuel F. 
Miller, now senior justice of the Supreme Court of the United States; Col. C. 
H. Perry, Dr. Freeman Knowles, Wm. Leighton, E. H. Harrison, J. M. Hiatt, 
and others of scarcely less prominence, all of whom were much devoted to 
Mr. Whitney. 

As a preacher Mr. Whitney was chiefly distinguished for the force and power 
of his logic. It was an education to hear him from Sunday to Sunday. His was 
for a long time the only Unitarian pulpit in Iowa. He stood at his post, sur- 
rounded by his little band of devoted followers, and right manfully defended 


the Liberal Faith. In his day controversial preaching by the liberal clergy 
was necessary. It is, happily, not so now. Mr. Whitney and his church were 
a target for many sharp shots from all the surrounding pulpits. I knew and 
admired the'orthodox clergy of Keokuk ot that day, and I do them no injus- 
tice when I say that Mr. Whitney was more than a match for them all. On 
one occasion I remember he had mercilessly exposed the unreasonableness of 
certain popular theological doctrines, and a neighboring minister had replied 
soundly berating him for speaking so of sacred things, and insisting that the 
doctrines in question only seemed unreasonable because finite minds can not 
understand the reasoning of the infinite. In reply Mr. Whitney exclaimed 
with great force : " I can not accept these things on the ground that I do not 
understand them, for, as an honest man, I am bound to reject them because I 
do understand them" 

But he did not always debate in his pulpit. In spirit he was gentle and char- 
itable, and preached much upon topics of duty and practical living. Once I 
remember a curious circumstance happened which will illustrate something of 
his deep religious faith as well as his readiness as a speaker. He was preach- 
ing in the evening and his subject was immortality. Suddenly the gas went 
almost out, so that for a time the church became dark. He stopped his dis- 
course while the darkness continued, which was several moments, and when 
the light returned, as it did very suddenly, he said, " So, my friends, I believe 
it will be with us all. For a moment, at the end of life's journey, darkness 
may come over us, but it will be but for a moment, and will be followed by the 
glorious light and joy of eternity." 

As a preacher he was far above the average. His power was the result of 
great ability coupled with evident sincerity. He never descended to hair split- 
ting niceties, but always grasped the vital questions touching the subject in 
hand. He had no patience with arguments founded on isolated passages of 
Scripture. He adopted a very different method of argument. The attributes 
of God as understood by all Christians were taken as his premises, and from 
these he went with unerring certainty to his conclusions. God is love; there- 
fore nothing can proceed from him that is not prompted by love. God is 
justice; therefore no punishment that is not just can proceed from him. God's 
mercy endureth forever; and therefore will always be with every child. God 
is wisdom; therefore his chastisements must be wise, hence can not be aimless 
nor endless. These "are samples of his inexorable logic. Many others might 
be added. His sermons cast in this mould, and delivered with a fervent elo- 
quence not often seen, produced a marked effect upon his hearers. They ap- 
pealed with equal power, to the head and the heart, to the intellect and the 

Mr. Whitney was deeply interested in the anti-slavery cause, and could not 
see it to be his duty to keep silent upon that subject. He was one of the few 
ministers in southern Iowa who preached openly and boldly against slavery 
from 1854, un til the war. I remember well one of his sermons, preached, I 
think, in 1856, in which he arraigned the slave power as hostile to the Union, 
and predicted that war would come if they persisted in their course, and that 
the result of war would be the destruction of slaverv and the establishment of 


the Union founded upon liberty and justice, and therefore destined to be per- 
petual. Having preached thus for many years, he naturally felt, when the war 
came, that he ought to do something more than preach for the cause he loved 
so well. He doubted whether a Unitarian minister could get a place as chap- 
lain, and this gave him some trouble. Hearing, however, that the famous CoL 
Robert G. Ingersoll had raised a regiment of Illinois cavalry, he very naturally 
surmised that Mr. Ingersoll would not object to him on account of his hetero- 
doxy. He accordingly wrote Col. I. a letter applying for the chaplaincy of 
the regiment, and saving, " if appointed I promise to take care of the sick and 
wounded half the time, to fight half the time, and preach the remainder" He 
got the place, and he had the reputation, among the officers and soldiers who- 
knew him, of being one of the best chaplains in the army. At the great three 
days' battle of Shiloh he devoted himself day and night, and through rain and 
storm, to taking care of the wounded. He stripped himself of one article of 
clothing after another in order to cover the wounded, and thus by exposing 
himself contracted the sickness from which he died, having given his life for 
the cause as truly as did those who were killed in the battle. 

Mr. Whitney was as a man warm-hearted, generous, charitable, devoted to- 
friends and forgiving toward enemies. I have known him to go about the 
city of Keokuk on many occasions soliciting aid for worthy poor people. He 
was a deeply religious man, and he lived up to his profession. His life was 
one of devotion to duty, and to the right as he saw it. 

Very sincerely yours, 


Mr. Whitney still lives in a world made better by his pres- 
ence. Often in Keokuk one hears men and women, now 
gray-haired fathers and mothers, tell of their lives being 
strengthened and sweetened by his influence. The children 
of those who, sick and needy, were helped by his work and 
sacrifice, rise up and call him blessed. Civil liberty, towards 
which his generous nature went out in entir"e devotion, now 
extends its welcome and its care to every human being. Spir- 
itual liberty, in defence of which his loyal soul gladly endured 
opprobrium and obscurity, is making rapid progress. The love 
of God and the love of man, which to this clear-brained and 
warm-hearted follower of Jesus, were the essence of religion, 
are constantly coming to wider recognition. He lived here 
for truth and goodness; he worked for his fellow-men; his- 
aspiring soul looked in joy to God. Surely, in the nearer 
presence of God he still lives and still works for all noble 
things! O. CLUTE. 

Iowa City,, March nth, i8S8. 




HEN the Rebellion burst upon the loyal States of 
our Union the demands of the Government for 
troops with which to meet and overthrow it were 
of course urgent and very great. The uprising of the entire 
North in answer to these demands was the most magnificent 
popular movement this world ever saw. It seemed as if an 
overruling providence had so guided the rebel machinations as 
to lead them to so strike their first blow as best to arouse the 
national spirit to the defence of the Union. 

The thunder of the rebel cannon upon Fort Sumter, amid 
the shouts and loud acclaims of the rebel hosts, proved in fact 
the death knell to all their hopes and aspirations. 

Nowhere did the fires of patriotism burn more brightly than 
on the prairies of Iowa, from river to river all over the State. 

When the first call was made for 75,000 men for three 
months of service there seemed almost a fight for places, and 
in Iowa two regiments were enlisted when but one was called 
for and but one could be accepted. But such was the spirit 
of the enlisted men that so soon as a call came for enlistments 
for three years' service this seconed regiment, which had en- 
listed but for three months, went bodily into the three years' 
service. As the conflict progressed and increased in magni- 
tude the Government, in 1862, issued a call for 300,000 men 
to be enlisted for three years' service, and for another 300,000 
to be enlisted for nine months, if possible, but if not then to 
be drafted. Then was the time we saw the war spirit on the 
rampage here in Iowa. In our own county we saw 700 men 
go into the Twenty-Second Regiment, while some 500 had 
gone out before. The quota for Iowa in each one of these 
calls was about 10,500 men. The first was soon filled. 


As to the second, Gov. Kirkwood said he would not put in 
a man for nine months. He said it took nine months for raw 
recruits to become of value as soldiers, to become inured to 
camp and march, to change of food and habits, and the expo- 
sure incident to army life, and efficient in drill and the use of 
arms. By the time they had got thus far and were beginning 
to be soldiers indeed their term of enlistment would expire 
and they be lost to the service. So he called upon the patri- 
otism of Iowa to fill this call also with three years' men, and 
so well was his call responded to that the whole number were 
so enlisted and sent to the field. Of all the wise things done 
by Gov. Kirkwood during the war, and there were very many 
of them, none were wiser than this. Had this call been filled 
throughout the country in the same manner, the rebellion 
would have collapsed much sooner than it did, and tens of 
thousands of precious lives and hundreds of millions of treas- 
ure been saved. But all Governors did not have Iowa patri- 
otism to draw upon. But Iowa received at Washington credit 
only for the number of men sent, without reference to the 
time of their enlistment. As the war progressed, with all its 
casualties and the expiration of the enlistments of the nine 
months' men, more recruits were wanted, and as they could not 
be enlisted fast enough a draft was ordered in 1863, and Iowa 
was called upon to furnish troops under it. I then suggested 
to Gov. Kirkwood that Iowa was entitled to credit for the 
time of enlistments as well as for the number of men enlisted. 
He directed me to correspond with the War Department and 
present the claim. This I at once did and received prompt 
reply that the claim was just, but that the department was 
overwhelmed with work and had no time then to adjust the 
matter, but would do so and give due credit on any subsequent 
call that the necessity for men was most pressing and this 
draft must go on, as it did, early in 1864. In July, 1864, 
another draft was ordered and Iowa had not received her 
due credit. Gov. Kirk wood's term closed in January, 1864, 
and Gov. Stone succeeded him. He also pressed this claim 


for credit, but it was not until January 23d, 1865, that he 
was enabled to issue his proclamation announcing that, " After 
a careful settlement with the War Department and adjust- 
ment of credits due under previous calls, together with recent 
enlistments, we are gratified in being able to announce that 
all demands by the Government upon this State for troops 
have been filled, and that we are placed beyond the liability 
of a draft under the impending call for 300,000 one years' 

Had proper credit for these three years' men been ob- 
tained as the men were furnished our quota would have 
.been full when the first draft was ordered and, with the 
enlistments which were constantly being made, all calls would 
have been met by enlistments and Iowa at no time subject to 
a draft. The 10,500 for three years were equal in time of 
service to 42,000 men enlisted for nine months. In actual 
value they were vastly greater than this. They were, after 
the nine months expired, veterans in service to the close of the 
war, while some of the greatest embarassments the Govern- 
ment encountered were from the expiration of the terms of 
the nine months' men from the other States. 

This was one of the most striking and creditable events in 
Iowa's glorious war record that she went so far beyond the 
demand made upon her by the Government as to furnish this 
so vastly greater support than she was asked to do, or than 
any other State in the Union did do or attempt to do. The 
initiation of this was due to the good sense and sound judg- 
ment of Gov. Kirkwood. The fulfillment of it was due to the 
abounding patriotism and heroic valor of the young manhood 
of Iowa. 




|O me is delegated by the courtesy of this society, 
the pleasant duty of presiding over your meeting 
this year. A man must be singularly constituted if 
he did not appreciate the compliment of presiding at this 
peculiar gathering. Peculiar by the fact that here to-day 
meet the people of three great commonwealths, whose inhab- 
itants, speaking the same language, kindred in blood, kindred 
in their institutions a people who stood together in the hour 
of the nation's peril, as they stand together here to-day to 
enjoy their victories of " peace, which are more renowned 
than those of war." 

It was the custom of the aborigine, when about to die, to 
prepare hims.elf for his visit to the happy hunting grounds of 
his people, to call his friends around him and recount to them 
the achievements of his life. 

Like them, you are gathered here to-day on the banks of 
this mighty river, linking the present with the past, to renew 
your early friendships, begun " lang syne " ; to shake hands 
one with another, perchance for the last time before you take 
up the line of march for your " happy hunting grounds." Let 
me, therefore, briefly call your attention to the early history 
of the country, which is the home of those present here 
to-day a history, the pages of which you have written line 
by line; a history that marks the resplendent sweep of 
progress, which has been made by both our Nation and 
States, all of which you, the pioneers, have seen and largely 
contributed to. 

At the time of the discovery of the American continent, the 
Latin races had more of the spirit of adventure than their 
Teuton or Scandinavian neighbors. They were the chief 
navigators of the world; and the argosies of Venice and the 


fleets of Genoa were on all the known seas. Portugal, too, 
feeling its way along the coast of Africa, had just doubled the 
Cape of Good Hope, and soon reached India. Spain, with a 
more sordid ambition, was beginning to be heartily interested 
in the new countries and their fabled treasures of gold and 
silver. France, aroused by the tidings of her neighbors' dis- 
coveries, was alike fired with a zeal for travel and discovery, 
and her people aimed at something beyond the aggrandize- 
ment of the mother countrv. 


It is fortunate for our land that they, rather than their south- 
ern neighbors, became masters, by their discovery, of a large 
part of North America. Jacques Carder, the first French 
explorer to enter the American wilds, laid claim in 1534, in 
the name of France, to all that portion of the continent north 
of the great lakes. 

While the fame of the discovery of the mighty river, which 
flows at our feet, and which was so appropriately named by 
the aborigines, the Mississippi, or the " Father of Waters," is 
justly due to the Spanish cavalier DeSoto, yet it is to the enter- 
prise of John Talon, who was the " intendent of justice" in 
the French colony, that we are indebted for our first definite 
knowledge that we have of it. 

History says that John Talon was an ambitious man, that 
" his views for the aggrandizement of the colony were great 
and just." Having heard through the Indians that a great 
river existed west of the great lakes, which, many thought, 
ran south to the Gulf of Mexico, while others were of the 
opinion that its course was southwest to the Pacific, determin- 
ed early in 1673, to send Joliet as an envoy and Marquette as a 
missionary to discover it. 


These men, the one an immediate representative of the 
government, and the other an humble Jesuit monk, were both 
inspired with the desire to carry out the wishes of their chief ; 
the one to find and report on his discoveries, the other to con- 
vert the heathen, which has always been a leading character- 
istic of the Catholic church. Encouraged, as I have said, by 


Talon, they undertook their long and toilsome journey in 
search of the " great river." 

In a birchen canoe they toiled their way through the lakes 
up the Fox and down the " Ouisconsin," until on the iyth day 
of June, 1673, they were rewarded for their labor by the grand 
discovery they made of this river, on whose banks we stand 
to-day. To a tribe of Indians (possibly the Masscoutens) who 
tried to dissuade them from their perilous trip, Marquette said : 
" My friend (Joliet) is an envoy of France to discover new 
country, and I am an ambassador of God to enlighten 'them 
with the truths of the Gospel." Tradition tells us that they 
landed near this spot and that Marquette, or " Black Gown," 
as he was named, preached to a tribe of Indians. As Joliet's 
diary of the voyage was lost, it is impossible to tell how far 
down the river they went, but in all probability not below the 
mouth of the Arkansas. Returning home their discovery was 
made public. 

Soon after their return, Talon went back to France. Talon 
was succeeded in authority by Louis de Ibuaae (afterwards 
Baron de Frontenac) who sent Robert LaSalle to discover the 
mouth of the great river. LaSalle was an enterprising, ambi- 
tious man. To him is conceded the honor of having built the 
first vessel, the Griffen, which sailed on the great lakes. 

LaSalle went down the Illinois river, and in January, 1630, 
having entered Peoria lake, he built a fort about eight miles 
from the site of the present city of Peoria, which he called 
" Creve Coeur" (in English Broken Heart), because of the 
many discouragements he had encountered on his journey. 

From thence proceeding down the river with Hennepin and 
another, they entered the Mississippi, March 8th, 1680, the 
second party of explorers to gaze on the " great river." 

With LaSalle's consent, Hennepin called the river the St. 
Louis, and the country on its west bank Louisiana. Fortu- 
nately the Indian name of the river maintained itself against 
this ovation as well as against others which proposed to call 
it " Colbert " after the great French statesman of that name. 


Hennepin turned northward, discovering the Falls of St. 
Anthony, to which he gave the name of his patron saint. 

Meantime LaSalle had returned to the French settlements 
to make additional preparations for his great discovery, and 
he had to go back yet again before he was finally, ready. All 
preparations being made, on the 6th of February, 1682, he 
came out of the Illinois into the Mississippi and set sail one 
week later. On the 6th of March he took possession of the 
country of the Arkansas in the name of the king of France. 
On the 6th day of April he discovered the outlets of the Mis- 
sissippi and took possession of them on the pth, and the fort 
he established at the mouth he called New Orleans. 

Thus by the courage, enterprise and perseverance (which 
was so common at that time) of Joliet, Marquette and LaSalle, 
a vast empire was added to the French possessions in North 

At an early date^ the French established forts and trad- 
ing posts along the great lakes and in the newly discovered 
territory of Louisiana, as a defense not only against the 
Indians, but also against the English with whom they had con- 
stant wars. By the treaty of Utrecht, in 1713, France ceded 
to Great Britain all of the northern portions of the continent 
claimed by her except the valley of the St. Lawrence and 
Louisiana, although the territory east of the Mississippi re- 
mained disputed territory until 1763. During the seven 
years' war, which subsequently raged between France and 
England, the latter triumphed. In 'that war the English 
troops, composed largely of New England and New York 
colonists, gained a series of brilliant and signal victories. At 
Quebec, Frontenac, Detroit, Fort du Quesne, and many other 
places, the lilies of France, went down before the " red cross 
of England." At the close of the war at the treaty of Paris 
in 1763, France ceded to England all the Canadas and all of 
the territories east of the Mississippi save and except " New 

We, as Americans, can take just pride that in the wars to 


which I have alluded, our ancestors bore their part bravely, 
and that the vast territory gained as the result of the wars 
was mainly due to their valor; what we gained by the sword, 
we again showed our ability to hold by the sword, by the 
result of the war of the Revolution. 

In 1765, Captain Sterling, of the Royal Highlanders, took 
possession of that part of the Illinois country which had been 
now finally given up by France. During the war of the 
Revolution after General George Rogers Clark's conquest of 
the British posts on the Mississippi, the Legislature of Vir- 
ginia constituted the people in their neighborhood, and all the 
citizens of Virginia west of the Ohio, into a county called 
Illinois county. This organization continued by limitation only 
some three or four years. 

By a second treaty made between France and Spain Novem- 
ber 3d, 1762, the former ceded to the latter New Orleans and 
all that portion of the country claimed by France under the 
name of Louisiana, but for some reason Spain did not take 
possession of it until 1769. 

Soon after the close of the Revolution the tide of emigra- 
tion set into the west and south. To the northwest territory, 
which had by an act of Congress been dedicated to freedom 
forever, came the hardy sons of New England and Pennsyl- 

To the " dark and bloody ground " of Kentucky and the 
country south of it, went the sons of Virginia, Maryland and 
the Carolinas. These hardy emigrants conquered a peace 
from the Indians, and at once began to open and develop the 
country. As the production of soil increased beyond their 
own wants, there came to them the necessity of a market for 
their surplus. 

The comity of nations, which to-day permits free egress 
and ingress to a nation situated on a river, the mouth of which 
is in possession of another, was however not so well defined 
as it is now, hence it came that there was constant friction 
between the Americans and those who owned the mouth of 


this river. By the treaty of St. Ildefonso, made October ist, 
1800, Spain retroceded New Orleans and Louisiana to France. 
This cession in view of the fact that France, at that time under 
Napoleon, was almost at the zenith of her glory, gave great 
uneasiness to the American people, so much that even war 
with that power was openly discussed. An eminent writer of 
the day said " there is one single spot, the possession of which 
is our natural and habitual enemy, New Orleans, through 
\vhich the product of our territory must pass to market, and 
from its fertility it will ere long yield more than half of our 
whole produce and contain more than half of our inhabitants." 
And again, " France, placing herself in that door, assumes to 
us the attitude of defiance." Spain might have retained it 
quietly for years; her pacific disposition, her feeble state would 
induce her to increase our facilities there, so that her posses- 
sion of the place would be hardly felt by us, and it would not, 
perhaps, be very long before some circumstances might arise 
which might make the cession of it to us the price of some- 
thing of more value to her. * * Not so can it be 
in the hands of France. These circumstances render it im- 
possible that France and the United States can continue long 
friends when they meet in so irritable a position. The moment 
France takes possession, * * we must marry our- 
selves to the British fleet and nation." I have quoted at 
length to show what was the feeling existing among the 
American statesmen of that day on the question of France 
again becoming the owner of Louisiana and New Orleans. 

But political events in Europe were rapidly combining to 
prevent the results feared by him from whom I have quoted. 
All Europe was convulsed by the wars incurred by the ambi- 
tion of Napoleon. He was ambitious, unscrupulous and a 
great military leader. He was also devotedly infatuated with 
the idea of building up France to be the great military power 
of the world, and at the same time he was intensely desirous 
to extend her colonial possessions in all directions. Yet he 
knew, and none knew better that England was the mistress of 
the ocean. 


Learning that a British fleet was being fitted out for the 
Mexican Gulf, he saw intuitively that he could not hold Lou- 
isiana, and he also knew the feeling which existed in the minds 
of many of the American people for the acquisition of this 
territory. He therefore at once instructed his minister " Mar- 
bais " to treat with the Americans for its sale. The repre- 
sentatives of the American government had been instructed to 
negotiate for New Orleans only, and when they were told 
that France would sell the whole of her possessions in Amer- 
ica they were surprised. But knowing how important it was 
to the United States they did not hesitate a moment, but 
assuming the responsibilty, they at once closed the transaction, 
and on April 3Oth, 1805, the treaty ceding New Orleans and 
Louisiana to the United States was signed. This treaty was 
ratified by our government at Washington in October in the 
same year. On the ratification the United States authorities 
took possession and the " tri-color " of France, which at that 
time was the emblem of her national sovereignty, forever 
gave way to the stars and stripes. 

In this connection, it is of interest to know that Spain in 
retroceding Louisiana to France, inserted a secret clause 
reserving to herself the right to repurchase this country in 
case that France should at any time allow it to pass out of 
her hands. Spain gave her consent to our purchase in 1804. 
The day the treaty was signed two conventions were held 
by the representatives of the French and United States gov- 

The first convention provided that we were to pay France 
sixty millions of francs (equal to eleven and a quarter millions 
of dollars) and the second provided that France was to pay 
a sum not exceeding four millions of dollars in payment of 
certain claims due to our people by France for supplies and 
damages growing out of embargoes, more familiar known to 
us as the " French spoliation claims." 

Napoleon rejoiced at the effect that this treaty would have 
on England; he said: " From this day the United States take 


their place among the powers of the first rank." Mr. Liv- 
ingston, one of the United States commission, said in regard 
to it, " equally advantageous to both parties, to the two con- 
tracting parties; it will change vast solitudes into flourishing 
districts." The prophecy of the former was from a soldier's 
standpoint, and that of the latter was the judgment of a patri- 
otic, far-sighted statesman. A peculiar clause of this treaty is 
that France ceded all this vast territory " as fully as, and in 
the same manner as, it had been acquired by the French Re- 
public." In fact, it seems to have been a quit claim deed. 
Another clause provides that the inhabitants should be admit- 
ted " to all the rights, immunities and advantages of a citizen 
of the United States, and were to be protected in the enjoy- 
ment of their liberty, property and religion."' 

Not a word was said about boundaries. Indeed, so little 
was known about this country that I doubt if the French 
government knew just what and how much it was ceding. 
Certain it is, that our own government did not know how much 
territory they were buying, and the first definite knowledge of 
its vast extent and character, was made known by the Lewis 
and Clarke expedition, which started across the continent in 
1803 and made its report in 1806. 

The country ceded by France for the pitiful sum of eleven 
and a quarter million dollars, is about six times the size of 
France itself, embracing within its limits over eleven hundred 
thousand square miles. 

It is perhaps little known that this magnificent Louisiana 
territory was actually granted by Louis XIV. of France, to 
one Crosat, he to have all the commerce of the country, and 
all the profits accruing from the mines and minerals he should 
discover, reserving one-fifth of the gold and silver to the 
king. As we see it now it was the most munificent grant by 
far ever made to a subject. But Crosat thought only of the 
precious metals, for which he searched. Failing in such quest, 
he thought the country not worth possessing, and in 1717, five 
years after he received the grant, he relinquished it to the 


crown. A few years later the Duke of Orleans, as regent 
of France, granted the possession to John Law's famous Mis- 
sissippi company. That remarkable man had better ideas of 
the resources of the country than the former grantee, making 
those resources largely the basis of his stupendous system of 
credits. The most extravagant accounts of the country were 
circulated throughout Europe, and as one writer says, " The 
Mississippi became the center of all men's wishes, hopes and 
expectations." This company's operations resembled those of 
what we call " boomers " to-day. Its shares sold at fabulous 
prices, as real estate often does in paper towns and sometimes 
in quite pretentious cities, with no improvements or develop- 
ments to justify such prices. When its brief day was run the 
grant was again relinquished. It is impossible now to esti- 
mate what a momentous effect would have been produced had 
either of these grants been retained by their grantees. If 
acknowledged to anything like their formidable proportions, 
how vastly different would have been the fate of this sunset 
empire of ours! I have called your attention to the anxiety 
of the people of the west for the acquisition of New Orleans 
as an outlet. There was more ground for this anxiety than is 
to-day realized. Bonaparte did not get Louisiana from Spain 
for the purpose of giving her to America. Quite the contrary. 
His design appears to have been to put a check to Anglo- 
American ambition on the western continent. It was con- 
templated to colonize Frenchmen there under military auspices. 
This seemed to be a part of the scheme, which he appears 
to have actually entertained, to make himself a universal 

An incident happening at this time served to intensify the 
popular feeling. When Louisiana was surrendered to France, 
the Spanish governor proclaimed the port of New Orleans 
closed as a place of deposit for merchandise; and he also 
forbade foreign commerce to use that port unless carried on 
by Spanish subjects in Spanish vessels; utterly disregarding 
a treaty reservation in favor of Americans secured during 


Washington's administration. The product of more than one- 
fourth of the republic was thus deprived of its natural outlet. 
This action aroused intense feeling throughout the country. 
Hamilton advanced his plan of seizing New Orleans, and 
all the country east of the Mississippi. President Jefferson 
said in a lettter that the agitation of the public mind was 
extreme. Public meetings were held throughout the west, 
at which expression was given to the incensed feelings of the 

About the same time, word came of an address presented 
to the first consul of France, in which the glories of a pros- 
pective French empire in the new world were artfully depicted 
so as to flatter the vanity of that despotic ruler. It said: 
" Fancy in its happiest mood can not combine all the felicities 
of nature and society in a more absolute degree, than will be 
actually combined when the valley of the Mississippi shall be 
placed under the auspices of France. The Nile flows in a 
torrid climate, through a long and narrow valley. Does this 
river bestow riches worthy of the greatest effort of the nation to 
bestow them, and shall the greater Nile of the western hem- 
isphere be neglected? A Nile whose inundations diffuse the 
fertility of Egypt twenty leagues from its shore, which occu- 
pies a valley wider than from the Duna to the Rhine, which 
flows among the most beautiful dales, and under benignant 
seasons ; and which is skirted by a civilized world and kindred 
nation on one side, and on the other by extensive regions, over 
which the tide of growing population may spread itself with- 
out hindrance or danger. The prosperity of the French 
colony will demand the exclusive navigation of the river. The 
Master of the Mississippi will be placed so as to control, in 
most effectual manner, the internal waves of faction. He 
holds in his hands the bread of the settlements westward of 
the hills. He may disperse or hold at his pleasure. See we 
not the mighty influence that this power will give us over the 
councils of the States? The address continued, "when war 
becomes the topic of discourse, well may they deprecate a 


quarrel with France. They will turn their eyes to the calam- 
ities of St. Domingo an example is before their eyes of a 
servile war. The only aliens and enemies within their borders 
are -not the blacks. We shall find in the Indian tribes an 
army permanently cantoned in the most convenient stations 
a terrible militia more destructive while scattered through the 
hostile settlements, and along the open frontier, than an equal 
force of our own. We shall find in the bowels of the States a 
mischief that wants only the touch of a well-directed spark, to 
involve in its explosion, the utter ruin of their nation. Such 
will be the powers which we shall derive from a military sta- 
tion, and a growing colony on the Mississippi a province 
cheaply purchased at ten times the cost to which it will subject 
us." Who shall say that all this, and perhaps more, would 
not have been realized had circumstances in Europe not taken 
a turn that made it advisable for Bonaparte to abandon his 
hopes of dominating the western hemisphere. 

It will be remembered that our government was endeavor- 
ing to purchase only the territory around the mouth of the 
river. The proposition was to give France 10,000,000 livres, 
or $1,666,666 for all the French possessions east of the Mis- 
sissippi, that river to be the boundary, with its navigation free 
to France, with right to deposit at New Orleans for ten years. 
Yet, moderate as. was this proposition humiliating, the oppo- 
sition party did not hesitate to call it word came that Talley- 
rand assured our minister that no sale would be heard of. The 
position was becoming critical. The feeling among our coun- 
trymen for forcible measures was growing. Hamilton again 
urged the seizure of the Floridas and New Orleans, and nego- 
tiations afterwards. 

About this time the relations between Great Britain and 
France were at the utmost tension, and a renewal of war was 
inevitable. A British fleet was put into readiness for the capture 
of New Orleans, and assurances were given the American 
ministers that it was with the design of turning it over to the 
United States. Bonaparte now began to see the danger which 


threatened him of an alliance of the American Republic 
with his enemies a danger which was made more apparent 
by the tenor of a series of very warlike resolutions, which 
had been presented in the United States Senate, and came 
near being adopted. His minister then suggested to the 
American representatives the purchase of the whole of Lou- 
isiana, with what result the world knows and is the better 
"because thereof. 

There was some opposition to the purchase on constitutional 
grounds. Jefferson himself denied the authority of the gov- 
ernment to acquire territory, and suggested the adoption of a 
constitutional amendment to validate it. But the occasion was 
one of those supreme moments, and like Lincoln, that illustri- 
ous successor of him, who first saw the light of the day the 
last month of his administration, President Jefferson made the 
necessities of the republic his justification for appearing to 
overstep constitutional limitations. In his second inaugural 
address he used this apologetic language : " I have said, 
fellow citizens, that the income reserved had enabled us to 
extend our limits, but that extension may possibly pay for 
itself before we are called on, and in the meantime, may keep 
down the accruing interest; in all events it will repay the ad- 
vances w r e have made. I know that the acquisition of Louis- 
iana has been disapproved by some, from a candid apprehen- 
sion that the enlargement of our territory would endanger its 
union. But who can limit the extent to which the federative 
principle may operate effectively? The larger our associa- 
tion, the less it will be shaken by local passions; and in any 
view is it not better that the opposite bank of the Mississippi 
should be settled by our own brethren and children, than by 
strangers of another family? with which shall we be most 
likely to live in harmony and friendly intercourse?" 

But so marked were the accruing benefits of the purchase 
in the minds of the people, 'that all opposition to it rapidly 
died out. 

It is worthy of remark here, that the most advanced white 


settlement to the west was at La Chanette, now Warren 
county, Missouri, and to the north was at Dubuque, in Iowa, 
the latter having been made by Julien DuBuque in 1788. 
While it is but little over a century since the territory east of 
this river was acquired by conquest, and not quite eighty-four 
years since that to the west was obtained by purchase from 
France, yet so great has been our increase by .natural law and 
immigration, that to-day in the vast tracts thus acquired, 
nineteen great States, each " imperium in imperio " have 
been added to the Union, together with nine territories, some 
of them containing a large population and knocking at the door 
of Congress for admission. These States, that is those at one 
time claimed by France, to-day contain nearly, if not quite a 
majority of the population of the United States. As our pop- 
ulation has increased, so have we grown in influence, until 
to-day we have a leadership in the nation, the flag of which 
shelters sixty millions of free people, , recognized as among 
the foremost of the earth. What a wonderful series of events 
have taken place during eighty-four years which have elapsed 
since this territory was acquired by our government. 

About the time that our sister States of Illinois and Mis- 
souri came into the Union, one of the great scientists of 
that day ridiculed the idea that ocean navigation by steam 
would be practicable, and even at so recent a period as the 
settlement of Iowa, a leading British statesman, a man of 
prominence among the aristocracy, the father of the present 
Earl of Derby, promised to eat the boiler of the first steamer 
that crossed the Atlantic. Yet, to-day, every known ocean 
" is vexed " by the keels of the steamship, until they have 
almost monopolized the carrying trade of the sea, and Jules 
Verne's trip " Round the World in Eighty Days " is no longer 
a myth. Moreover, the modern war vessel is a steamer of 
10,000 tons burden, armored with steel. Since 1830 the 
" Northumbrian " engine, built by Geo. Stephenson, made her 
trial trip on the Manchester and Liverpool railway hauling a 
train of cars; and in the same year, the engine " Best Friend," 


typical in its name of the benefits foreshadowed to the people 
of this country, made its first trip of three miles on the 
Quincy Railroad in Massachusetts, yet to-day we have 150,- 

000 miles of railway, and the continent fairly shakes with the 
tread of the iron horse as he wends his way to and fro, from 
the Atlantic to the Pacific, carrying the people and the traffic, 
not only of our own country, but from China, Japan and the 
" Isles of the Sea." Time and space have been annihilated. 
The wild electric flash of the lightning, heretofore considered 
an unconquerable agent, has, by the genius of Morse, Edison, 
and other distinguished men, been chained and utilized, until 
to-dav its ductile wire not only gives ease to the pain of the 
ailing child, but also propels our vehicles, lights our streets 
and houses, guides the sea-tossed vessel into harbor, delivers 
messages of sorrow and gladness far and near, and has made 
Puck's promise to " put a girdle around the earth in forty 
minutes," an accomplished fact. The telephone, the power 
printing press, the sewing machine, and in all the agencies 
which facilitate trade, correspondence and communication; the 
machinery for gathering and utilizing the crops; the tools and 
implements of the mechanic arts, the apparatus for heating 
and lighting our homes and cooking food, even the little match 
with which we kindle the fire, each and all of which have 
contributed so largely to our expansion and individual comfort 
and luxury (which is nearly all the result of the triumphant 
inventive genius of Americans) have come to us since the 
admission of the States whose pioneers are here present to- 
day. So rapidly, indeed, have all these inventions, to which 

1 have alluded, come to us, that although we are living wit- 
nesses of their results, and some of us have seen it all trans- 
pire, we find it difficult to realize that it has all occurred 
in so short a time. Truly was it said that " Man hath the 
tiller in his hand," for these grand victories of mind over 
matter, which were thought to be beyond our knowledge, and 
therefore impossible, have not come by chance, but by hard 
study and close reasoning from cause to effect, and they carry 


with them a lesson which should impress the student not only 
of to-day, but of the future, that there are yet depths of nature 
to be sounded and made to yield from her arcana treasures for 
the benefit of mankind. 

Moreover, in addition to the material advancement I have 
called your attention to, you have seen our nation convulsed in 
the throes of civil war, unparalleled in the history of the world. 
You have seen, incident to that war, by the use of that 
weapon which the poet tells us is mightier than the sword, 
the manacles fall from four millions of slaves. You have seen 
the nation emerge from the mighty conflict " purified by blood 
and sanctified by sacrifice " to a higher plane of universal 

None but you who are pioneers in the great development 
of this trinity of States can properly measure the steps by 
which it has been accomplished. 

" You crossed the prairies 

As of old your fathers crossed the sea, 

To make the west as they the east, 
The homestead of the free.' ? 

Imbued with the spirit of the song, you have built up these 
States. You laid the foundation wide and deep and built 
thereon a structure, which will be an enduring monument to 
your labors. You found it a " wilderness of centuries," you 
will leave it blooming as a garden; you have planted here 
those institutions of education, which contribute in so marked 
a degree to the happiness and moral elevation of our people; 
you have now come to that period of life when nature reminds 
us that it is time to cease from our labors and to turn over the 
good work begun by you in your youth, to those who will 
come after you. 

I have said the work of the pioneer is done. Though he 
may long survive (which God grant), it is to watch the growth 
of the superb structure, the foundations of which he laid so 
securely. It is no discredit to him to say that he built wiser 
than he knew. In this he resembles all who have done like 


Honest, earnest effort rarely fails of reward, and often even 
when the object aimed at is not attained; beyond the veil of 
disappointment there lies a vista brighter than that hoped for. 
If we, of to-day, can hardly realize that so much has actually 
been accomplished in the years we have reviewed, how much 
less could those who came here fifty years ago to these soli- 
tudes to wrest therefrom subsistence for themselves and 
families and to rear their homes. How could they, I say, 
anticipate half the glories to be revealed! True, they soon 
learned what Douglas Jerrold said of another land (our anti- 
tipodes) " tickle the earth with a hoe and it laughs with a 
harvest," might justly be said of this their new home, and as 
the years rolled on, and constantly surpassed their expectations, 
they got accustomed to the metamorphosis, and were carried 
along by the sweep of the progress they had inaugurated. 
To this fruition, others, such as I see before me, younger men 
and women, have come and are coming to take hold of the 
work necessary to perpetuate and broaden the magnificent 
inheritance prepared for them by the pioneers. Thev come 
to a work of which in the nature of things they can not hope to 
see such speedy and marvelous results as you have seen. The 
epoch through which we and our whole country, and indeed the 
whole world have passed, is an exceptional one, not likely 
soon to be paralleled. What is now to be done, therefore, 
must come by slow steps. I need not say it will be none 
the less secure by reason thereof. If there be no more great 
strides, there will yet be solid advance before us, and let 
us not doubt it will be made. Not to do so would be to 
stagnate; and this may not be feared of the children of the 

The enduring fertility of the soil of these three States in its 
entirety unsurpassed, and with whose exuberance the fathers 
were so generouslv rewarded, will forever make agriculture 
their principal industry. But it is not sound economy, nor 
wise statesmanship to rely upon even that great industry alone. 
Indeed, as we diversify employments, so will we enhance the 


value of the products of the soil. A work before us then 
is the encouragement of every manufacture which can be 
at all profitably domesticated among us. The multiplied 
iron roads give us increased facilities therefor, while these 
natural facilities at our hands, the great waterways, should be 
judiciously cared for; and even artificial ones opened where 

By such means, and above all, by multiplying the numbers 
of attractive homes and augmenting a love for home life, can 
this fabric of States, so majestic in its outline, so superb in its 
developed climate, be made the seat of a thriving population, 
the abiding place of an intelligent, prosperous, God-fearing 
and man-loving people ; an encouragement to every struggling 
nationality; a beacon of hope to the down-trodden everywhere. 
And as our sympathies so go out to suffering and defrauded 
humanity the world over, so let our hearts be always ready to 
give a cordial western welcome to the true and the good of all 
lands, who, attracted by the ever open portals of this great 
valley of the new world, make therein homes for themselves 
and posterity for enduring ages. 


HIS county was organized in 1853. The general 
surface is rolling, with deeply excavated valleys 
along the larger streams, and the fertile soil is well 
adapted to the production of the usual western crops. Al- 
though its many resources and advantages procured a rapid 
progress for this portion of the Missouri slope, the Catholic 
church manifested but little vitality here before 1873. In that 
year the colony of Westphalia commenced its actual growth, 
and its rapid development protrays the method of organiza- 
tion and prosperity of many other settlements of their faith in 
the lovely prairies of Iowa. 


In 1871 the priest from Council Bluffs visited Shelbyville in 
the southwest portion, where missionary services were at- 
tended by three or four families, and besides these but few, if 
any other Catholics resided in the county. Soon thereafter 
A. H. Ketteler, in imitation of Lambert Kniest, who founded 
the colony of Mount Carmel in Carroll county exclusively for 
the members of his church, made arrangements with the C., 
R. I. & P. R. R. Land Company in accordance with which as 
their agent he obtained power to negotiate about thirty-four 
sections of rich prairie mostly suituate in Township 80, Range 
39, exclusively to settlers of his faith, and by judicious adver- 
tising called the attention of European immigrants as well as 
residents of the states to his project. The first of these to 
come was Emil Flusche, who arrived on September ist, 1872, 
and on the 6th of the same month became an associate with 
Ketteler. Flusche belonged to a respectable family in Olpe, 
Westphalia, had a thorough education and was well qualified 
for conducting "such an enterprise. Before long Ketteler 
was superceded by Flusche, who induced many of his people 
to immigrate from Germany, and through his energetic, just 
and wise administration of affairs laid the foundation for the 
phenomenal growth of the colony, and to him must be attrib- 
uted in a large measure their unexpected prosperity as well in 
temporal concerns, as in religious affairs. In memory of 
fatherland the name of Westphalia was given to the village 
post-office, to the township, and their church was dedicated in 
honor of St. Boniface, apostle of the Germans. 

The first religious ceremonies were administered in the 
colony on the 2pth of May, 1873, in the new and yet unfin- 
ished house of the Flusche family, and were conducted by the 
writer of this paper, who was at that time stationed as assist- 
ant pastor to Father McMenomy, of Council Bluffs, and under 
the above named date I quote from the memorandum book: 
" On that day I said holy mass in the German Settlement 
near Harlan, Shelby county, the first offered to God in that 
place ... on which occasion I joined in marriage Mr. 


Charles J. Flusche and Miss Clara Feldmann, and baptized 
Hermann Joseph, the infant of A. H. Ketteler." They were 
a most amiable young couple and pioneer settlers. Other 
settlers who had arrived up to that time and present at the 
celebration were, Wm. Flusche, Mother Flusche, August 
Kemmerich, Emil Zimmermann and Hermann Swarte. From 
this day the number of settlers rapidly increased until long 
ago the last acre far around has been embellished by the dili- 
gence of civilized possessors, and the number at present mem- 
bers of St. Boniface church is estimated at two hundred and 
fifty families. Their first church edifice was built in August, 
1873, a frame house, 28x40 in size, and twelve feet high. It 
was replaced in 1883 by a brick church, 50x100 feet in 
dimensions, of Gothic architecture, beautiful and complete in 
design, and of such magnificent proportions that it would be 
considered an ornament to a city; to which is added a sound 
educational institution in a Sisters' Academy. 

The incumbents of the spiritual charge of this place have been 
the following Reverend Fathers: -1873,}. F. Kempker; 1874, 
F. W. Pape; 1875, Jos. Knaepple; 1876-1878, F. W. Pape; 
1879-1885, A. Weber, who had a vicar in Rev. A. J. Cook 
in 1884; and in May, 1886, the Rev. Father Peter Brommen- 
schenkel became the pastor. 

Until 1883 divine services were occasionally given to a few 
settlers north of Shelby ville. About 1879 a frame church 
was built two miles south of the present Portsmouth, and 
since then small, but constantly growing churches have been 
organized at Defiance, Portsmouth, and Earling, with a resi- 
dent pastor at Earling, and a monthly visit to Defiance from 
the priest of Dunlap. 


Riverside, loiva. 



FTER the lapse of more than twenty-two years, a 
time more than sufficient to connect the birth and 
ballot of a boy, how dim and distant seems the 
black cloud of the great war. It appears like the nimbus of 
a great storm receding out of sight beyond the horizon. Un- 
der the absurd ruling of the red tape of the Pension Office 
the neglected and destitute ex-soldier still makes application to 
his comrade to recall and affirm by affidavit the reality of a 
colic or contusion he labored under in a forced march, or a 
wound received in battle where one man's life was of no more 
consequence than that of the scorpion trodden under foot in 
the delirious and tumultuous charge. 

Aside from these verities, duly attested by court seals on 
official blanks, most of the little ephemeral incidents and acci- 
dents of the contest are forgotten and buried where sleep 
many of the actors in the great drama on the battlefields of 
the war. 

On first entering their regiments very few of the volunteer 
officers had more than a vague idea of their duties. A quar- 
termaster was apt, and a surgeon sure, to think he had 
supreme rule over every one of inferior rank in his depart- 
ment, forgetting the unity of the regiment which requires 
obedience in all departments to the behests of the command- 
ing officer, the colonel. A few, like Crocker, had the benefit 
of more or less military education. Some, like Capt. Ben. 
Beach, had had experience in the Mexican War, then histori- 
cal for only thirteen years, and a number, like Capts. Stuhr 
and Schumacker, had acquired military knowledge by service 
in the armies of Europe, but altogether the number of the 
experienced was too small to leaven the great mass of military 

Gov. Kirkwood rarely addresses an assemblage of ex-soldiers 
without urging them to commit to paper their recollections of 


every-day life as soldiers in the war. Following this sugges- 
tion, I am tempted to reduce to print a few straggling memo- 
ries of war days. 

During the Atlanta campaign and " the March to the Sea," 
I was attached to the staff of Gen. Baird, now Inspector Gen- 
eral of the Army, who commanded the third division of the 
Fourteenth Corps. 

Coming directly from the Seventeenth Corps, with which I 
had served in the two campaigns against Vicksburg the un- 
successful one through Central Mississippi and the triumphant 
siege I was surprised at the different tone which pervaded 
the more conservative Fourteenth, distinguishing it from the 
more impetuous Seventeenth. This difference was due to the 
difference of locality from which the men comprising these 
armies were drawn. The Seventeenth Corps was composed 
of regiments raised in Illinois, Iowa, Missouri, and Wisconsin, 
the Fourteenth mostly of men from Indiana, Kentucky, and 
Ohio. The Seventeenth had been McPherson's Corps, and 
was the flower of the Army of the Tennessee, the Fourteenth 
Corps was that one which had stood with Thomas at Chicka- 
mauga, when the rest of the Army of the Cumberland fled 
panic-stricken from the field. 

The principal officers of Baird's Staff were Major James 
A. Lowrie, Assistant Adjutant General, Major James A. 
Connolly, of the One Hundred and Twenty-Third Illinois, 
Inspector General; Capt. Buttrick, of a Wisconsin regiment, 
and Capt. John Acheson, Aides, and Capt. Biddle, of an In- 
diana regiment, Ordnance Officer. 

Acheson was a cousin of Baird's. They were from Penn- 
sylvania, their town being Washington, or, as often termed to 
distinguish it from the capitol, " Little Washington." This 
is the seat of a noted college, at one time presided over by 
Dr. Black, who later became President of the Iowa State 
University. Baird is a graduate of West Point Military 
Academy, is a most accomplished officer and gentleman, and 
during the war, was one of the most efficient and daring gen- 


erals on either side of the conflict. Acheson, who was also 
a cousin of the late Mr. Acheson, of Fairfield, the law part- 
ner of the late C. W. Slagle, who preceded Dr. Pickard in 
the Presidency of our State University, had received his edu- 
cation at Washington College. 

Being a relative as well as a member of the General's fam- 
ily, Acheson was admitted to more familiar relations with our 
chief than the others of the staff. When Baird felt in good 
humor, and as we rode at the head of the division in a leis- 
urely march through the enchanting landscape warmed into 
beauty by the charming weather of autumnal Georgia, the 
polemics of the Washington school were often the theme of 
conversation betw^jn the General and his aide. 

Acheson was a polished youth and a good musician. Some- 
times during a halt, in company with others, he would visit a 
mansion by the way, and ingratiate himself into the favor of 
the mistress and her daughters by a few touches on the piano, 
playing by ear in accompaniment to his own voice some 
familiar harmony. 

Arduous monotony invariably begets inclination for practical 
joking. The daily record of our campaign, when halted by 
delay, furnished no exception to this law, and the petty acci- 
dents and misadventures of a comrade, if bordering at all 
upon the ludicrous, gave occasion for demonstrations of hi- 
larity on the part of his fellows. So that when Acheson, 
worn out by a long march and vigil, and overcome by sleep 
as he sat by a blazing rail fire, had one side of his new uni- 
form coat burned off, it was a signal for more badgering than 

Poor Acheson, brave, gentle, and polished, he died a few 
years after the war ended at his home in " Little Wash- 

Connolly, the Inspector General, is a small man, bearing a 
resemblance to the lattj Stephen A. Douglas. He was a 
young attorney when the war broke out, and is still in the 
same profession, living at Springfield, Illinois. He is at this 


time generally mentioned as the probable Republican candi- 
date this year for Governor of Illinois. Since the war he has 
occupied the office of U. S. District Attorney, and at the last 
congressional election ran on the Republican side for Con- 
gress, his competitor being Mr. Springer. Connolly was a 
very brave and gallant soldier, and is a most companionable 
and genial gentleman. Gen. Baird early learned the value 
and prescience of his judgment. 

Once, during an idle day in camp, an argument sprang up 
as to the temper of the steel in some of the swords, Connolly 
claiming tha this was the best. The Lieutenant-Colonel of 
the Eighteenth Kentucky, who was present as a familiar visi- 
tor at headquarters, took up the challenge. Connolly held 
his sword upon a log with the edge upwards, and the Ken- 
tucky Colonel, who was a powerful man, raised his sword 
with both hands above his head and brought it down on Con- 
nolly's with a force that cut it nearly in two. 

During the seige of Vicksburg, at the headquarters of the 
Seventeenth Army Corps, occurred an event so farcical that 
perhaps it deserves to be placed on record. 

Gen. James B. McPherson, the commander of the corps, it 
need hardly be said, was one of the most chivalrous as well as 
one of the ablest generals of the Union armies. 

The staff of a corps commander in the field is necessarily 
very large and their tents cover a large space. On the occa- 
sion to be described these headquarters' tents were arranged 
in a double line, leaving a narrow alley between, the general's 
tent being at one end and the medical director's at the opposite 
extremity. The alley was covered with green boughs to 
shade the tents and walk. The medical director was the late 
Dr. James H. Boucher, of Iowa City, who, as the chief medi- 
cal officer of this army, developed great executive ability, and 
who has the unique distinction of being perhaps the only med- 
ical director of a corps who maintained his official connection 
with it from its organization to its disbandment. Next to- 
Boucher's tent came that of Major Daniel Chase of the Thir- 


teenth U. S. Infantry, who was then performing staff duty at 
McPherson's headquarters, and who, on account of the heat, 
was accustomed to sleep in a hammock swung in the alley or 
street opposite his tent. So on the double line of tents ex- 
tended perhaps fifty yards to McPherson's tent. 

It was customary, at that stage of the siege, for the Union 
gunboats on the river and the batteries along our long semi- 
circular line which enveloped Vicksburg, to simultaneously 
open upon the besieged about two o'clock in the morning, 
making such a deafening uproar as seldom disturbs the world, 
and it was at this hour that the mining parties turned out to 
mine the confederate forts for future explosion. 

Two females of uncertain standing and high-protective ap- 
pearance, accompanied by a colored maid servant had claimed 
shelter and occupied a tent next to that of the medical director 
and opposite Major Chase's hammock. 

In the stillness of the night, just before the time of the 
bombardment, cries were heard issuing from the women's 
tent, then a pistol shot, and an exclamation that the hat of an 
assailant had been captured and would identify him. 

The medical director sprang from his couch and was imme- 
diately at the scene of confusion, and with pacific words had 
soon calmed alarm, taking the captured hat to his own tent. 

Military dress in the field during the war was uniform except 
the hat, but this article varied as much almost as in civil life, all 
kinds being in vogue except plug hats, and the captured hat 
did identify a young scapegrace as the intruder. 

The women having retired reassured, a conversation ensued 
in the medical director's tent which was partially overheard 
by the women, and so entirely misconstrued by them as to 
lead them to partially lose faith in the integrity of the medical 

During all this confusion the imperturbable Major in the 
hammock slept undisturbed. 

All was quiet again. The terrible cannonade along the line 
had not yet begun. The army was sleeping. When again 


the screams of women were heard, again the pistol was dis- 
charged, again the scene of before, with the medical director 
as pacificator, was enacted, but the doctor's words this time 
had not oil enough to smooth the troubled waters. 

The Major in the hammock slept on. 

At this time Gen. Hickenlooper and other officers of the 
staff whose duties required them to superintend mining opera- 
tions were hurriedly passing about, and unreservedly censured 
the Major for not interfering. Then the cannonade began, 
but a whispering voice was heard, not above but beneath it 
all, in the medical director's tent the voice of the young 
scapegrace, saying, " Doc, have you got my hat?" 

The next morning the women took a hasty departure, and 
the reflections cast on the Major of the hammock for his 
alleged deficiency in gallantry well nigh led to a dozen duels. 
But as the deafening cannonade went on nightly and daily too, 
and as blood was spilling on all sides, the duels were whelmed 
in mightier events. The offender did not belong to the vol- 
unteers; and as he was a very brave soldier and after the war 
met a very sudden and violent accidental death, I withhold his 


teenth U. S. Infantry, after a protracted illness, died at San 
Antonio, Texas, on the second of last January. Although 
not a citizen of Iowa, his name is intimately and honorably 
as~sociated with her as U. S. Mustering Officer for this State 
in the first year of the Rebellion and as Colonel of her Six- 
teenth Infantry. He led the Sixteenth to victory at the bat- 
tles of Shiloh and luka, at each of which he was severely 
wounded, and at the siege of Vicksburg, where either in im- 
mediate command of it or of that superb quartette of Iowa 
regiments of which it was a part -that unique brigade com- 
posed of the Eleventh, Thirteenth, Fifteenth and Sixteenth 


Iowa, and known in the annals of the war as " Crocker's 
Iowa Brigade "- he performed chivalrous service. For his 
conduct at Vicksburg, on the recommendation of Gen. Grant, 
he was promoted to the rank of Brigadier General. Gen. 
Chambers was born in 1833, in Cattaraugus county, New 
York, from whence he entered West Point Military Academy 
in 1849, graduating in 1853 in the same class with Gens. Sher- 
idan, Schofield, and McPherson. As we intend to publish in 
a future number a biographical sketch of Gen. Chambers, 
which we hope to be able to accompany with his portrait, we 
refrain from further notice of his career at present. 

GEX. JAMES WILSON died suddenly at his home in Newton, 
on Sunday evening, the eighth of last January, in his sixty- 
eighth year. Early in the war he entered the armv as First 
Lieutenant of the Thirteenth Iowa Volunteers, and was pro- 
moted to Adjutant, Major and Lieutenant-Colonel of the same 
regiment. He served as Provost Marshal on the staff of 
Gen. McPherson, and upon the death of the latter, in the 
same capacity on the staff of Gen. Logan. At the close of 
the war, for gallant service, he was appointed by the Presi- 
dent Brevet Brigadier General. On the return of peace he 
went back to his home in Jasper county, and for a number of 
years up to the time of his death was President of the Jasper 
County National Bank. Gen. Wilson was an exceedingly 
courteous gentleman, a noble . man, and a most gallant and 
meritorious soldier. A biographical sketch of his life with 
portrait was published in the last July number of the HISTOR- 

ELIJAH W. LAKE. M. D., a graduate of the Medical Col- 
lege of Ohio, who came to Iowa about 1850, died at his home 
in Marion, Linn county, on the 26th of last month, aged seven- 
ty-nine years. Dr. Lake, after coming to Iowa, first settled 
in Iowa City, where he was soon recognized as a skillful phy- 
sician and where he enjoved a large medical practice. He 
was also an active politician, an ardent supporter of Stephen 
A. Douglas, and a forcible public speaker. He was a native 


of Ohio, and before coming to Iowa, had been clerk of the 
court at Mansfield. Shortly before the war he removed to 
Marion, where he has since resided and practiced, and at the 
time of his death was a member of the U. S. Medical Exam- 
ining Board for Pensions for Linn county. As a man he was 
kind, genial, and hospitable, and devoted to his friends, for 
whom no sacrifice was too great for him to make. As a med- 
ical man he had the candor and directness which carried confi- 
dence to those who relied on his professional skill. 

GEORGE WASHINGTON MAINS, a veteran of the War of 
1812, who distinguished himself by gallantry at the battle of 
Lundy's Lane, died at Findlay, Ohio, on the ipth of last 
month, aged ninety-five years. He was also in the Mexican 

Butler, died near Iowa City, January i8th, 1888. Mrs. Butler 
was a native of Tennessee. She had been a resident of Iowa 
City and vicinity since 1839, anc ^ at tne ^ me ^ ner death was 
eighty-one years old. 

Miss KATE WINCHESTER, a native of Marlboro, Vt., and a 
resident of Iowa since 1839, died at her home in Iowa City, 
February 5th, 1888, aged fifty-six years. 

shire, but a resident of Iowa since his youth, died at his home 
in Iowa City, January i8th 1888, aged sixty-one years. 


CONGRESS having ordered the erection of a monument to 
commemorate the services of Gen. LaFayette in the Revolu- 
tionary War, Senator Hoar, of the Library Committee, has 
requested the Massachusetts Historical Society to make a 
suggestion as to the four Frenchmen to be grouped around 
the statue of LaFayette. The contract requires a monument 
with a statue of Gen. LaFayette and subordinate figures and 



emblematic devices to the memory of LaFayette and his com- 
patriots in the American Revolution. It is stipulated that the 
statue of LaFayette shall be in bronze in the uniform of a 
Major General of the Continental Army, and that four of his 
compatriots shall be represented in appropriate uniforms of 
their grades in the same service. Senator Hoar's request 
having been referred to a sub-committee of the Historical 
Society, with ex-Gov. H. C. Winthrop as chairman, they have 
recommended that the group around the statue shall consist 
of the Marquis de Rochambeau, the Count de Grasse, the 
Baron de Viosmenil and the Marquis de Saint Simon. The 
LaFayette Statue Commission agree with the sub-committee 
of the Historical Society as to the first tw r o, but are disposed 
to favor, as the other two of the quartette Count d'Estaing, 
who commanded the naval forces, and Duportail, who was 
Chief Engineer on Washington's staff. 

A NOTED episode in the Indian annals of Iowa is retold in 
an official committee report in the Lower House of Congress. 
It relates to the claim of Abbie Sharp, formerly Abbie Gard- 
ner. The story is thus told in the report of Mr. Whitthorne : 
" Prior to the 8th of March, 1857, a considerable settlement 
of white people existed in the vicinity of Spirit and West 
Okoboji Lakes, in Northwestern Iowa. Among other settlers 
living there was Roland Gardner, with his wife and three 
children, including Abbie Gardner, who was then fourteen 
years old. Another daughter, then but recently married to 
a man named Luce, lived on an adjoining farm. Upon the 
date last named Inkpaduta, with his band of Sioux Indians 
made an irruption into the settlement and began a massacre 
of the inhabitants that ended onlv with the extermination or 


capture of the entire settlement. The massacre is well 
known as one of the most inhuman as well as one of the most 
complete in its exterminating character in the long list of sav- 
age atrocities. Abbie saw her mother and family killed, one 
after another; also her sister, Mrs. Luce. While holding the 
infant child of the latter and endeavoring to protect her own 


infant brother the Indians dragged them from her arms and 
beat out their brains with sticks of stovewood. The cattle 
and stock were shot down and destroyed in sheer wantonness ; 
the furniture and property of all kinds were destroyed. Her 
father and Mr. Luce, her brother-in-law, with her entire 
family, except a sister who was absent, were murdered with 
the rest. Three women, besides claimant, were the only 
captives taken and spared. The Indians then began their 
retreat into Dakota. Abbie, although but a young girl, was 
compelled to carry a load of some sixty or seventy pounds. 
She was obliged to carry this load and keep up with her cap- 
tors in their retreat, wading streams w r hich at that time were cold, 
and, which with the other outrages perpetrated upon her, totally 
ruined her health. She saw her female companions who were 
taken with her killed or die of exposure, and after several 
months' captivity she was rescued by Indian scouts employed 
for that purpose, through the exertions largely of Major 
Charles E. Flandreau, then Indian Agent for the Sioux of the 
Upper Mississippi. Her father's land was seized by others, 
and, being a young girl, broken down in health, with all her 
relatives swept away save a young sister absent from the 
massacre, she had no one to interest himself in her behalf. 
This land is now embraced in one of the most picturesque 
and popular watering-places of the Northwest, and is shown 
to be worth about $200 an acre." 

WE are indebted to Mr. C. F. Davis, of Keokuk, for a copy 
of the "Report of the Fourth Reunion of the Tri-State Old 
Settlers' Association of Illinois, Missiouri, and Iowa, held 
Tuesday, August 3oth, 1887, at Keokuk, Iowa," a neat 
pamphlet, from which \ve copy the excellent address of Hon.. 
John H. Gear. 


VOL. IV. JULY, 1888. No. 3. 



ITHIN fifty of the best years of the best century 
whose records have been inscribed on the scroll 
of time since the fiat went forth, " Let there be 
Light," is embraced the history of Iowa as a political entity 
and during that time she has had four Capitals, has built two 
Capitols, and occupied two others, besides using two churches 
for State House purposes. 

Iowa was once a part of Michigan Territory, then a part of 
Wisconsin, but by act of Congress she was called into existence 
on the fourth day of July, 1838, and became a full fledged 
territory herself. Some eight years later, on the 28th 
day of December, 1846, she was ushered into statehood and 
'became the twenty-ninth in the sisterhood of states. 

While yet a part of Michigan, two counties and two town- 
ships were organized, the counties being named Des Moines 
and Dubuque, and the townships Flint Hills and Julien. The 
county of Dubuque and the township of Julien embraced all of 
the territory lying north of a line drawn west from Rock 
Island to the Missouri River, and the couuty of Des Moines 


and Flint Hills township all between that line and the State of 
Missouri each township being as large as the county contain- 
ing it. 

The first capital of the territory of Wisconsin was Belmont, 
a small town in the southwest part of the territory, where the 
first territorial legislature was assembled by proclamation of 
Gov. Henry Dodge. As the town of Belmont was very small 
and the conveniences for holding meetings of the legislature 
there were very meager, Maj. Jerry Smith, who was a mem- 
ber from Des Moines county, agreed that if the legislature 
would remove the capital to Burlington he would put 
up a building suitable for them to meet in, and on December 
3d, 1836, an act was passed "locating the seat of govern- 
ment at Burlington till March 4th, 1839, unless public 
buildings were sooner completed at Madison." During the 
summer of 1837, Maj. Smith erected a building on Water 
Street between Columbia and Court, fronting the river; it was 
a two story frame 40x70 feet with inside stairs to second story. 
The House of Representatives occupied one story and the 
council the other, both being separated from the lobby by a 
railing. In this building the second session of the Wisconsin 
legislature met November 6th, 1837, and held their session 
till the night of the I2th of December, when it took fire and 
burned down. The Council met afterwards in the west room 
of McCarver's building, and the House over Weber & Remey's 

Burlington continued to be the capital of Wisconsin till July 
4th, 1838, when it became the capital of Iowa; it was then a 
village built mostly of log houses, with an occasional frame 
sandwiched in between. What the population of the town 
was then, does not appear, but it could not have been much 
over 500, as Des Moines county embracing what is now the 
whole south half of the State, was officially reported to have 
but 4605. 

The first Iowa territorial legislature met here November 12, 
1838, in Old Zion church, a brick structure 40x60 feet or there- 



abouts in size, standing on Third Street, between Columbia 
and Washington, where it remained till 1881, when it was 
taken down and an opera house erected on the site. A railing 
was put across the room to separate the lobby from the House, 
desks were built for the officers and the members, and the floor 
was carpeted. The Council held its sessions in the basement; 
consisting of but 13 members, less room was required than by 
the House, whose membership was 26. 

The basement room proving too damp for occupancy by the 
Council, at the next session of the legislature, the Council met 
in the Catholic church on Columbia Street near Fourth, and 
this old church is still standing. 

The legislature adjourned January 25th, 1839, anc ^ on tne 
day of adjournment $1200 was voted to the Methodist church 
for rent. January I3th, 1840, $600 was voted for rent, and 
August following at an extra legislative session $100 more, 
and January i5th, 1841, $450 to Rev. Samuel Mazzuchelli 
$300 for rent of Catholic church, making in all $2550, besides 
paying to Levi Hager $315 for fixing up the house and $250 
for mason and carpenter's work to get it ready for use, thus 
there must have been paid for rent and fixtures nearly enough 
to have built a house that would have afforded all the accom- 
modations enjoyed in both churches. 

At the first legislative session steps were taken to locate a 
permanent seat of government. A joint resolution was passed 
January 21, calling upon W. W. Chapman, the territorial dele- 
gate, to ask Congress for a donation of four sections of public 
land on which to locate a seat of government, the capital to 
remain at Burlington three years, or until buildings should be 
ready for occupancy at Iowa City, and an act was passed pro- 
viding for commissioners to locate it; the act also contained a 
section requiring the Governor to ask Congress for four sec- 
tions of land for the location, and he was authorized to draw 
the $20,000 voted by Congress in the act organizing the terri- 
tory, to be used in the erection of public buildings. 

Chauncey Swan, John Ronalds and Robert Ralston were 


appointed commissioners and were required to make the loca- 
tion in Johnson county, and it was to be called Iowa City. 
They were to meet at Napoleon, a town now extinct, but then 
located about two miles south of Iowa City, and there organize 
and make the location. One of their number was to be called 
the " Acting Commissioner," be chairman, and to have super- 
vision of all the work done by them. 

After a preliminary examination of the most eligible places 
for a town they fixed upon what is now Iowa City. In the 
meantime Congress had granted, not four sections but one, 
and that was to be selected from the "surveyed lands." 
Before making their selection final it was discovered that the 
location fixed upon by the commissioners was beyond the 
" surveyed lands," and they applied to the authorities to have 
a couple of townships surveyed so as to include their selection, 
and it was accordingly done, this location being section 10 
township 79 range 6 west. As early as October, 1837, a claim 
was made on the southeast quarter of this section by Samuel 
Bumgardner and he afterwards sold it for $50 to J. G. Mor- 
row, and a claimant's cabin was built upon it. 

Upon the organization of the Johnson County Claim Asso- 
ciation, this claim was entered upon its records by the original 
claimant, and while the title as a claim was vested in the 
original claimant, and was good as to all individuals, it was 
entitled to no respect from the commissioners and they paid 
none to it The act of location required that one section, (it 
was then supposed that four would be granted) should be laid 
off into " blocks, lots, streets, alleys, and squares," and that 
the lots should be offered at public auction. The work of 
laying out and platting was done during the summer by Trios. 
Cox and John Frierson. A monument of gray limestone, some 
eight feet high, faced on four sides, about six inches square at 
the top and sixteen inches at the base, was erected to mark 
the southeast corner of the section. On this monument is 
chiseled this inscription : " Martin Van Buren, President of the 
United States; Robert Lucas, Governor of the territory; 


Chauncey Swan, Robert Ralston, John Ronalds, Commission- 
ers, May 4th, 1839." The capitol square on which the public 
buildings were to be erected, contains about twelve acres, and 
is in the most eligible position on the plat, commanding a view 
of the river and the country beyond, and nearly all parts of the 
city. The street leading east from the east front of the square 
is 1 20 feet feet wide, those on the four sides are 100 and all 
others 80 feet. Three squares were laid out for market pur- 
poses, one for a public park, one for college purposes, one 
called Governor's Square and several lots for churches. From 
a report of the selection of a location made to the legislature 
by the Acting Commissioner we extract the following, "Iowa 
City is located on a section of land lying in the form of an 
amphitheater. There is an eminence on the west near the 
river, and running parallel with it, which declines towards the 
river at an inclination of twenty-five degrees. At the center of 
this eminence it is proposed to erect the future capitol. The 
ground from the capitol square east to Ralston Creek, of from 
five to seven degrees descending eastward. 

" The west, south, north, northwest and southeast parts of 
the city overlook the whole location, forming as before stated 
a kind of amphitheater, the lower part of which is drained and 
kept dry by Ralston Creek." 

The first sale of lots was in August, and the second in Octo- 
ber, when lots were sold to the amount of $35,051; only $16,- 
864 was received in cash, notes being given for the balance. 
The highest price paid for a lot was $1,000, the lowest- $25. 
The number of lots bid off at these sales was 206; those 
taken and paid for 181; so that the notes and cash for them 
was only $26,739; * ne avera g e price per lot was $142. 

The section was subdivided into 100 blocks, 784 lots, and 31 
out-lots, but several of the out-lots were afterwards subdivided 
into lots, so that the whole number of lots was over 800. 

At the extra session of the legislature in 1840 an act was 
passed providing for an appraisement of the unsold lots, but 
they were to be so appraised that the average valuation should 


not be less than $300 per lot; at the next session a reduction 
of price was made to an average of $200, and at the session 
following another reduction of fifty per cent was made. In 
1843 the lots were again revalued and the average minimum 
price reduced to $80. The price of lots continued to decline 
till in 1845 Morgan Reno, territorial treasurer, who then had 
the disposal of them, reported to the legislature that they could 
not then be sold for more than an average of $30 per lot. 

How a body of men, as intelligent as the legislature of 1840 
must have been, could come to the conclusion that a section of 
land, containing but 640 acres, in the then " far, far west," 
almost on the confines of "The Great American Desert," and 
on the extreme " ragged edge " of civilization, with only 
Powesheik and his braves and squaws for their nearest western 
neighbors, could be sold for more than $200,000, it is impos- 
sible to conceive, when we take into account that the country 
was full of as good sections as this that could be bought for 
$800 each. 

Rev. Samuel Mazzuchelli drew the plan for the capitol 
building, and John F. Rague was afterwards architect, and he 
had the contract for its erection but after doing about ten 
thousand dollars worth of work, nearly completing the base- 
ment, he threw up his contract and abandoned the work. With 
$35,000 in cash and the unsold lots as the only other resource 
for means to do it with, in the month of March, 1840, after 
spending Over $3,000 in preliminary work, such as surveying 
lots, opening quarry, advertising and selling lots, etc., Commis- 
sioner Swan broke ground and began work on the new State 
House, and the work had so far progressed that on the follow- 
ing fourth day of July the corner-stone was laid. A large 
crowd of people was in attendance, Governor Lucas was the 
orator of the occasion, and though the governor was a good 
speaker on all occasions, this was pronounced the best speech 
of his life. An old fashioned Fourth of July celebration in the 
park, with speeches, dinner, etc., followed the ceremonies of 
laying the corner-stone. 


A quarry of gray limestone, but a few blocks north of Capi- 
tol Square was opened, from which rock was obtained for the 
building, which was to be entirely of stone, except the cross 
walls which were to be brick. Rock for the water table was 
got from another quarry, some fifteen miles distant, on the 
Cedar river. After the work had been carried on for some 
time, another and better quarry was discovered about ten 
miles north, on the bank of the Iowa river, and the building 
was finished from this quarry, the rock being brought down 
in boats. This has since been known as the " Old Capitol 
Quarry," and rock from it was used in some parts of the new 

After the work had progressed during two seasons, the leg- 
islature that met at Burlington, in November, 1840, sent a 
committee to examine the work accounts, etc., of the acting 
commissioner, and in that report appears the following: "The 
main walls are massive and built in a substantial and work- 
man-like manner, the stone being large and built with good 
bond and bearings. The walls in the foundations are six feet 
thick, and sunk to an average depth of three feet below the 
floor of the basement, which itself is about the same distance 
below the natural surface of the ground. The walls of the base- 
ment story are four feet thick, those of the upper stories vary 
from two to three feet in thickness. The building is one hun- 
dred and twenty feet long and sixty feet wide. It is to be orna- 
mented by magnificent porticos, one on each side, supported by 
four massive pillars twelve feet in advance of the walls of the 
building. The exterior of the building is thus described : from 
the window sills of the basement, which will be level with the 
pavement to the water table , the face of the walls is made of 
large blocks of cut stone. The water table is composed of 
about fifty blocks, sixteen inches thick, from seven to eight 
feet long, said to weigh from six to eight thousand pounds 
each. On each of the fronts there are eight pilasters, four feet 
wide, projecting ten inches from the face of the walls, these 
are surmounted by cut stone caps, supporting the architrave. 


The roof is surmounted by a cupola; the base is quadrangular 
and on this base stand twenty-two Corinthian columns, 
crowned with handsome capitals, supporting a spherical roof. 

The interior arrangements are as follows: the basement is 
entered by two doors at opposite ends, opening into a hall 
seven feet wide, which runs through the building; there are 
four rooms on each side about twenty feet square, designed 
for committee rooms, besides a fuel room and fire-proof vault. 
On the next floor there is the same division north and south, 
and a broad hall or vestibule east and west entered from the 
porticos on each side of the building; on this floor are six 
rooms assigned for Supreme Court, Governor, Secretary, 
Auditor, Treasurer and Library. On the upper floor the north 
and south hall is omitted. In the south wing is the Repre- 
sentatives hall 52x43 feet in the clear and in the north wing 
is the Council Chamber of the same size." 

The legislative halls are reached by winding stairs. 

The plan of the building, as originally drawn by Father 
Mazzuchelli, had no porticos and it had two domes on the roof, 
one on each side of the cupola, these domes were afterwards 
omitted and the porticos added. 

At the session when this report was made the commissioner 
reported that he had in his hands only $2,256 to prosecute the 
work with, and that but two-thirds of the masonry was done. 
The legislature abolished the office of Commissioner of Public 
Buildings and created the office of Superintendent of Public 
Buildings and the office of Territorial Agent, the one to have 
charge of the erection of public buildings, and the other the 
sale of lots and care of the finances; Mr. Swan was chosen 
superintendent and Jesse Williams territorial agent. 

In view of the low state of finance, the legislature authorized 
the territorial agent to negotiate a loan of money of not less 
than $5,000, nor more than $20,000, pledging the unsold lots 
for its payment, and on the 28th of June $5,000, and the fol- 
lowing September $5,000 more, was obtained from the Miner's 
Bank at Dubuque, the former payable in New York in eigh- 


teen months, interest seven per cent., payable quarterly; and the 
latter due in nine months, payable in St. Louis. These notes 
were not paid when due, went to protest, and several years 
afterwards lots were offered in payment, and finally, some sold 
at a reduced valuation to raise money to liquidate the debt. The 
lots not selling for enough to liquidate the debt, it was after- 
wards paid from the state treasury. At this time the unsold 
lots and unpaid notes given for lots were estimated by the ter- 
ritorial agent at $122,693. 

As there were not funds enough on hand to advance the 
work sufficiently fast, laborers were hired and materials bought, 
and scrip was issued in payment thereof till over eleven 
thousand dollars had been issued; this scrip was not redeema- 
ble in cash, and could only be used in the purchase of lots, or 
in the payment of notes given for lots, and afterwards when 
lots were offered for sale by the territory, to raise money, it 
was discovered that private parties owning lots bought with 
this scrip were in the market with lots so bought, that they 
were offering at a less price than the same kind of lots could 
be bought for from the territory. 

In the year 1841 Messrs. Swan and Williams were succeeded 
in office by Wm. B. Snyder, as Superintendent of Public 
Buildings, and Jno. M. Coleman, Territorial Agent. The lat- 
ter under date of December, 1842, reports: "On commencing 
the work in the spring without funds, I was under the neces- 
sity of contracting debts for provisions and expenses in estab- 
lishing a boarding house at the quarry, ten miles up the river, 
where boarding otherwise could not be had." To raise funds 
to pay these debts the agent demanded cash on all notes given 
for the sale of lots previous to 1841, refusing scrip in payment 
of those notes. The agent further says : " This scrip, although 
convenient and useful in the purchase and payment of lots, 
would not pass with the merchants for goods, nor would it be 
taken by the farmers for provisions. Under these embarrass- 
ing circumstances, I was compelled to adopt the plan of 
keeping supplies on. hand through a large part of the season, 


and issuing them out to suit the daily wants of those employed 
in the various branches of business connected with the capitol. 
* * * Early in June the superintendent made a requisition 
upon me for a bill of iron for the roof, and 1200 lights of 
crown glass, and this had to be paid in specie. To meet this 
I sold out-lot No. ii and block 21 for a draft payable in Pitts- 
burg, for which I paid a premium of twenty-five per cent. 
This draft ($507) was more than half the cash handled by me 
during the season." During this season the sale of lots was 
$22,871, and the disbursements $38,330, but$i,ooo of it being 

Under the impression that territorial bonds were to be issued 
to redeem this scrip, Murray & Sanxay, a mercantile firm here 
took over $3,000 of it in payment for goods, and they held it 
for several years, till an act of the legislature was passed for 
their relief and providing for its redemption in cash by the 
territorial treasurer. 

For the year 1843 Judge Coleman, the territorial agent, 
reports : " There has been no considerable sale of lots this 
season, and under these circumstances the operations on the 
capitol must be partially suspended, unless funds can be raised 
from some other source than the sale of city lots." 

During the two following years but little was done. Anson 
Hart, who had succeeded Judge Coleman in office, reports, 
under date of May 5th, 1845: "That the outstanding debts 
against the office are over $8,000." Wm. B. Snyder had as 
superintendent of public buildings the contract for building the 
roof, which has now been finished over three years, and he 
bought the shingles for it in Cincinnati on credit, and the 
depleted condition of the treasury left the debt for a long time 
unpaid. In his report Mr. Hart says : " I would recommend 
that some provision be made for the relief of Wm. B. Snyder, 
whose property in Cincinnati is held and is about to be sold 
for the payment of a debt contracted for shingles for the capi- 
tol through his agency while acting as superintendent of public 


The relief was granted and in July following Morgan Reno 
as the successor of Mr. Hart sold lots at a public sale for that 
purpose to the amount of $280, the lots at this sale bringing 
an average of only $14 per lot. 

So depressed was public credit at this time, that the treas- 
urer reports that territorial warrants are worth but fifty cents 
on the dollar, and at a public sale to raise money to pay the 
debt due to the Miners' Bank whole blocks of eight lots each 
sold for $48 apiece. 

Although Congress donated to the territory $20,000 
towards building the capitol, and the territory had borrowed 
money for the same purpose, this building seems to have 
been considered a kind of "side show" in territorial affairs, 
for a committee of the legislature appointed to ascertain 
the indebtedness of the territory, after performing that duty 
on the zoth of June, 1845, reports: "There are several 
debts due and owing for carrying on the public building at 
the capital, which the committee did not take into consid- 
eration, as they are not debts of the territory, but are pay- 
able out of funds arising from the sale of lots in Iowa City." 

Upon the admission of Iowa as a State the policy of 
appropriations for the capitol was changed, and money was 
taken from the state treasury to prosecute the work, the 
appropriations being as follows: February 25th, 1847, 
$2,500; January 25th, 1848, $2,500; January i5th, 1849, 
$3,000; February 5th, 1851, $2,500; January 24th, 1853, 
$5,000; January 24th, 1855, $4,000. These sums were 
expended under the direction of the auditor or treasurer of 
state, for which they were paid $200 per annum. 

By an act passed January i7th, 1840, before any work had 
been done on the building, the commissioners were limited as 
to its cost to $51,000, but $123,000 or thereabouts was 
expended to finish it. Over fifteen years were consumed in 
its construction, ground being broken in March 1840, and the 
last work being done in the fall of 1855. 

The following persons at different times had the supervis- 


ion of its construction, Chauncey Swan, Acting Commissioner, 
Wm. B.Snyder, Superintendent of Public Buildings, Jesse 
Williams, Territorial Agent, John M. Coleman, Territorial 
Agent, Anson Hart, Territorial Agent, Morgan Reno, State 
Treasurer, Jos. T. Fales, Auditor, Wm. Pattee, Auditor, Martin 
L. Morris, Treasurer. 

Before the close of the year 1842 the Representatives' hall 
and four rooms below were made ready for occupancy, the 
walls and ceiling having received but one rough coat of plas- 
tering, the senate or council occupying one of the four rooms 
below. At this time the cornice was not on nor the cupola nor 
porticos built and all the rooms in the basement and the north 
half of the building were unfloored and unplastered, but the 
legislature and state officers continued to use it from year to 
year as the work of completion went on. 

This building has never been finished, for nothing has been 
done to the west portico, but to lay the foundation and steps 
for it. 

Four territorial and six state legislatures held their sessions 
at Iowa City, and three constitutional conventions. 

All the work on the inside is of the plainest character; no 
attempt has been made at ornamentation of any kind. 

That the legislature might meet at the then permanent capi- 
tal at as early a day as possible, and as it was not probable the 
capitol building would be completed for a number of years, 
several of the citizens of Iowa City petitioned the Governor to 
call the legislative session of 1841 to meet at Iowa City, assur- 
ing him that convenient rooms would be furnished both houses 
in which to meet free of cost to the territory. An act was 
passed January I3th, 1841, providing that the next session 
of the legislature should be held at Iowa City, if a building 
should be furnished to meet in without expense to the territory. 
To make good these assurances Walter Butler erected on 
Washington street, but a few rods east of the southeast corner 
of Capitol Square, just east of Whetstone's drug store, a com- 
modious frame building 30x60 feet, two stories high. The 


council chamber was in the first story, and the representatives, 
hall in the second. The building was put up in good style, 
the second story being lighted by fifteen large windows and 
reached by a wide stairway in the middle. It was used by 
the legislature and some of the state officers till the new state 
house was ready for occupancy. It remained in its original 
location till the march of improvement crowded it two blocks 
and a half away on to Dubuque street, where it has since done 
duty in various ways, such as a third class hotel, cheap board- 
ing house, broom shops, etc. It shows the finger-marks of 
time. It has for a long time been unacquainted with paint, 
and it seems to be waiting for a friendly conflagration to come 
and make room for something better to take its place. 

But one session of the legislature was held in it; although 
no charge was made for rent of legislative halls, the owner of 
the building was allowed $325 for use of rooms for secretary 
and for library. 

The state officers had been in the occupancy of the new 
state house but a few years, and not a single room in it 
had been completely finished, and the state was less than two 
years old as a state, when the General Assembly, February 8, 
1847, memorialized Congress for five sections of land for a 
new site for a state capital, and two \veeks thereafter John 
Broivn, Joseph J. Hoag and John Taylor were appointed com- 
missioners to locate a section of government land "near the 
center of the state." The grant was made by Congress and the 
commissioners made a location in Jasper county, which was 
called Monroe City, one whole section was laid off into lots, 
several of which were sold; but as this location was finally 
abandoned January 15, 1849, in less than two years from its 
location, the money paid for lots was returned to the pur- 
chasers, the city vacated, and the five sections granted for a 
seat of government were turned over to the Agricultural 
College and the proceeds of the sale of these five sections used 
by that institution for college purposes. 

About this time a craze or mania it may be called, took 


possession of many, that the capital must be located very near 
the geographical center of the State, and this location was 
made to satisfy this crazy demand. 

On the i5th of January, 1855, before the old capitol was 
finished, a bill passed the legislature appointing commissioners 
to locate the capital within two miles of the junction of the Des 
Moines and Raccoon rivers, to take grants of land free of cost 
to the State, and lay out a town, if no town is laid out, on such 
lands, and the capital was to be removed when, without cost 
to the State, buildings are erected on said lands for the accom- 
modation of the State. 

A clause was inserted in the constitution adopted in 1857 
making Des Moines the permanent capital of the State. 

The site for a capitol was selected in 1856, on ten acres of 
ground, on a high elevation in East Des Moines, donated for 
that purpose to the State by W. A. Scott and Harrison Lyon. 

The first time this location was brought to the attention 
of white men, was in 1843, when it was selected as the site for 
a government fort, and the fort, named Fort Des Moines, was 
built the summer of that year, and garrisoned by two military 
companies, one of cavalry and one of infantry, under the com- 
mand of Capt. James Allen, and no settlers were allowed there 
except those immediately or remotely connected with the mili- 
tary service. 

In January, 1846, when this was no longer needed for mili- 
tary purposes, Congress passed an act permitting Polk county 
to enter the quarter section of land on which the fort was 
located, to be used as a county seat and made a gift of the gov- 
ernment buildings on it to the county. In 1846 the original 
quarter section was surveyed and platted into streets and 
alleys and 324 lots, and in 1851 a village or town organization 
under the name of Fort Des Moines was completed. The 
town was known as Fort Des Moines till it became incorpo- 
rated in 1857 when fort was dropped from its name. The 
corporate limits of the town then were four miles east and west 
and two miles north and south, embracing sections 2, 3, 4, 5, 


8, 9, 10 and n of township 78, range 24, west of the fifth 
principal meridian and since that time 40 additions have been 
made. At the time of the incorporation the population was 
less than 4,000, at the census of 1885 it was 31,195, but now 
it must approximate 35,000. 


As soon as the fact became known that Des Moines was to 
be the permanent capital of the State, an association, consisting 
of Hon. Stewart Goodrell, Dr. T. K. Brooks, Col. J. M. Grif- 
fith, Capt. Harvey Griffith, Alex. Scott, J. D. Cavenor, Col. 
Jas. Williamson, and Harrison Lyon, called the Capitol Building 
Association, was formed for the purpose of erecting buildings, 
or a building, for the use of the state free of cost to the state, 
and during the summer of 1857 the building known as the Old 
Brick Capitol was completed. The contractors were Alex- 
ander Scott, John Hyde and John Bryan. Hon. John P.Huskins 
was foreman on the work from September i9th, 1856, to Sep- 
tember ist, 1857, and the contract price was $37,000. 

It was originally a two story building 55x108 feet, built on 
a couple of lots across the street from Capitol Square, being 
lots n and 12, block 6 of Scott's Addition to Des Moines. 

The State afterwards put a gallery in each legislative hall, 
put a basement under the building, and rebuilt the roof, add- 
ing a cupola and two heaters, at a cost of $3,268. A nominal 
rent of one dollar per year was paid to the association by the 
State. ' 

There are eight rooms on the first floor; two were occupied 
by the governor, two by the treasurer, two by superintendent 
of public instruction, and two by the janitor as document and 
storage rooms; the two over the treasurer by the state 
auditor, one over the superintendent of public instruction by the 
clerk of the supreme court, and the balance for state library in 
one room. The third story was occupied by the two legisla- 
tive halls and legislative post office, 

The members of the association were extensive owners of 
real estate in and adjoining East Des Moines, and they antici- 


pated large returns for their investment in the building, from 
the sale of lots and lands at an enhanced value, but the finan- 
cial crash of 1857, the precipitation of the war in 1861, and 
the long deferred expenditure of money by the State for 
the erection of a new capitol, rendered their project a financial 

During a plethoric condition of the school fund, and in one of 
his periods of official and moral obliquity, before Governor 
Grimes had Stoned him out of office, Dr. Eads, then superin- 
tendent of public instruction, loaned on insufficient security to 
several members of the association various sums of money 
from the school fund amounting in the aggregate to $30,850, 
which it is supposed was used for the purpose of building the 
State House. This money was got in the year 1856, when 
the whole northwest was having a big boom, but it was fol- 
lowed by the financial crash of 1857, from which it took ten 
years to recover. In the meantime the interest on the notes 
given for this money remained mostly unpaid, and in 1864 the 
census board and the attorney-general were appointed com- 
missioners to settle with the debtors to the fund for money so 
borrowed, and the State obtained a title to the state house 
building and the lots on which it stands in partial settlement of 
this claim, at a valuation of $40,000. 

The first meeting of the General Assembly held in this 
building was in January, 1858, it being the Seventh General 
Assembly. Thirteen general and two special sessions have 
been held in it. 


The first act of the General Assembly of Iowa, for the 
building of a new capitol building, one that would comport 
with the dignity of the State, was passed April 6th, 1868. 

Under this act, the "census board" were authorized to pro- 
cure plans and specifications. Many plans were submitted, 
and from the best of these Messrs. Cochrane and Piquenard 
were commissioned to prepare a plan better suited to the 
wants of the State than any one submitted. 


April 1 3th, 1870, a law was passed creating the original 
board of capitol commissioners, and under their supervision 
the cellar was excavated and most of the foundation walls 
were built, and on Thursday, November 23d, 1871, the corner 
stone was laid, with appropriate ceremonies, participated in by 
various state, military and civil organizations and societies, 
besides many distinguised citizens from abroad. 

The corner-stone is seven feet long, three, feet wide and 
three feet thick, and was made from a "prairie boulder" pro- 
cured in Buchanan county. 

By an act of the General Assembly dated April loth, 1872, 
the board of capitol commissioners was reorganized with the 
Governor as ex-officio president, and the following gentlemen 
as members: Messrs. John G. Foote, of Burlington; Mat- 
urin L. Fisher, of Farmersburg; Peter A. Dey, and R. S. 
Finkbine, of Iowa City. 

When this board first organized, they appointed A. H. 
Piquenard, of Springfield, 111., sole architect, and General 
Ed. Wright as secretary of the board. They also made 
Mr. R. S. Finkbine superintendent of construction, and Mr. 
John G. Foote superintendent of finance. 

This organization has been preserved to the present time, 
except so far as death has removed its members. In Novem- 
ber, 1876, Mr. Piquenard, the architect, died, and the fol- 
lowing January Messrs. Bell and Hackney, two young men 
who had been in the employ of Mr. Piquenard in this work, 
were selected to carry out the original design, in its true 
spirit. On the 5th day of February, 1879, Mr- Fisher was 
removed from the board by death, and Mr. Cyrus Foreman, of 
Osage, was appointed in his place. 

The first act of the present board was to remove the orig- 
inal foundation, which was found to be defective, and replace it 
with more substantial material. This was done at an expense 
of $52,352.76. 

The partitions are all of brick or other fire proof material, 
and the floors are made with iron beams and brick arches 
with either an encaustic tile or wood covering. 


The rooms are all warmed with steam, with both direct and 
indirect radiation, from a battery of seven large boilers located 
in a building across the street on the north side, and the rooms 
are ventilated by exhausting the air ducts built in the walls. 

The roof is made of iron frame work, covered with porous 
terra cotta and slate laid in cement mortar. 

The corridor floors are all made of encaustic tile laid in very 
rich patterns, and wainscotings of the corridors and all the 
principal rooms of both office and second story are made of 
domestic and foreign marbles. The large columns in the 
House and Senate and those in the upper part of the dome are 
made of Scagliola. 

The grand stairway is made of marble on iron frame work, 
while the other stairways are all of iron. 

The legislative portion of the building was completed and 
dedicated to its future use on the i7th day of January, 1884, 
and the 2Oth General Assembly held its deliberations in the 
spacious halls provided for this purpose. 


The foundation stone are principally from the " Bear Creek" 
and " Winterset " quarries in this State. 

The basement story is from the Old Gapitol quarries in 
Johnson county, in this State. 

The buff colored stone in the superstructure is from St. 
Genevieve, Mo., and the " blue stone" is from Carroll county, 

The granite in the base course was partially procured from 
"prairie boulders" in Buchanan county, but the dark colored 
pieces are from Sauk Rapids, Minnesota. 

The outside steps and platforms are the " Forest City " 
stone, near Cleveland, Ohio. The rails are the Sauk Rapids 

The pilasters and piers in the interior of basement are from 
Anamosa, in this State, and Lemont, Illinois. 

All the columns, piers, and pilasters in the corridors of first 
story, are from Lemont, Illinois. 


The red granite columns in the second story are from Iron 
Mountain, Mo. The dark colored granite in base and cap of 
pedestals, is from Sauk Rapids, Minnesota, while the carved 
capitals, pilasters and piers are of Lemont stone. 



"Old Tennessee," 
Holstein River, 
Glens Falls, - 
Iowa Coral, 

from Tennessee. 
New York. 
New York. 
Charles Citv, Iowa. 



Mexican Onyx, - 



Verona Red, 

Statuary White, 

Veined White, 

Italian Dove, 

Alps Green, 


Rose Vif, 

Rouge Greotte, 

Greotte Rennaissance, 

Yellow Eschalleon, 


' Belgian Black, 



Juan Fleure, 

Kilkenny Green, 

Victoria Red, 

Cost of marble work $114,815.00. 


Length North and South, including porticos, 

Length East and West 

Length North and South fronts, 

Length East and West fronts 

Width East and West through arcades, 























363 feet 8 

246 feet ii 

175 feet. 

118 feet 8 

100 feet 10 




Height to top of main cornice, 92 feet 8 inches. 

Height to top of balustrade, 99 feet 8 inches. 

Height to top of stylobate, 114 feet 2 inches. 

Height to top of dome balcony, 219 feet i inch. 

Height to top of lantern, 249 feet. 

Height to top of ball above lantern, 259 feet. 

Height to top of finale, 275 feet. 

Height to top of small domes 152 feet. 

Height of basement story 13 feet i inch. 

Height of office story, 23 feet 9 inches. 

Height of second story, 22 feet 9 inches 

Height of third story, 20 feet 9 inches. 

From office floor to first balcony in dome, 101 feet 6 inches. 

From office floor to second balcony in dome, 153 feet 2 inches. 

From office floor to canopy, 175 feet 5 inches. 

The rotunda is in diameter, 66 feet 8 inches. 

The exterior diameter of dome is So feet. 

The house of representatives is 74x91 feet 4 inches, x 47 feet 9 inches. 

The senate chamber is . 58x91 feet 4 inches, x 41 feet 9 inches. 


In the basement at the south end, on the left, State Board 
of Health; next is Mine Inspector; on the right is the Board of 

Second or office story, Stand in the rotunda facing the 
grand stairway. First door to the left is the Custodian and 
Commissioner of Labor; first to the right, elevator; second, 
Horticultural Society; face to the right, looking south, first 
door to the left is State Land Office; second State Treasury 
Department; third, Superintendent of Public Instruction; first 
to the right is the. Governor's private office; second, Clerk's 
Office; third, Auditor of State. Face to the right, looking 
west, first door to the left is Governor's Private Secretary; 
second, Governor's reception room; to the right is Secretary 
of State's suites of rooms. Looking to the north, the first and 
second doors to the left are the Supreme Court rooms; third, 
is Judges private consultation room; fourth, Attorney Gen- 
eral's office. On the right, second door, is the Clerk of the 
Supreme Court; third, Railroad Commissioners; fourth, Agri- 
cultural Society. 


Passing up the grand stairway, on the right is the hall of 
the House of Representatives, and opposite it, to the south, is 
the Senate Chamber, which is 58 feet by 91 feet 4 inches, and 
41 feet 9 inches high. It is lighted by five large windows on 
each side, has a gallery in each end for spectators, and is 
lighted by four large chandeliers. The wainscoting is of 
marble, but the large columns are a fine specimen of scagliola 
work. The finish is all of mahogany. The walls are elegantly 
decorated with frescoes, including some very fine figure work 
representing Industry, Law, Agriculture, Peace, History and 

Back of the Senate Chamber is the Lieutenant Governor's 
suite of rooms, clerks rooms and committee rooms, all finished 
and furnished in keeping with the uses for which they are 

In the north wing is the House of Representatives which is 
74 feet by 91 feet 4 inches and 47 feet 9 inches high. It is 
larger than the Senate Chamber, but designed to correspond 
with it in other respects. The finish and furniture of this room 
are of black walnut, with marble wainscoting. The frescoing 
is of a brighter tone, and, instead of the allegorical paintings 
which decorate the Senate ceiling, there have been introduced 
here the portraits of the following persons: Presidents, 
Washington and Lincoln ; Governors, Robert Lucas and James 
W. Grimes: Justices of the Supreme Court, Caleb Baldwin 
and Charles Mason; Speakers of the House of Representa- 
tives, Rush Clark and James P. Carlton; Generals, M. M. 
Crocker and S. R. Curtis. 

There are one hundred desks for members of the House 
and fifty for members of the Senate. 

Back of the House of Representatives are rooms for the 
Speaker, clerks and committees. 

The Library is situated in the west wing; and is 52 feet 6 
inches by 108 feet 4 inches, and 44 feet 9 inches high. It is 
finished in ash and chestnut, with marble wainscoting and 
pilasters, and has an encaustic tile floor. There are now 


about 40,000 volumes in the library, but it is designed to meet 
the wants of many years, and will accommodate 150,000 vol- 
umes without crowding. 

In the east wing is the Legislative Post Office and commit- 
tee rooms. 

The building covers 58,850 square feet of ground. The 
girth of the outside wall is 1,300 feet. 

The total length, 363 feet 8 inches and the total width is 246 
feet ii inches. The height to top of the dome is 275 feet. 

There are 398 steps from the ground up to the dome plat- 
form or look out. 

There are 787 yards of carpet in the Senate Chamber and 
994 yards in the House of Representatives. 

There are twenty-nine kinds of marble in the building. 

The kinds of wood employed in the building are : Ash, Red 
Oak, White Oak, Black Walnut, Butternut, Chestnut, Cherry, 
Mahogany, Poplar, Yellow Pine, White Pine and Catalpa. 


Beginning with north of Library door: History, Science, 
Law, Fame, Literature, Industry, Peace, Commerce, Agricul- 
ture, Victory, Truth and Progress. 

The first door to the left as you enter the Senate Chamber is 
the entrance to the stairway leading to the Dome. 

All the rooms on the third floor are committee rooms, of 
which there are twenty-nine in number. 

The Dome is covered with a gold leaf, at a cost of $3,500. 

The pictures on the ceiling of the Supreme Court room are 
of the type of the Greek Mythology. 

No. i. North end, the leading figure Justice on her throne. 
To her left stands Columbia, ever ready to sustain her deci- 
sions by word or deed. The figure to the right of Justice 
rejoices that the decision is in her favor. The sitting figure 
on the right denotes sorrow as the decision is rendered against 
her, but is content when she finds by examining the law that 
the decision is according to law. To the left a mother is ex- 
plaining to her son the laws. 


No. 2. Columbia reigning on her throne. Above the 
Globe, in unity with the Goddess of Justice, the patrons of the 
States come to pay them their homage, bringing with them 
little children, which represent the Territories. Iowa, who is 
a special favorite in Columbia's household, is seen sitting on 
the steps of the throne with club and coat of arms, ever ready 
to defend her friend (the Union) Columbia, in case of need. 
In front of the throne is chiseled in everlasting rock the 
memorable date 1776, the foundation of the Republic. The 
American Eagle is proudly soaring over all, holding in his 
talons the historical emblem and in his beak a streamer on 
which is inscribed "E. Pluribus Unum." 

No. 3. Justice and peace* represented as ruling over the 
land bring prosperity and plenty, culture and happiness, while 
on the other rebellion is restrained and smitten down by Jus- 
tice's strong arm, (General Grant.) 

No. 4. Represents Ceres, the Goddess of Agriculture. 

The small pictures are simply agricultural scenes, by Fritz 
Mezler, Berlin, Germany. 


Yards Feet In. 

Rubble stone for concrete. 1,020 oo o 

Rubble stone for walls 1,129 1 5 5 

Total rubble -M49 15 5 

Dimension stone in foundations 4,629 1 1 


Granite 11,370.0 

Iowa City limestone 44,429.2 

Anamosa limestone 1,654.2 

Lemont limestone 17,404.6 

Carroll county sandstone ^5,789.7 

Ste. Genevieve sandstone 130,768.1 1 

Forest City sandstone 9,623.4 

Total stone in superstructure 3^1, 339.9 J 

Cement Barrels pounds. 

Hydraulic 29,683 62 

Portland.. 1,084 1O 

Total cement 3,7 6 7 162 


Stucco, tons 549 

Stucco (fine), barrels 4 1.936 

Kune's cement, barrels ' 66 

Lime, bushels 21,160$ 

Sand, bushels 366,307 

Water, gallons 1 1,901,145 

Fire 21,100 

Pressed 1 7,350 

Common ' 1 3,975,380 

Total 14,013,730 

Pitch, pounds 43,480 

Cast iron, pounds 638,561 

Wrought iron, pounds. . . , 2,220,023 

Total 2,858,584 

Cast Steel, pounds 3,i39i 

Nails, pounds 87,462 

Copper and bronze, pounds 202,341 

Drain-tile, feet 3,574? 

Slate, squares 568^ 

Porous terra cotta, squares 5 2 4J 

Terra Cotta 

Balusters, pieces 444 

Chimney tops, pieces 13 

Cornice, feet . 23 

Hip and ridge moulds, feet 840 


Sheet, pounds 13,791 J 

Pig, pounds 8,439 

Pipe, pounds 1,651 

Total pounds 23,881 J 

Sheet iron 

Black, pounds 13,615 

Galvanized, pounds 11,352 

Total pounds . 24,967 


White pine, feet 1,595,637 

Yellow pine, feet 194,002 

Poplar, feet 44,833 

Black Walnut, feet 44,833 

White Walnut, feet 45,044 

Cherry, feet 35, 520 

Ash, feet 101,746 

Chestnut feet 30,957 



White oak, feet 30,957 

Red oak, feet 22,32: 

Mahogany, feet 5)47* 

Total lumber, feet 2,230,^28 

Lath 466,900 

Lath iron wire, square yards 1,006 

Iron sash cord, feet 40 

Copper sash cord, feet ' 13,400 

Brads, papers 878 

Wood screws, iron, gross 2,6155 

Wood screws, brass, gross 352 

Wood screws, nickel plated, gross 9 

Wood screws, blued, gross 6 

Wood bolts 14,1539 

Steam pipes, feet 170,167 

Water pipes, feet i ,726 

Gas pipes, feet 28,892 

Galvanized iron pipes, feet 4>5 DI 

Brass pipes, feet 3)53$ 

Brass pipe, tinned, feet 3>539 

Cast iron pipe, feet 3,5 1 3 

Total pipe, feet 211,597 

Total pipe miles 40.56 

The above does not include the pipe in the radiators. 

Lubricating oil, gallons 896^ 

Kerosene, gallons 736 

Tallow, pounds 3.I9 1 ! 

Turpentine, gallons 482 

Linseed oil, gallons , 1 , 1 9$2 

Lard oil, gallons 482 

Gold leaf, packs 868 

Gold leaf size, pounds 50 

White lead, pounds 27,969 

Red lead, pounds 4i57 

Plastering hair, bushels i ,740 


Wrought plate, square feet 1,601 

Polished plate, square feet 22,i88{ J 

Polished plate, beveled, square feet 66J 

Polished plate, enameled, square feet .... i ,785 ^ 

Polished plate, silvered, square feet 

Stained glass, square feet 

Cylinder glass, square feet 1,001 

Vault doors 12 

Encaustic tile floors, square feet 43> I 53 



Marble tile floors, square feet 5,227 

Glue stucco 9)157 


3oth, 1886. 


Excavation and drainage $ 1 7,978 87 

Cistern 1,512 12 

Repairs, first foundation 5 2 >343 75 

Concrete, labor on 9,093 71 

Printing and advertising 81-05 26 

Water 3,579 84 

Cash 1,612 54 

Board of Commissioners 24,683 15 

Cast iron works 6,057 5 

Rubbing stone 26, 115 56 

Accidents 990 72 

Extra handling stone 2 , 2 44 46 

"Stone setting and masonry 69,575 8l 

Paints and oils 8,72 1 26 

Roofing and guttering 95, 160 20 

Terra cotta work 3,7o 04 

Lot and sewer 10,000 oo 

Machinery and tools 34>343 22 

Heating and ventilating 81,453 3 2 

Painting 36,752 06 

Railroad 16,458 63 

Fuel 8,053 67 

Cleaning and painting 236 77 

Glass 26,843 87 

Marble work 1 1 7,097 47 

Plumbing Mo 80 99 

Stone 486,417 56 

Boiler house 2 .5> 8 44 1 9 

Nails and hardware. 1 5-365 82 

Stone cutting 34 2 > I 3 8 07 

Wrought iron work 1 87,603 24 

Gas fitting 9,848 91 

General labor 54,9*5 43 

Cement 49,733 17 

Brick i 2 7,5 6 5 79 

Sand 8,624 oo 

Sheet metal work 2 1,020 78 

Prismatic lights 3,082 23 

Plain plastering 45'6i6 51 

Scagliola work '3,934 8 5 

Ornamental plastering 2 9>-5 8 5 



Electric work 5*945 85 

Interest and discount 3*55 2 

Fresco painting 28,077 37 

Floor tiling 34.485 58 

Heating expenses 10,989 91 

Plans 8,784 13 

Furniture ; 129,131 77 

Patterns and models 7,868 75 

Brick masonry 1 22,030 36 

Extra General Assembly 208 55 

Salaries 1 39,829 82 

Adjutant-General's office 3,021 01 

Capitol grounds 1,021 01 

Expenses 4,982 73 

Lime 7,863 33 

Carpenter work 1 77,422 75 

Lumber and timber 64,530 65 

Elevators 7,636 58 

Street improvements 2 4t994 59 

Government's settlement account 55 oo 

Total $2,873,294 59 


Chapter 1 10, Laws of the Thirteenth General 

Assembly $ 1 50,000 oo 

Chapter 35, of the General and Public Laws of 
the Fourteenth Assembly, being $100,000 for 
the year i872,and $122,000 for each of the years 
1873, 1874, l8 75, 1876, 1877, 1878, 1879, iSSo, 
iSSi and 1882 1,350,000 oo 

Chapter 68, Local Laws of the Fifteenth General 

Assembly 135,000 oo 

Chapter 151, Laws of the Sixteeth General As- 
sembly 250,000 oo 

Chapter 138, Laws of the Seventeenth General 

Assembly 75> o o 

Chapter 138, Laws of the Seventeenth General 

Assembly, for lot and sewer 10,000 oo 

Chapter 83, Laws of the nineteenth General As- 
sembly 525,000 oo 

Chapter 1 36, Laws of the Twentieth General As- 
sembly 361,000 oo 

Chapter 136, Laws of the Twentieth General As- 
sembly, for paving and curbing the streets and 
putting down sidewalks around the Capitol 
Square 27,000 oo 



Chapter 75, Sec. 32, Laws of the Fifteenth Gen- 
eral Assembly 600 oo 

Chapter 142, Sec. 19, Laws of he Sixteenth Gen- 
eral Assembly 600 oo 

Chaper 170, Sec. 20, Laws of the Seventeenth 

General Assembly . 600 oo $ 2,876,300 oo 


Expended on new capitol $ 2,624,189 48 

Expended on rapairs of first foundation 5 2 ,343 76 

Expended on lot and sewer 10,000 oo 

Expended on boiler house 25,844 oo 

Expended on furniture. . 129,131 77 

Expended for Twentieth General Assembly 208 55 

Expended for Adjutant-General's Office 3,021 01 

Expended on Capitol grounds 1,883 7o 

Expended on street improvements 2 4,994 59 

Expended on Governor's settlement account. . . . 55 oo 
Cash unexpended and turned over to Governor 

William Larrabee 1,612 54 

Street paving and sidewalk appropriation in the 

State Treasury undrawn 3,005 41 $2,876,300 oo 

When' the work is all completed, including the fixing up of 

the grounds, the total cost of building and work upon the 
grounds will not be less than $3,000,000. 

NOTE For the information obtained in regard to the New 
Capitol we have drawn largely from the little book published 
by G. W. Beall. H. W. LATHROP. 



HE question who burned Columbia, S. C., February 
ipth, 1865, is again being discussed. And I wish 
to add what information I have on the subject, as 
having been among the first on the ground. 

The writer of this was serving as picket officer on the staff 
of General Belknap, commanding the 3rd Brigade (Crocker's 
Brigade) 4th Division iyth Army Corps. On the afternoon of 
February i6th, 1865, the Brigade had the advance and at 
about 3 o'clock p. M., I had a skirmish line on the bank of the 
river, exchanging shots with the rebels, who were across the 
river on the Columbia side. An old flat boat was found and 
I proposed to General Belknap to take a detail of men and 
cross the river and make a lodgment in Columbia; that eve- 
ning and night a larger body of men could be crossed over, 
and in the morning capture the city, a feat that every soldier 
in Sherman's army would risk his life in doing. 

While some repairs were being made on the boat, General 
F. P. Blair, commander of the iyth Corps, and General Giles 
A. Smith, commander of the 4th Division, came up. The pro- 
posed crossing was submitted to them. General Blair thought 
the undertaking was dangerous, on account of the rocks in the 
river, and only a few troops being crossed over that night 
might result in their capture. He proposed that the boat dur- 
ing the night should be put in good condition, and an organized 
force of men, with the flag of one of the Regiments, under 
command of a field officer, should cross over at daylight in 
the morning of February 17, 1865. 

Lieutenant H. C. Me Arthur, aide-de-camp to General Bel- 
knap, being a carpenter, secured a detail and worked all night 
repairing the boat. As soon as it was light, Colonel Kennedy 
of the 1 3th Iowa, being chosen to take command, took two 
companies of this Regiment with the flag and banner of his 
Regiment, making in all about forty-five men, and was ready 
to cross at the appointed time. 


The first boat load carried over Colonel Kennedy, I3th 
Iowa, and Lieutenant McArthur and myself, both on the staff 
of General Belknap, and about twenty-five officers and men, of 
the First Company, with the flag and banner of the I3th Iowa. 
The crossing was made without accident; the boat was sent 
back with two men and brought over the other company, mak- 
ing in all about fifty officers and soldiers. 

They were deployed as skirmishers, Colonel Kennedy tak- 
ing charge of the center, Lieutenant McArthur the left, and 
myself the right ; we moved in that order into the city. During 
our advance we discovered that General Logan's i5th Army 
Corps had effected a crossing further to our left, and his lines 
could be seen from where we were about two miles to our left, 
advancing. At this time, I captured a horse and buggy. The 
flags, with the men that carried them, Col. Kennedy and Mc- 
Arthur holding on to the back cross bar, and I driving, started 
for the capitol building. Some half a mile from where we 
captured the horse, leaving orders for the companies to follow, 
we drove on a run towards the capitol building. When 
within one block of the building we ran into a squad of 
Wheeler's Cavalry. They fired at us, but our Companies 
showing up about five blocks back, they kept on out of the city, 
much to our satisfaction. 

Colonel Kennedy, Lieutenant McArthur and the color bearer 
of the 1 3th Iowa placed the flag on the Old State House, that 
being occupied at the time. The banner of the i3th was 
taken by the soldier earring it and myself to the New Capitol 
building, which was in an unfinished condition, and was lashed 
to a mast on top of the building. It was nearly an hour before 
any member of the i5th Army Corps reached that part of the 

That is how we of Crocker's Brigade came to be first in 
Columbia, and how the colors of the I3th Iowa came to be 
the first to wave over the capitol building of South Carolina. 

As to the fire: we drove on the main street about six or 
seven blocks ; piled in the middle of the street, for at least four 


blocks, were bales of cotton, piled three and four bales high, 
with their bands cut and on fire. The advance division of 
the 1 5th Army Corps took possession of the city, placed 
guards all over the town, got out two old hand engines, and 
tried to put out the fire that was burning in the bales of cotton. 
The engines were old, the hose poor, and by noon the hose 
was bursted and the engines leaking so as to be worthless. In 
the afternoon, the wind commenced blowing, and fanned the 
fire in the cotton; great flakes of cotton were taken up by the 
wind and carried to distant parts of the city, and fire sprung 
up all over the town, and by dark the wind was blowing a 
hurricaine and carried the fire to every part of the city, and 
the city was on fire in every part. Generals Sherman, Howard, 
Logan and Blair, and the officers of the i5th Army Corps, 
organized details and tried to stop the spread of the fire, but 
the wind and the wooden buildings made it impossible to ac- 
complish anything. 

The fire was started by the confederates, to prevent the 
cotton in the city from falling into Sherman's hands. 

Near the depot, and in the western part of the city the 
streets were also piled with cotton, the depot was filled with 
ammunition, and by an accident while destroying the powder, 
the depot was destroyed. That was early in the morning. 
The fire occasioned by that was confined to the depot. 

In the main part of the city, while the fire was raging, the 
explosion of loaded guns from the heat was as heavy as a 
strong skirmish line, showing a great many last ditch men in 
Columbia. They did not stay to die in that last ditch, but des- 
troyed their own homes by destroying the cotton, while, if 
they had left it, General Sherman would have had it taken to 
a safe place and destroyed, if it had been contraband. 

While the Joint Commission was in session in Washington, 
D. C., in 1873, General Belknap, Secretary of War, called for 
a report from Colonel Kennedy, Lieutenant Me Arthur, and 
myself. Those reports were laid before the Commission, and 
went a long way to convince the Commission who was respon- 


sible for the burning of the city. The bummers who captured 
the city were an organized body of Iowa Soldiers. While they 
felt a pride in the acheivement, there was no man belonging 
to General Sherman's Army felt himself responsible for the 
burning of the homes of the people of Columbia. 

The destruction of- the two bridges across the Congaree 
river did no good to the Confederates, delayed our march 
about twenty-four hours, and gave us a much needed rest. 
No officer or soldier of the Army of the Tennessee, orga- 
nized by Grant, commanded by Sherman, McPherson, and 
Logan, would with malice destroy any city rilled with women 
and children, even if it was in South Carolina. 


Late Captain Company B., i5th Iowa Infantry, 
Brevet Major U. S. Volunteers. 



[HE time had come for Iowa soldiers to receive their 
baptism of fire.. So far, no Iowa man had met a 
foeman in battle. General Nathaniel Lyon had 
chased the rebel General Jackson out of the little town of 
Booneville, on the Mississippi river, and had pursued him in 
a southwesterly direction almost across the turbulent, guerilla- 
tortured ' state of Missouri. General Franz Sigel had been 
ordered to Rolla by rail, with directions to march and inter- 
cept the rebel Jackson, if possible, somewhere in the neighbor- 
hood of Springfield, and crush him before reinforcements 
could reach him from the Ozark mountains. 

General Sigel met Jackson at the village of Carthage, and, 
after a most spirited engagement on the open prairie, was 
defeated and fell back to Springfield. Here, his column was 
joined to the command of General Lyon, who, with his first 
Iowa boys, first Kansas, first Missouri, a couple of battalions 
of regulars, and two regular batteries, had been pursuing 
Jackson across the State, in forced marches. 

Sigel's defeat at Carthage had made possible a junction 
with Jackson of some ten thousand Arkansas and Texas 
troops, under Generals Price, McCulloch and Pearce. 

Undaunted by the increased numbers of the enemy, Lyon 
hurried forward on the ist of August and dispersed one of 
the detached columns of the enemy at Dug Springs, seven- 
teen miles south of Springfield. 

Returning with his troops to Springfield, he paused to con- 
sider the dangerous dilemma in which his army had been 
placed by General Fremont's neglect to re-enforce him from 
the surplus troops at St. Louis and four regiments or more 
camped at Rolla. The danger of the situation had of course 

* This spirited description of the distinguished part taken by the First Iowa 
Infantry in the battle of Wilson's Creek, is from Major S. H. M. Bver's work, 
"Iowa in War Times." 


been aggravated by the defeat of General Sigel at Carthage. 
General Fremont's staff at St. Louis, possessed of more gilt 
epaulettes than military wisdom, seemed quite unconcerned as 
to the fate of the unsupported columns they had pushed into 
the interior of a state rilled with secessionists and guerrillas, 
and partially occupied by a large army. 

Possibly General Fremont, so recently placed in command 
of the district, with headquarters at St. Louis, was not alto- 
gether responsible for the dangerous situation. Certainly he 
was a patriot, if not a tried general. But the troops about 
the city, or arriving, were only half organized, and very 
imperfectly armed. The city was a city of 'secessionists, 
spies, and rebel sympathizers. Chaos reigned, and army 
headquarters were surrounded and apparently controlled by 
a species of army robbers and cormorants who thought more 
of a fat contract than of General Lyon's devoted little army. 
Lyon's repeated appeals for re-enforcements had been in vain. 
No help was even attempted. And yet there was in front of 
him, and preparing to overwhelm him, three different cpl- 
umns, numbering not less than twenty thousand troops. His 
own little army numbered, all told, sick and wounded included, 
but five thousand eight hundred and sixty-eight men. Rolla, 
the nearest point for help, was one hundred and fifty miles 
away. Should he retreat there at once, sacrificing without a 
blow the immense stores and the specie, piled together in 
Springfield, for what purpose no one knew? Should he sac- 
rifice the whole state of Missouri after driving the rebels so 
far before him? Or should he deliver battle, and by hard 
fight make at least retreat possible? 

He trusted in the heroism and patriotism of his men. What 
if the time of service of the Iowa men had expired? One 
appeal to them and they were ready. It was not a question 
of time or pay with them, but country. 

"Will you First Iowa men stay and fight with me?" said 
Lyon to Lieutenant Colonel Merritt, in a private interview of 
the pth of August. 


"Every man of them," replied Merritt. 

That very day the order for the battle was arranged. The 
doubting officers who feared the policy of attacking numbers 
so overwhelming, yielded to the prompt spirit, the recognized 
couaage, the positive character of their leader. It was but 
for Lyon to say the word, and every man in that little army 
became a hero. 

The united rebel army was on Wilson's Creek, but ten miles 
away. They looked upon Lyon's destruction or capture as 
but a question of hours. The order to attack him had already 
been given, but was countermanded, because of rain. Had 
it been carried out, the two armies would have met on the 
prairie, between Wilson's Creek and Springfield. Lyon deter- 
mined to be ahead, and to surprise the rebels that very night 
or by daylight of the morrow. He marched at sundown. 

Contrary to the original plan of General Lyon, and contrary 
to the advice of many of the field officers, General Sigel 
received permission to take his brigade of some two thousand 
men, mounted and unmounted, with six pieces of artillery, 
and march for the enemy's rear right flank by way of the 
road to Fayetteville. This divided the union forces, already 
too small. Sigel alone was -responsible for this mistake. 
General Lyon was to march with the rest of the army, inclu- 
ding the First Iowa, and attack the enemy directly in front. 

Quietly, and with muffled drums, the soldiers marched 
through the darkness. At midnight, Lyon's advance saw the 
fires of the enemy's pickets. The order to halt was given, 
and the soldiers stretched themselves on the wet praire grass 
to sleep to many, their last night's rest and to dream of 
the combat of the morrow. 

The first streaks of. dawn were ushured in with the rattle 
of musketry. Our lines were moving forward, driving the 
enemv's advance skirmishers before them. In an hour the 


rising sun was greeted with the roar of Lyon's artillery. The 
first real battle, in the west, for the preservation of the union, 
had begun, and the forces were as to five to one against us. 


The First Missouri Infantry was immediately pushed for- 
ward in line of battle on the crest of a small hill or elevated 
plateau. To its left, in line, stood the men of the First Kan-, 
sas, fighting like hardened veterans, while the batteries of 
Totten and Dubois hurled twelve shells a minute into the 
thick ranks of the enemy charging the union lines. 

For an hour the First Iowa stood in support of Dubois's bat- 
tery on the left, but early in the engagement it was hurried to 
the help of the First Kansas, now being overpowered by 
superioa numbers. The regiment was under command of 
Lieutenant Colonel Merritt, Colonel Bates being incapacitated 
by illness. In this move forward, two companies of the regi- 
ment were separated from the command by the retreat of 
troops breaking through their ranks. Two other companies 
had been left with Dubois's battery, and the remaining six, 
led by Lieutenant Colonel Merritt, now entered a storm of 
battle that lasted for five hours. 

The main force of the rebels occupied the broad valley of 
the stream, and still others a ridge beyond, running at right 
angles to the union line of battle. From this ridge and valley 
poured the masses of troops that charged and recharged the 
union lines, hoping by sheer foj-ce of numbers to overwhelm 
and drive back flanks and center. It mattered little that the 
ground was strewn with their dead ten times they charged 
that forenoon, and ten times they were driven back from the 
position held by the Iowa and Kansas soldiers and the two 

Further to the left Captain Plummer, of the First regulars, 
with a bare handful of men, two hundred and fifty in number, 
contested hotly for two hours with a force five times as strong 
as his own. To right and left and front, the Iowa and Kansas 
regiments, the men of Missouri, and the trained regulars, con- 
tended desperately with masses of fresh troops hurled upon 
them after every defeated charge. 

Sigel's column, at the rear of the enemey, had been ignomi- 
niously defeated early in the morning. His guns were cap- 


tured, his troops scattered, and he himself in flight for Spring- 
field. Unknown to Lyon, Sigel had ceased to be a factor in 
the contest. 

General Lyon was everywhere along his own line, fearless 
but calm. "Where is Sigel? Why does not Sigel come?" 
was only answered by the shells of Sigel's captured cannon 
screaming into the union ranks. Everywhere there was death. 
Officer after officer fell, the ranks were growing thinner, and 
not once was the word retreat even thought of. At nine 
o'clock brave Lyon fell, a bullet through his heart just as he 
was urging a teriffic counter charge. Twice before, during 
the combat, he had received the enemy's bullets in his body, 
and given no sign of yielding. 

The fight went on. Still the rebels charged, and still were 
driven back. Then came a lull of battle. There was a hur- 
ried consultation of officers on the union line. The gallant 
Major Sturgis had assumed control, and it was now a question 
if retreat were not only honorable, but imperative. For fif- 
teen hours the union soldiers had not tasted a drop of water. 

That moment a force of infantry bearing the American flag 
was seen coming down the hill from the direction where Sigel 
should have been. Was it help at last? Sigel's utter rout 
was not suspected. Could this be he? Closer and closert he 
column came, and then showing its true colors, it fired a blast 
of musketry in the very faces of the waiting union line. Then 
again commenced an encounter more deadly than at any other 
hour in the day. The batteries, the regulars, the First Mis- 
sourians, the First lowans and the Kansas regiments hurled 
into the rebel lines a most terrible fire. There was no retreat 
now only death seemed possible. Fear vanished and des- 
peration seized on every soldier present, till at last, routed and 
driven, the enemy abandoned the field. There was a time of 
silence. The union army, what was left alive of it, gathered 
up its wounded, and, perfectly unmolested, retired to Spring- 
field. Every man in its ranks had been a hero. 

It was 12 o'clock when the union lines retired, and not till 


three days afterward, when they had fallen back to Rolla, did 
the crippled rebel hosts dare to come in and occupy the aban- 
doned town. As our troops fell back from the battle field, 
tired, parched with the hot August sun, wounded and bleed- 
ing, they stopped on the way, greeted each other, and sang a 
song of tfte union. 

That night, while the soldiers slept upon their arms in 
Springfield, a melancholy scene was passing at the headquar- 
ters of the commanding officer. It was a council to decide as 
to what they should next do. On a table beside them, draped 
in a military blanket, lay the bleeding body of General Lyon. 
It was a scene for a tragic artist. When killed in the field, 
the body had been placed on an ambulance, but on returning, 
some soldiers gathering up the wounded, not recognizing the 
body of their dead commander, threw it to the ground, and 
filled the ambulance with the living. Missing it on reaching 
Springfield, the officers sent an escort back for it to the battle- 
field. It was delivered to them by the enemy, and now, like 
the dead body of Hector, lay calm in death, while the com- 
rades of the morning stood wondering what next to do when 
such a man was dead. The body was buried that night in 
the private yard of Mrs. ex-Governor Phelps, a union citizen 
>f the town. 

Long before daylight, the little army, unpursued, was on its 
way to Rolla, carrying with it in perfect safety an enormous 
wagon train with stores and specie. 

Shortly, the First Iowa, the first heoric defenders of the 
state, the heroes of Wilson's Creek, went home and were 
mustered out. In the battle they had lost 160 men, nearly 
twenty of whom were killed, and all the remainder wounded. 
The terribleness of the battle was shown by the list of casual- 
ties. Out of about 5,000 men engaged, the union army lost 
1,235, without counting but a corporal's guard of Sigel's men. 

The rebel loss equaled 3,000 men. "Probably no two 
forces ever fought with greater desperation," says the rebel 
commander, writing to his chief at Richmond. The rebel 


loss in officers was very great. Generals, colonels, and other 
field officers, led their commands in person, and fell in the 
midst of charges. The rebel Colonel Clark's little battalion 
of 200 men had eighty-eight of them killed and wounded. 
Colonel Hughes, with only 650 men, had 112 killed or 
wounded, and thirty missing. Cawthorne's brigade of 1,200 
men lost ninety-six in dead and wounded. Of 5,221 Mis- 
s ourians engaged on the rebel side, 673 were left on the field 
wounded or dead. 

The First Missouri regiment on the union side lost 295 men 
and the First Kansas infantry 284. 

There was a moment in the battle when less than three 
thousand men were resisting the attack of the whole rebel 
army, and there was a time when, for the First Iowa to have 
faltered five minutes, would have lost the day. 

All the soldiers in the union army recognized the supreme 
heroism of the First Iowa. The State and general govern- 
ment rivalled each other in honoring the regiment. Lieutenant 
Coionel Merritt, Major Potter and Captain Herron, were 
complimented in general orders and almost hundreds of the 
regiment received later commissions in other commands. The 
President of the United States ordered a special proclamation 
of thanks for the heroism of the men at Wilson's Creek to be 
read before every regiment in the service. 

" Remember Wilson 's Creek ! Remember the deeds uf the 
First loiva!" wrote Governor Kirk wood to almost every 
Iowa regiment in the service. And they \vere remembered. 
In the four long, bloody years, no Iowa soldier that fought, 
but remembered and emulated his comrades, who fought in 
the first battle of the west. 

Six hundred of that gallant band, on being mustered out, 
re-entered the service in other regiments. Many who served 
in the line or carried muskets on that day of Wilson's Creek, 
achieved high rank and military distinction. Five of them 
became colonels, five became brigadier generals, and three 
who were captains in the line, became full major generals. 

The day was an epoch in the history of a state. 



From General C. W. Darling, Utica, J\ r ew fork. 

Poem on Egyptian Obelisk in Central Park. 

Unpublished Portrait of General Washington. 
From University of California, 

Annual Report for 1887. 

Library Bulletin, No. 8. 

List of Recorded Earthquakes in California and Pacific 

From Neiv York Geneolog ical and Biographical Society, 

Record for January and April, 1888. 
From Hon. Henry Sabin, Superintendent of Public Instruction, 

Iowa School Report, 1887. 
From James Vicks, Rochester, Neiv York, 

Floral Guide for 1888. 
From American Geographical Society, JVeiv York, 

Bulletin for December and March. 

Supplement to Vol. 19. 
From L. Deane, Washington, D. C., 

Biographical Sketch of John G. Deane. 
From IV. E. Historical Genealogical Society, 

Register for January and April 1888. 

Proceedings of Annual Meeting, January 4th, 1888. 
From Department of State, Washington, D. C., 

Reports for the Consuls Nos. 86, 87, 88, 89. 

Technical Education in Europe. 

Budgets and Budget Legislation in Foreign Countries. 
From Rev. C. D. Bradlee, Boston, 

Fourteen Pamphlets. 
From W. B. Saunders, Philadelphia, 

Catalogue of Rare Books. 
From Wisconsin Historical Society, 

Proceedings of 35th Annual Meeting. 


from Hon. haac Smucker, Newark, Ohio, 

Eleven Women and Thirteen Men. 
From Captain Wm. H. Goodrcll, 

Blue Book for 1 860-61. 
From Signal Office, Washington, 

Monthly Weather Review as published. 
From Comptroller of Currency, 

Annual Report 1887, Vol. i. 
From Bureau of Ethnology, Washington, D. C., 

Bibliography of the Eskino Language. 

The use of Gold and other Metals. 

Perforated Stones from California. 

Work in Mound Explorations. 

Bibliography of the Siodan Languages. 
From Bureau of Statistics, Washington, D. C '., 

Quarterly Report ending June 3Oth, 1887. 

Quarterly Report, 1887-8. 

Statistical Abstract of the United States, loth number. 
From Historical and Philosophical Society, Cincinnati, O., 

Annual Report for 1887. 
From Secretary of State, Des Moines, loiva, 

Twenty Copies each Supreme Court Reports, Vol. 71, 72. 
From Trustees of JVewberry Library, Chicago, 

Proceedings of Trustees to January 5th, 1888. 
From Department of Interior, Washington, 

Blue Book, 1887, Vol. i. 
From Massachusetts Historical Society, 

Proceedings 1886-7, Vol. 3. 

Collections of Society, Vol. 10. 
From Dr. Samuel A. Green, Boston, 

Proceedings of Trustees of the Peabody Education Fund. 

The West Church, Boston. 

Boston Municipal Register. 

Sixteenth Annual Report of Board of Health. 

Annual Report of President, Treasurer of Harvard College. 

Annual Report of Industrial Aid Society. 


Congregational Churches, Nova Scotia. 

Inaugeration of Wm. H. Payne, as Chancellor of the Uni- 
versity of Nashville, Tennessee. 

The Channing Home Report, No. 19. 

Sixteen Miscellanous Pamphlets. 
From Western Reserve and North Ohio Historical Society, 

Tract No. 72. 

Archaeology of Ohio by McRead. 
From Library Company, Philadelphia, 

Bulletins for Iowa. 
From John Hopkins' University., Brltimore, Md., 

European Schools of History and Politics. 
From California Historical Society, 

Papers of Society, Vol. i, part 2. 
From Bureau of Education, Washington, D. C., 

Report of Commissioners, 1885-6. 

Proceedings of National Educational Association. 
From American Anttquarien Society, 

Proceedings, Vol. 5, part i, 18.87. 
From Mercantile Library Association, San Francisco, 

Thirty-fifth Annual Report, 1887. 
Prom Hon. Z. C. Luse, Iowa City, 

Twenty-five Copies, Annals of Iowa. 

Ten Miscellanous Pamphlets. 
From American Public Health Association, Concord, JV. H., 

Four Pamphlets. 
From Historical Society of Pennsylvania, 

Their Magazine for January and April. 
From Hon. T. S. Parvin, Cedar Rapids, 

Grand Consistory of Iowa, 1868-74. 
From Hon. J. Foster, London, England, 

The Members of the University of Oxford, 1715-1886. 
From War Department, Washington, D. C., 

Annual Report of Chief of Engineers U. S. Army, 1886, 

3 Vols. 
From Minnesota Historical Society, St. Paul, 

Catalogue of Society, Vol. i and 2. 


From Treasury Department, Washington, D. C., 

Annual Report of Secretary, 1887. 
From Boston Public Library, 

Bulletin Vol. i, No. 8. 
From Capt. John G. Bonrke, U. S. Army, Washington, D. C., 

Notes and Memoranda upon Human Ordure and Human 

Mind in Rites of a Religious Character. 
From Rhode Island Historical Society, 

Proceedings 1887-88. 
From Buffalo Historical Society, 

Annual Report, 1888. 
From Bureau of the Mint, Washington, D. C., 

Annual Reports of Directors, 1887, 10 Vols. 

Productions of Precious Metals, 3 Pamphlets. 
From Canadian Institute, Toronto, Canada, 

Annual Report, 1887. 

Proceedings April, 1888. 
From Mrs. Ben Line, Iowa City, 

Trial and Execution of Elizabeth Wilson, Chester, Pa. 1786. 
From Hon. W. B. Allison, Washington, 

Vol. 12, Tenth Census, part 2. 
From Hon. A. H. Garland, Atfy. General Washington, D. C., 

Annual Report, 1886-7, 2 Vols. 

Quarrantine Laws of United States. 

Immigration Laws of United States. 
From Bureau of JVavagation, Washington, 

Report of- Commissioner, 1887. 
From R. A. McChesney, Iou>a City, 

Record Book Johnson County Agricultural and Mechanical 

Society, 1853-56. 
From Chief of Engineers, Washington, D. C., 

Annual Report, 1887, 4 Vols. 
From Ladies Calhoun Monument Association, Charleston, S. C., 

A History of the Calhoun Monument. 
From Minnesota Academy of Nat. Science, Minneapolis, Minn. 

Five Pamphlets. 


From Tennessee Historical Society, Nashville, 

Ancient Society in Tennessee, by G. P. Thurston. 
From Essex Institute, Salem, Massachusetts, 

Historical Collections, July, August, and September, 1887. 

Bulletins Nos. 4 to 12, 1887. 
From Publishers, 

The Manifesto as published. 
From Worcester Society of Antiquity, 

Proceedings, 1887. 
From Oneida Historical Society, Utica, New York, 

Memorial of Rev. Charles Chauncey Darling, Wife and 

Son, by General W. Darling. 
From W. H. Egle, State Librarian, Harrisburg, Pa. 

Eleven Volumes of Reports. 
From Virginia Historical Society, Richmond, Va., 

Historical Collections, Virginia Co., 1619-1624. 
From Publishers, Boston, 

Education as published. 

Common School Education as published. 
From Chief of Ordiances, Washington, D. C., 

Annual Report, 1887. 
From Publishers, 

American Antiquarien, January, March, and April. 
From Publishers, Dubuque, Iowa, 

Dubuque Trade Journal. 
From Publishers, Boston, 

The N. E. Magazine for March. 
From Pnblishers, 

Maine Historical and Geneological Record. 
From Publishers, Concord, N. H., 

The Granite Monthly Magazine. 



From Arch Her shire, loiua City, 

Commission from Robt. Lucas, Governor of Territory of 
Iowa, Appointing Philip Clark Justice of the Peace for 
Johnson County, dated January, 1839. 

From Dr. J. L. Pickard, Iowa City, 

The Connecticut Courant, October 2pth, 1764, fac simile of 
first paper ever issued by Benj. Franklin, February nth, 

1723, and printed on a press first used by him, Septem- 
ber i7th, 1856. 
Christian Banner, Frederick, Va., July 14, 1862. 

Oleograph of Munkacsv's "Great Painting," Christ before 

From Captain W. H. Goodrcll, 

Badges of Crocker's Brigade Reunion, held at Davenport, 
September 2ist and 22d, 1887. 

Resolutions passed by Cloutman Post, G. A. R. and Address 
by General W. W. Belknap on the death of General J. 
M. Hedrick. 
From A. Beer maker, loiva City, 

Specimens from the Distillery Fire. 
From Dr. C. M. Hobby, 

Map of United States, published in 1833. 
From Hon. T. S. Parvin, Cedar Rapids, 

Steel Engraving of Himself and Wife. 

Steel Engraving of General James A. Garfield. 

Engraving of Grand Lodge Library Building, Cedar Rapids. 
From U. S. Geological Survey Office, 

Chart of Mineral Products of United States. 
From A. K. Rogers, 

Map of Grand Army Reunion. 
From General John Pattee, 

His Photograph, framed. 
From L. M. Coovev, 

Natural Hickory Maul. 
From Robert A. Bane, Penn Township, 

Specimen of Natural Ingrafting of a Tree. 


From "John I. Pla>ik, Sharon Centre, 

Four very old Bank Bills. 
From Miss Margaret Lee, Iowa City, 

Book Binders Plough Cutter used in Binding the first Book 

in Iowa, also the first Code of Iowa. 
From Mrs. General James Wilson, Newton, Iowa. 

Headquarters Flag of zyth Army Corps First Flag raised 
on the Court House at Vicksburg after the Surrender. 
fac simile of the Secession Ordinance of South Carolina. 
From E. A. Bollard, Iowa City, 

Reaping Sickle used by Benj. S wisher in 1840, at Forest 
Oak Farm, Johnson County, Iowa. 


GENERAL WARNER LEWIS, born in Goochland County, 
Virginia, but a pioneer of Iowa from the earliest days, died at 
his home in Dubuque, on the 4th of last May, aged 
eighty-three years. General Lewis came to the Northwest 
as early as 1828, and served in the Blackhawk War. He 
was among the very earliest settlers of Iowa in Dubuque 
County, which he represented in the Territorial and State 
Legislatures, serving one or more terms as Speaker of the 
House. Under the Presidencies of Pierce and Buchanan he 
was Surveyer General of Iowa, Wisconsin, and Minnesota. 
He was also for twenty-four years Recorder of Dubuque 
County. General Lewis was a distant relative of Washington, 
and his wife, who survives him, is a relative of General LaFay- 
ette. Their married life covered a period of fifty-seven years. 

GENERAL WASHINGTON L. ELLIOTT, the first Colonel of 
the 2d Iowa Cavalry, died suddenly in San Francisco, Cali- 
fornia, on the 29th of last June, in the office of the Safe 
Deposit and Trust Company, of which he was Vice President. 
General Elliott was a son of the late Commodore Jesse D. 
Elliott, U. S. Navy, and was a native of Pennsylvania. He 
was a cadet at West Point for three years, entering the 


Academy in 1841. Two years after leaving West Point, at 
the beginning of the Mexican War, he was appointed a second 
lieutenant in the Mounted Rifle Regiment, with which he 
served throughout General Scott's campaigns in Mexico. 
After this till the beginning of the Rebellion he served on the 
western plains against the Indians in Wyoming, New Mexico, 
and Texas. He was a captain of his regiment when the 
Rebellion came, and was appointed by Governor Kirkwood 
Colonel of the 2d Iowa Cavalry, on the organization in 1861 
of that Regiment, which he did much to make famous among 
the many distinguished regiments of Iowa. With the brigade 
composed of the Second Iowa and Second Michigan Cavalry, 
he made the first cavalry raid of the war, behind Beauregard's 
Army at Corinth, for which he was made a brigadier general. 
After serving in the second Bull Run campaign, he had tem- 
porary command of the Department of the Northwest during 
the winter of 1862-3, and in March of the latter year com- 
manded a brigade in the Eighth Army Corps in the Shenan- 
doah Valley. In the defeat of Milrov at Winchester, June 
1 5th, 1863, he cut through the enemy's lines and brought off 
his brigade with small loss. Subsequent to this he had com- 
mand of the Third Division of the Third Army Corps, in the 
Army of the Potomac. In October, 1863, on the joint appli- 
cation of Generals Rosecrans and Thomas, he was returned 
to the western part of the great theatre of war, and was given 
command of the three cavalry divisions of the Army of the 
Cumberland. He greatly distinguished himself in the last 
Tennessee winter campaign of 1863-4 against Longstreet. 
During the Atlanta campaign he commanded the Cavalry of 
General Thomas' army, the Army of the Cumberland. Dur- 
ing Thomas' campaign in defense of Nashville, in November 
and December, 1864, General Elliott had command of Sheri- 
dan's old division, the second of the Fourth Army Corps, at 
the head of which he carried Hood's works near the Overton 
house, before Nashville. After the battle of Nashville, he 
was promoted brevet major general for distinguished gal- 


lantry in action. He retained command of his division till 
August, 1865, when he was assigned to the command of the 
District of Kansas, with headquarters at Leavensworth, which 
he relinquished when mustered out of the volunteer service, 
in March, 1866, and returned to the regular service as Lieu- 
tenant Colonel of the 3d U. S. Cavalry, of which regiment he 
was afterwards promoted to the full colonelcy. General Elliott 
was one of those singled out by an Army Board, consisting of 
Generals Sherman, Meade, and Thomas, for the honor of 
promotion to the rank of brevet major general of the regular 
Army for distinguished service during the war. In 1879, 
having become incapacitated for field service, he was, at his 
own request, placed on the retired list of the Army, after 
thirty -three years service. Since his retirement he has 
resided in San Francisco. General Elliott was a fine looking 
soldier, urbane in manner, and glorious in battle. So do the 
veterans, one by one, drop from the ranks of life to join the 
wraiths of comrades who have taken the advance to the spirit 


GENERAL WM. McE. DYE, the first colonel of the 2oth 
Iowa Infantry, is now in the employ of the government of 
Corea, engaged in the organization of the army of that little 

A RESOLUTION has been introduced into the lower house 
of Congress looking to the establishment of a National Army 
and Navy Museum, to be under the auspices of the govern- 
ment, and devoted to the collection and preservation of relics 
of the naval and military history of the country. As a begin- 
ning, should the plan gain favor with Congress, an American 
citizen residing in France has expressed his intention of pre- 
senting to the government a collection of armor, the finest in 
the world, and worth more than a million of dollars. Other- 
wise this collection will be placed in the Smithsonian Institute. 

CORRECTION. In line 2d from bottom of page 104, for $5,000 read $=500. 


VOL. IV. OCTOBER, 1888. No. 4. 


EONARD FULTON ROSS is a native of Illinois, 
having been born July i8th, 1823, near Lewiston, 
Fulton countv, and was partly named for the 
county, which had its organization the same year he was born. 
Ossian M. Ross, his father, a native of Dutchess county, New 
York, removed to Illinois in 1820. He had been a soldier in 
the war of 1812, and took part in suppressing the Indian dis- 
turbance of 1827, known as the Winnebago war. He was a 
farmer and stock-raiser, a merchant and general business man, 
and was the proprietor of the town of Lewiston, where he had 
a store of general merchandise, and where the Indians were 
his chief customers. In 1829 the elder Ross removed with 
his family to Havana, on the Illinois river, of which town he 
was also proprietor. Here, in addition to his former occupa- 
tion, he kept a hotel and a ferry across the river, and so con- 
tinued until his death in January, 1837. 

Until fourteen years of age, young Ross was chiefly occu- 
pied as clerk in his father's store, running the ferry boat, and, 
once a week, in looking up his father's cattle and horses, 
which in summer roamed over the prairie. Up to this time 
he had had but little schooling, except during one winter spent 


in the private school of Chas. E. Blood, a student of Illinois 
College, who was employed as a private tutor in the Ross 

After his father's death his mother removed with her family 
back to Fulton county, and established their home at Canton, 
where there were better school advantages, and where he was 
prepared for college under the tutorage of Ralph Perry, an- 
other student of Illinois College, and now a retired clergyman 
of Agawam, Massachusetts. In 1841 he entered Illinois Col- 
lege, where for a year he devoted his time to such studies as 
were embraced in the usual college course of that day. 

Gen. Ross came to Iowa as early as 1842, and can thus lay 
claim to fellowship with the pioneers of the State. The sum- 
mer and autumn of that year were spent by him in a tour 
through southern Wisconsin and eastern Iowa trying to make 
collections of moneys due the estate of his father, whose death 
had occurred just before the financial crash of 1837. Those 
owing him had removed to the new territories north and west 
of Illinois. Thither young Ross followed them on horse back 
by way of Galena, to Wisconsin. Failing of success in the 
latter Territory, he sold his horse, and took steamer down the 
Mississippi to Fort Madison, Iowa. From here, after a visit 
to the new town of Nauvoo on the Illinois side of the river, he 
proceeded to Fairfield, Jefferson County, and thence to the 
Indian Agency, now Agency City, and from there to the In- 
dian Trading House on the Des Moines river, near the present 
location of the city of Ottumwa, kept by Capt. William Phelps, 
an old friend of the Ross family, his wife being a cousin to 
young Ross. On this occasion he also visited the town of 
Brighton in Washington county. 

His efforts at making collections were not very successful, 
for those were the days when it took about three bushels of 
corn to pay the postage on a single letter, but he tarried at 
the Phelps trading house several months. While he was 
there anew treaty was entered into with the Indians and a further 
purchase of lands made. The present site of the city of Des 


Moines, known then as the " Raccoon Forks," was selected 
as the place for a Fort and a new Agency. Through Capt. 
Phelps' interest, young Ross was permitted to accompany the 
Agent and the Traders and their cavalry and Indian escorts up 
the Des Moines river to the " Raccoon Forks," and as a means 
of transportation for himself he exchanged one of the notes 
due his father's estate for an Indian pony. It proved a delight- 
ful trip to him, the unsurpassed native loveliness of the Des 
Moines Valley before the trees had been felled and the sod 
turned by the white man adding its charms to the other sur- 
roundings of the journey. 

So favorably was he impressed with what he had seen in 
Iowa, that, on his return to Illinois in November, it was with 
the firm determination of coming back some day and making 
Iowa his home. This resolution he faithfully kept, but it took 
forty years for its consummation he made Iowa his home in 
September, 1882, and soon after coming here purchased his 
present residence, the beautiful " Mount Prospect Farm," half 
a mile from the corporate limits of Iowa City to the southeast. 
The years 1843 and 1844 were spent by Gen. Ross in the 
study of law in the office of Davidson & Kellogg of Canton, 111., 
and in the summer of 1845, having been admitted to the bar, 
he opened an office for practice in Vermont, Fulton County, 
and in November of this year he was married to Miss Cather- 
ine M. Simms. At Vermont, a little one story cottage was 
purchased for his home, the consideration being four hundred 
and twenty-five dollars, only twenty-five dollars of which was 
paid at the time, the balance being in notes of hand. The 
population of the town of Vermont being chiefly composed of 
members of the Society of Friends, whose avoidance of litiga- 
tion among themselves, and whose pacific influence over 
others is proverbial, the young lawyer's business was at first 
mostly confined to the drawing of deeds and trying occasional 
cases in justices' courts outside of the peaceful influence of 
the Quakers at Vermont. Nevertheless, one of the happiest 
years of his life, as Gen. Ross now avers, was spent among 


these " peaceful, benevolent, kind-hearted and thrifty people." 
" I never think of them," he adds, "but to bless them." "And 
had it not been for the Mexican war," he continues, " I might 
still be living in my little white cottage surrounded by these 
best of God's people." 

The Mexican war changed the whole course of his life. 
" American blood had been shed on American soil by a foreign 
foe." Congress declared that war had been inaugurated by 
the act of Mexico. A call was made for volunteers, and it 
seemed that nearly every one wanted to go. Gen. Ross's 
eldest brother, L. W. Ross, who had had some experience in 
military matters by service in the Winnebago and Blackhawk 
wars, organized a company, and his youngest brother, Pike C. 
Ross, had become a member of it. Our Ross also joined 
and was elected Orderly Sergeant, but before the company 
was formally accepted the three Regiments called for from 
Illinois were full. Col. E. D. Baker was then a member of 
Congress from Illinois, and as he obtained permission to raise 
another Regiment, the company containing the three Ross 
brothers was received and afterwards became Campany K of 
the 4th Regiment Illlinois Volunteers. As there was some 
doubt about the 4th Regiment being accepted, Gen. Ross did 
not go into camp with the company, but learning soon after- 
wards that the Regiment had been mustered into the service 
and would in a short time leave for the seat of war, he pro- 
ceeded at once to Jefferson Barracks, Missouri, the rendezvous 
of the Regiment, and reached there the day before it started 
for New Orleans. The office of Orderly Sergeant in the com- 
pany had been rilled by appointment before mustering into 
service, so he took his place in the ranks as a private soldier. 
Before he was regularly mustered into service, his brother 
Pike called him aside and delivered a very kind and brotherly 
lecture. He thought two brothers from the same family were 
enough for the army, and he considered it the duty of our 
Ross to go home and attend to matters there, but the latter 
persisted in going. 


The 4th Illinois, with all its Rosses, left Jefferson Barracks 
July 23d, 1846, and went by steamboat to New Orleans. 
Here it was transferred to sailing vessels and landed at Brazos 
Santiago about August yth, and soon debarked for an encamp- 
ment on the Rio Grande. It was at this first encampment 
that Col. Baker was so severely wounded in trying to suppress 
a riot in one of the Georgia regiments. 

While encamped on the Rio Grande, vacancies occurred in 
the offices of First and Brevet Second Lieutenants of Company 
K. In the Mexican war there were three Lieutenants to each 
company. The extra one was a Brevet Second Lieutenant, 
usually called Third Lieutenant. The First and Third Lieu- 
tenants of Company K were compelled to resign on account of 
severe illness, and on an election being ordered, Gen. Ross 
was chosen First Lieutenant of his Company. 

After changing camp twice on the Rio Grande, moving 
each time further up the river, the Regiment was ordered to 
Camargo, and reached there about the middle of September. 
Up to this time the Regiment had belonged to the command 
of Gen. Shields, but at Camargo it was placed under the com- 
mand of Gen. Pillow, and Shields was transferred to another 
field. The Fourth remained at Camargo nearly three months. 
Earlv in December it was ordered to Matamoras, and went 
into a camp known as Camp Patterson, situated ten or twelve, 
miles south-west of the city. 

While in camp near Matamoras, the Captain of Company 
K, who, as before stated, was the brother of our Ross, was 
called to the city on official business, which left the latter, now 
First Lieutenant, in command of the Company, a responsibility 
which had not before fallen upon him. There was in the 
Company, a soldier, an elderly man, who had always been de- 
tailed for hospital duty from the first arrival of the Regiment 
in Mexico, and had been excused from all other duty. At this 
time, however, the sick of the Regiment had been left in 
general hospital, and in making detail for guard he was put on 
the list. On being notified he flatly refused to perform guard 


duty. So he was arrested, placed in confinement, and his 
place supplied by another. The next morning, Lieutenant 
Ross sent him word that if he would go on guard and per- 
form his duty he would be released from confinement and 
exempt from further punishment, but his reply was that the 
guard house was not an unpleasant place and he proposed 
remaining there. He was allowed to remain. About noon 
Gen. Pillow's Orderly called upon Lieutenant Ross and said 
that the General wished the Lieutenant to call at his Head- 
quarters. Upon obeying the order he found that the culprit 
was there before him and had made a fair statement of the 
cause of the trouble. The General, addressing Lieutenant 
Ross, said, " You are Lieutentant Ross, I believe. This man, 
by his own confession, has wilfully disobeyed your orders. I 
now order you, sir, to have him placed in a conspicuous place 
in your company quarters in the hot sun, have a flour barrel 
put over his head, and keep him there without anything to eat 
or drink until released by my order." Ross took occasion to 
explain to the General that the soldier had been very faithful 
as an attendant at the hospital, that he considered himself ex- 
empt from all other duties, and that if informed by the Com- 
manding General of his obligations as a soldier there would be 
no need of punishment. Upon this, the General became quite 
excited and very emphatic in his manner and declared that 
Ross should see the order rigidly enforced or suffer the con- 
sequences himself of disobedience. The order was executed, 
but the man having the sympathies of his comrades many de- 
vices were resorted to by them to lighten his punishment 
which were winked at by the kind-hearted Lieutenant, who 
had no option but to carry out the orders of his superior. 

Pillow was ever unpopular with the Illinois soldiers, and 
was nick-named by them "the Corporal." His unnecessary 
severity in this and other cases rendered him an object of uni- 
versal dislike. So much so that the Fourth Illinois became 
unendurable to him and he to them. For this reason the 
Regiment was soon transferred to the command of General 


At Camp Patterson, Lieutenant Ross suffered his first and 
only severe illness while in Mexico, which prevented him accom- 
panying his Regiment when it started for Victoria in the latter 
part of December. After remaining in the Matamoras hospi- 
tal about a week he was so far improved in health as to be en- 
abled to report to the Commandant of the post that he was 
ready for duty and would join his company at the earliest 
opportunity. It was but a short time before he received notice 
to get ready to go through to Victoria as the bearer of dis- 
patches to Generals Taylor and Patterson. It took him but 
an hour to get ready and report at headquarters for duty. 
There was some little delay in making up his cavalry escort, 
which was composed of young men, mostly boys belonging 
to Kentucky and Tennesse cavalry regiments, who, like him- 
self, were just out of the hospital. When the outfit was com- 
pleted he found it to consist of twenty mounted men, an old 
Mexican as guide, and a young German as interpreter. All 
were provided with three days' rations for themselves and 
horses. Ross himself was furnished with a fine government 
horse for his own use and fifty dollars to defray expenses after 
the rations were exhausted. He was handed a sealed pack- 
age for General Taylor and another for General Patterson. Also 
written instructions to proceed with them to Victoria with all 
possible dispatch and to destroy the papers rather than have 
them fall into the hands of the enemy. 

After the first half day's ride one of his men became so ill 
that he had to be sent back to Matamoras, and the trip was 
made with the remaining nineteen men, reaching Victoria, a 
distance of three hundred miles, in six days. Of the two 
Generals for whom he had dispatches General Patterson was 
the first found. On reading the one addressed him he re- 
marked, " And you have also something for General Taylor." 
Ross replied that he had, and would proceed at once to his 
headquarters. " But," said the General, " You must be very 
tired after your long ride. What you have for General Tay- 
lor I will send over by my orderly. You may dismiss your 


men and report to the commanding officer of your regiment." 
This to Ross was a sad disappointment. He had promised 
himself much satisfaction in calling on General Taylor and 
presenting dispatches to the man who in less than five months 
in the previous year had fought and won the three great bat- 
tles of Palo Alto, Resaca de la Palma and Monterey, and 
whose fame was world-wide. The disappointment was great 
indeed. There was this satisfaction, however. He and his 
gallant regiment were now a part of the army of the renowned 
General, and he should soon see him, and perhaps some day 
know him. This was about the I4th of January, 1847. The 
next day, while calling upon some of his acquaintances, he 
learned that General Taylor had moved out early that morn- 
ing in a northerly direction. Two days later General Patter- 
son, to whose command the 4th Illinois now belonged, 
moved south, destined for Tampico. General Taylor returned 
to Monterey, and a month later fought the terribly destructive 
battle of Buena Vista. Lieutenant Ross never had the satisfac- 
tion of seeing him. 

A march of two hundred and fifty miles south brought the 
4th Illinois to Tampico, where it found its old General Shields 
in command of the city, when it soon again became a part of 
his command, and so continued until he was wounded at the 
battle of Cerro Gordo. 

It must have been about the ist of February when Lieutenant 
Ross arrived at Tampico with his regiment, and they were 
encamped near the city until March 7th, when they embarked 
on the ship Sharon for Vera Cruz. They were delayed till 
the pth before they set sail, and then there was no wind to 
move the vessel. On the I2th they were but eighteen miles 
from Tampico, but the next night a heavy wind arose and on 
the morning of the I4th they were twenty-five miles south of 
Vera Cruz. The ship began beating up the coast, but before 
it reached harbor another severe storm compelled it to go 
again to sea. For four days their transport was driven about 
^he Gulf, out of sight of land, by the fierce winds. On the 


ipth the storm subsided, and in the afternoon the Sharon, 
with the 4th Illinois, was safe in Sacrificias Harbor, three 
miles south of Vera Cruz. Cannonading had been heard the 
day before by those on board the Sharon. On landing on 
March 2Oth, the 4th Illinois learned that General Scott, with the 
main body of his army, had been there about a week, and the city 
was encircled by our troops. The 4th Illinois was assigned a 
position in the line of investment on the old Orizaba road, and 
about one mile and a half from the city. The work of erect- 
ing batteries was in progress, and the American working par- 
ties were constantly undxir fire from the forts of the city. On 
the 22d.some of the United States mortars were in position 
and opened on the city and kept up a constant fire all night. 
The Mexican forts ceased firing about dark. On the morning 
of the 23d the firing was brisk on both sides. Orders were 
given for five companies of the 4th Illinois to go as a working 
party to aid in constructing what was called the Naval Bat- 
tery, three other companies to go to guard the men while 
at work. Lieutenant Ross's company was one of those de- 
tailed as a guard. The working party was emploved during 
the night in mounting guns and digging away a sand-hill be- 
hind which the Naval Batterv had been erected. This battery 
consisted of six heavy guns, four of which were sixty-eight 
pound Paxon guns. 

Before daylight of the 24th the sand-hill had been hauled 
down, and the six guns were in position and pointing towards 
the city, with no intervening object. But the besiegers were 
not ready to begin work with this battery. It was so near 
the city and so exposed to the fire of the city forts that it 
could not be safely approached even from the rear excepting 
by night, and during the previous night but little ammunition 
had been brought to the battery, not enough to last during 
the day. Brush and boughs of trees were placed in front of 
our guns in order, if possible, to prevent discovery of the bat- 
tery until the next day, when it was expected a full supply of 
.ammunition \vould be received. So the eight companies of 


the 4th Illinois and the sailors who were to man the battery- 
were lying quietly and securely behind the sand-hills awaiting 
the return of darkness. 

The morning was wearing away, and up to ten o'clock the 
Americans were unmolested, but at that time a cannon ball 
whistled over their heads. Then another and another. The 
Mexicans had evidently just discovered that one of the sand- 
hills had undergone a change during the night and were try- 
ing to ascertain what it meant. Soon all the forts in the city 
seemed to be firing at the sand-hill of the 4th Illinois. The 
brave sailors could stand it no longer. They jumped up in 
front of their guns, tore away the brush, ran out their guns 
and returned the fire. It soon became quite interesting. Our 
large guns when discharged shook the hills, and those around 
them could plainly hear the- balls crashing through the walls 
and buildings of the city. The firing on our side was kept up 
until 2 o'clock p. m., when the ammunition was exhausted. 
During the contest four sailors were killed aud others wound- 
ed. The Mexican forts continued their fire on the battery 
until night, but with little damage. When dark that evening 
the companies of the 4th Illinois were ordered back to their 
regimental quarters, and a force consisting of three full regi- 
ments took their places to guard the Naval Battery during the 

Early on the morning of March 2 5th the United States bat- 
teries opened on the city in earnest. The infantry had noth- 
ing to do after their guards had been stationed but to stand 
out on the surrounding sand-hills and witness the bombard- 
ment of the city. It was a grand sight and was kept up until 
the 2yth of March when a proposal of surrender was made 
and the city and castle were in possession of our troops. 

After the surrender, Lieutenant Ross obtained permission 
to visit the city with some other officers. On entering at the 
main gate, one of the first persons he met was a private of 
his company. Knowing that private soldiers had not yet 
been granted permission to visit the city, he went to him 


directly to ascertain what he was doing there and how he had 
gained admission. The man was in charge of a guard, mov- 
ing toward the guard-house. He informed the Lieutenant 
that when the surrender was made he and two or three others 
of his company had found holes in the city wall made by our 
cannon, and that they had gone in to get, if possible, a good 
dinner, and that his comrades were already in the guard-house. 
Lieutenant Ross called upon the officer of the guard, and 
having explained the situation obtained an order to have all of 
his men turned over to him. Having reached the guard-house 
Ross called for all who belonged to Company K 4th Illinois, 
to march out into the street. To his surprise twenty-five or 
thirty men came forth and all claimed to belong to his com- 
pany. Among them were representatives of all arms of the 
service and several sailors. The officer of the guard smilingly 
observed that pretty nearly all of Ross's company seemed to 
be in the guard-house. He had to confess that there were 
more of them than he had expected, and promised to see them 
out of the city, when they would join their comrades. They 
were then turned over to him, taken to the gates, and being 
ordered to report to their commands, all left in a very happy 

After the surrender, the American army could not move 
because of lack of transportation, for about ten days or two 
weeks. While awaiting orders to move our officers and men 
amused themselves as best they could. They visited different 
portions of the city to see the terrible effect of their cannon- 
ading, and commissioned officers were permitted to go in 
boats half a mile in front of the city and examine the castle of 
San Juan d' Ulloa. It was surprising to see how many com- 
'missioned officers the 4th Illinois contained. Some entire 
companies, if judged by the number occasionally found in 
officers' uniforms, were entirely composed of commissioned 
officers. An American theatrical company followed the 
army, and upon the surrender American plays were performed 
in the theatre of Vera Cruz. They were mainly attended by 


officers and soldiers of the army, but occasionally a Mexican 
or the representative of some foreign government might be 
seen in the audience. Many of the actors were soldiers from 
the ranks of our army, and at every performance were heard 
some of our national songs. " The Star Spangled Banner " 
would set the soldiers wild with huzzas, or " Sweet Home " 
would melt them to tears. 

It was about the loth of April before the 4th Illinois got 
away from Vera Cruz. Information had come that Santa 
Anna with a large army was strongly fortified at or near 
Cerro Gordo, some forty or fifty miles distant. The 4th Illi- 
nois reached the -encampment of General Twiggs at Rio del 
Plan about the I3th, and expected to make an attack the next 
morning, but the regiment was delayed nearly a week waiting 
the arrival of more troops from Vera Cruz. Several recon- 
noitering parties went out while the troops were waiting, in 
order to learn the exact location of the enemy and the nature 
of his works. With twenty men detailed from the 4th 
Illinois, Lieutenant Ross was directed to accompany and pro- 
tect Generals Shields, Colonel Baker and Major Harris while 
they made an examination of the enemy's works on the ex- 
treme right. While on this expedition the party was for a 
while under fire. 

On the afternoon of April iyth the regular troops engaged 
the enemy on an unfortified hill lying between the camp of 
the 4th Illinois and the main hill of Cerro Gordo. TQ 
the summit of this high, steep hill two cannons were pulled 
that night by Shield's Brigade who were compelled to stop 
often to remove the bodies of Mexicans that were left dead 
upon the field from the engagement of that day. In establish- 
ing these cannons the 4th Illinois took a prominent and* 
active part. 

After this severe work, which lasted nearly all night, the 
troops had but two or three hours rest before forming to go 
into battle. The impression was quite general that Shield's 
Brigade, of which the 4th Illinois formed a part, was to 


compose a portion of the force for taking the main hill by 
assault, but this did not prove to be true. As Shields's Brigade 
moved out from behind the hill on which it had hauled the can- 
non the previous night, Cerro Gordo was in plain sight to those 
composing it, who were treated to a generous supply of ball and 
grape-shot. Instead of going up the main hill, the Brigade 
was led around the base. About the time the Brigade became 
exposed to the fire of the forces on Cerro Gordo, General 
Harney, who led the storming party, passed down from the 
hill in our possession and began to ascend Cerro Gordo. The 
firing from the heights was then divided between the forces 
commanded by Generals Harney and Shields, respectively. 
About the time that General Harney had captured the main 
hill, General Shields had turned the enemy's left flank, had 
reached the rear of the Mexican army, and was engaged with 
their reserve forces and General Santa Anna's body-guard. 
In crossing an open field that was swept by a Mexican battery 
General Shields fell, as was supposed, mortally wounded. 
Colonel Baker then took command of the Brigade. The 
battery was captured and the fighting soon finished. 

Many prisoners, a large amount of specie, and General 
Santa Anna's headquarters were taken. Many soldiers 
secured trophies from General Santa Anna's tent. One of the 
4th Illinois took home his wooden leg. 

After leaving a guard to care for prisoners and captured 
property, Colonel Baker ordered the Brigade to pursue that 
portion of the enemy which had escaped. Seeing a number 
of cavalry horses without riders, the volunteers mounted 
them. All who could do so secured horses for the pursuit. 
About this time General Twiggs made his appearance in their 
'midst, and joined in the pursuit, but apparently with none of 
his command with him. There were not more than four or 
five hundred men in this pursuing party. They pushed on at 
a double-quick rate, and must have gone ten or twelve miles 
when they came upon a large force in their front, and received 
a fire from the rear guard. Bodies of the enemy were seen 


to the right and left. A halt was ordered, and while the men 
were lying on the ground resting, a large cavalry force was 
seen in the rear coming at full speed. It looked as if the pur- 
suers stood a fair chance of being captured. The men were 
ordered to form a square to resist the cavalry, but before this 
was done it was discovered that they were United States 
cavalry, and they were not resisted, but passed on and followed 
the enemy to the gates of Jalapa, capturing many more 
prisoners. The pursuing party from Shields's Brigade, among 
whom was Lieutenant Ross, encamped for the night near the 
place where they had first halted. In the morning General 
Patterson passed them with an escort of cavalry. As Lieuten- 
ant Ross still held possession of his captured horse, he asked 
and obtained permission to leave his company and join with 
the advance. About a mile from the city of Jalapa General 
Patterson was met by the Alcalde, an interpreter, and one or 
two others in a carriage. General Patterson was informed 
that there were no soldiers in the city, none but private citi- 
zens, wo/nen and children, and that the Alcalde had come out 
to ask protection of the American army. In substance, 
General Patterson replied that the Americans were not there 
to make war upon, or in any way disturb the Mexican people; 
that it was the Mexican army and government with which 
they were contending that citizens not in arms would never be 
molested or troubled by American soldiers, and that if he 
would turn about and lead the way to the city their protection 
would begin from that moment. General Patterson and the 
troops with him followed the Alcalde to the city, of which 
General Patterson took possession. This was April ipth, and 
the 4th Illinois remained there until May 5th. General 
Scott was waiting the arrival of new troops before going 
further. The time of the 4th Illinois would expire July 
4th, about the time he expected to be ready to use it. So it 
was ordered home to be discharged. The Regiment, includ- 
ing Lieutenant Ross, reached Vera Cruz on its return May 
loth, sailed for New Orleans on the i5th, reaching there on 


the 24th. It left New Orleans May 29th, and reached home 
about the i5th of June. 

The good reports of Lieutenant Ross's gallantry and forti- 
tude in Mexico as a soldier and officer of the 4th Illinois 
which reached his home in advance of himself, suggested him 
to his party friends, the Democrats, as a candidate for Probate 
Judge, of which he learned on his arrival at St. Louis. He 
was duly nominated, and at the election the following August 
was elected. He at once removed to Lewiston, the county 
seat, and entered upon the duties of "his first civil office. 

At the expiration of his term in 1849 he was a candidate for 
the office of County Clerk, and was elected without opposition 
for a term of four years. 

At that time much of the tillable land in Fulton as well as of 
all the counties of the " military tract," was owned by non- 
residents, mostly land companies located in the cities of Boston, 
New York and Philadelphia. These companies were repre- 
sented by agents in the west, most of whom were located at 
Quincy and Peoria, Illinois. These western agents visited all 
the county seats once or twice a year to pay taxes and attend 
land sales. In this way Lieutenant Ross was brought into 
frequent contact with them, and soon drifted into the land busi- 
ness. He bought and sold quite extensively, and before the 
close of his four years as County Clerk, he was also engaged 
in farming and connected with a mercantile firm located at 
Ipava, Illinois. He was afterwards engaged in mercantile 
pursuits at Lewiston, which he continued up to April, 1861. 

Lieutenant Ross was a member of two National Conven- 
tions of the Democratic parties, those of 1852 and 1856. 
These conventions he attended in the interest of Stephen A. 
Douglas, who was then a prominent candidate for the Demo- 
cratic nomination for the Presidency. In 1838, when a school 
boy at Canton, the first political speech Lieutenant Ross ever 
heard was made by Mr. Douglas, then a candidate for Con- 
gress. From that date until the death of Douglas he was 
one of his firm adherents. Although not a member of the 


National Convention of 1860, Lieutenant Ross was at Balti- 
more when the Southern Democrats having nominated Breck- 
enridge at Charleston, the Northern wing of the party placed 
Douglas in nomination. At that time Lieutenant Ross heard 
leading Democrats of, the South declare that if Lincoln or 
Douglas were elected he would have to make his way to the 
Capitol through "seas of blood." The Northern Democrats 
replied that one of them would doubtless be elected, and who- 
ever should be fairly elected must be President of the entire 
Union, though he did pass through "seas of blood." 

About the close of his term of office as County Clerk, 
Lieutenant Ross aided in organizing the Fulton County Agri- 
cultural Board, and was its first Secretary and afterwards its 

In the spring of 1861 the contagion of the war fever came 
upon the country and aroused the martial ardor of all. It was 
impossible for one imbued with patriotic impulses and military 
inclinations 'like Lieutenant Ross to escape it. Accordingly, 
in the latter part of April, 1861, he organized the first com- 
pany that went from Fulton County to the War of the Rebel- 
lion, which became Company H of the zyth Illinois In- 
fantry. Soon after going into camp at Peoria, May zoth, the 
Regiment elected him its Colonel and he was commissioned as 
such by the Governor of Illinois. After one month spent at 
Peoria in drilling and preparing for service, Colonel Ross 
and his Regiment moved to Alton, Illinois, where a month 
more was spent. About the middle ot July the Regiment was 
ordered to St. Charles, Missouri, thence to Warrenton, and 
from there to St. Louis, where it became a part of the Com- 
mand of General Fremont, and accompanied him, August ist, 
on his expedition by way of the Mississippi river to Cairo, and 
August 3d, the Regiment went into camp at Bird's Point., 
Missouri. The i7th, was here engaged for about two weeks- 
in building fortifications, was then ordered to a landing on the 
Mississippi river about thirty miles below St. Louis known as 
"Sulphur Springs," thence by rail to Ironton, Missouri, where 


it encamped for a short time, and where Colonel Ross, about 
Angust 2Oth, for the first time met General U. S. Grant, who 
had recently been appointed Brigadier General. From here 
it moved to Fredericktown, about twenty miles distant, and 
garrisoned the place about a week. 

The 1 7th having been attached to the Command of 
General Prentiss now moved under that officer to Jackson, 
and thence to Cape Girardeau; the latter place they reached 
September 2d, and here Colonel Ross had his second meet- 
ing \vith General Grant, then in command of the troops in 
south-east Missouri. 

About September loth, the iyth was removed to the 
Kentucky shore opposite Cairo, and aided in constructing 
Fort Holt. General Grant was then in command at Cairo, 
and about September I4th Colonel Ross was by him placed 
in command of a Brigade and directed to occupy Elliott's Mills, 
a point about half way between Fort Holt and Columbus. 
His force consisted of the iyth and ipth Illinois, the 2nd and 
7th Iowa Infantry, a section of artillery, and about half a com- 
pany of cavalry. This place, which was about twelve miles 
from Columbus, was occupied by his Brigade three or four 
days, and was named Camp Crittenden. 

On assuming command of his Brigade, Colonel Ross issued 
the following orders: 

September i6th, 1861. \ 
No. i. \ 

The following orders will be observed for the government and discipline of 
this Camp from and after the i6th inst: 

i st. Until further orders the present encampment will be known as Camp 

2d. Adjutant A. H. Ryan, of the I'jth Regiment, is hereby appointed Act- 
ing Assistant Adjutant General, and will take rank and be obeyed accordingly. 

3d. Quartermaster S. E. Forsha, yth Iowa, is hereby appointed Brigade 
Quartermaster, and will take rank and be honored accordingly. 

4th. Surgeon Marsh, of the 2d Iowa, is hereby appointed Brigade Surgeon 
and will take rank and be obeyed accordingly. 

5th. One commissioned officer must be present at the roll calls of their 


companies, and all commissioned and non-commissioned officers at all com- 
pany and battalion drills. They will also give their personal supervision to 
squad drills and see that every private is instructed in the school of the soldier. 

6th. Chaplains of Regiments will make suitable arrangements for reading 
the Holy Scriptures and other religious exercises on the Sabbath day. I 
would earnestly request that all officers and privates attend Divine service in 
camp every Sabbath. 

7th. Captains are responsible for the cleanliness of their men, and for that 
purpose they will see that .the members of their respective companies perform 
their ablutions at least twice a week. 

8th. Company officers will carefully examine the food of their men, and 
see that it is of good quality, properly cooked, and set out in a neat and cleanly 

9th. No hawkers or peddlers will be permitted to carry on any trade 
w r ithin the Camp without first getting permission in writing of the command- 
ing officer of the Brigade. 

loth. No fire-arms shall be discharged within two miles of the Camp save 
for the purpose of alarm, and the commissioned officers of the several com- 
panies will be held responsible for the due enforcement of this order. 

nth. The arms of the relieved guard will be discharged under the personal 
supervision of the officer of the guard and between the hours of 9 and 10 
o'clock, a. m. The discharging of arms at any other time will be considered 
evidence of an attack, and the command will immediately prepare for action. 

1 2th. No gambling of any description will be permitted in Camp, and the 
commanding officer earnestly urges the discontinuance of card playing of any 

1 3th. For the efficiency and honor of the service as well as for the general 
health of the men of this command, the Commandant of this post hereby pro- 
hibits drunkenness under the penalties of court-martial, and recommends that 
the use of all kinds of intoxicating liquors be avoided among both officers and 

I4th. The Captains- of Companies furnishing men for Brigade guard will 
see that dinner, supper and breakfast is provided for the men on such duty at 
the guard house. The men on brigade guard will not be permitted to leave 
the guard house to return to their quarters for meals. 

1 5th. The Captains of Companies will see that the following articles of 
war are read to and impressed upon the minds of their respective commands, 
to-wit: 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10, 20, 21, 22, 23, 24, 25, 27, 32, 33, 37, 38, 40, 41, 42, 43, 44, 

45' 4 6 - 47. 4 8 > 49, 5. 5 2 > 53. 54. 97, 99- 

i6th. The commanding officer desires to call attention lo the extravagant 
waste of ammunition by the members of this Brigade, manifest from the con- 
tinued firing within the hearing of the Camp. The army regulations make 
the individuals to whom issues of ammunition are made, personally account- 
able for its waste. He therefore wishes to impress upon the officers of the 
various commands, both commissioned and non-commissioned, the necessity of 
carefully inspecting the ammunition boxes of their men and personally super- 


vising the careful and economical use of the same, and they will see that the 
arms of their respective companies are at all times in good order and ready for 

1 7th. No private property shall be killed, injured or destroved bv the men 
of this Command, and it is particularly enjoined upon all Field, Staff and Com- 
pany officers to prevent trespassing upon private property, and they shall, upon 
view or information of any such trespass, arrest all such persons and cause 
them to be tried by a court martial. No infraction of this order shall be toler- 
ated for a moment. 

iSth. No regularly detailed guard shall transfer his duties to anv person, 
li comrade in arms," under any circum stances, without first obtaining the written 
consent of the officer of the guard, who will himself be personally responsible 
for anv dereliction of dutv growing out of such transfer. 

1 9th. To the end that perfect safety and security may be insured to this 
command, the Commandant of this post desires to impress upon the sentinels 
the importance and responsibility of their duties, and to this end the officers of 
the guard, immediately after guard-mounting and prior 1o the relief of the old 
guard, will read or cause to be read the following sections pertaining to guard 
duty and duties of sentinels on post: Sections 404 to 419 inclusive, 570 to 574 
inclusive, 611 to 616 inclusive, and will explain the same fully. 

2Oth. The officers of the dav will be held responsible for the officers of the 
guard and its discharge of duty, and under no circumstances will a deviation 
from prescribed regulations be permitted. 

2ist. The Commandant of this post will enforce Ihe above rules, and no 
shirking in their enforcement will be tolerated. 

By order, 

L. F. Ross, 

A. H. RYAX, Col. Commanding. 

Acting A. A. G. 

On submission of these orders to General Grant, with his 
own hand he wrote the following complimentary approval of 
them as his endorsement: 

HEADQl'ARTERS, DlST. S. E, Mo., ) 

Cairo, September i7th, 1861. ) 

Colonel: Your orders meet with my entire approval. I hope vou will see 
them enforced. Yours, 


To COLONEL L. F. Ross, Brig.-Gen. Com. 

Commanding Fort Jefferson. 

On the 1 5th the ipth Illinois was detached and sent east. 
On the 1 7th Colonel Ross was directed to fall back to old 
Fort Jefferson, about five miles from Fort Holt, and to occupy 
Elliott's Mills (Camp Crittenden) with a picket guard only, 


and soon after was again at Fort Holt. This proved a very 
unhealthy location, and many of the men were on the sick list. 
As a sanitary measure, Colonel Ross was ordered to embark 
his Regiment, the iyth Illinois, on steamers for Cape Girardeau, 
a more healthy location, where those who were able aided in 
the erection of fortifications for the defense of the place, which 
at this time was under the command of Colonel Plummer, 
of the nth Missouri Infantry. By him Colonel Ross was 
informed that Jeff Thompson had passed up west of the Cape, 
and was then near Fredericktown, and that he had been 
directed to fit out a force and drive him out or capture him. 
Colonel Ross expressed a wish to accompany him on the 
expedition. On the iyth he received notice to be ready to 
accompany him at any moment. The next morning they 
started on the march to Jackson and on the 2Oth encamped 
within twelve miles of Fredericktown. Their force consisted 
of about fifteen hundred men parts of three regiments nth 
Missouri, Colonel Plummer, iyth Illinois, Colonel Ross, 2oth 
Illinois, Colonel Marsh, two companies of cavalry and a section 
of artillery. Thompson was reported to have about two 
thousand men, and was still in the vicinity of Fredericktown. 
As Colonel Ross had spent a week at this place with his 
Regiment in August and had some acquaintance there, he 
took a small cavalry force of six or eight men, and pushed on 
to ascertain the position of the enemy by the time the com- 
mand should reach town. When within a mile of the town he 
learned that the enemy had gone and that it was occupied by 
Union troops. Arriving at the town he found that Colonel 
Carlin, of the 38th Illinois, was there with two or three regi- 
ments, and on finding him at the hotel, Colonel Ross reported 
to him the approach of the forces from Cape Girardeau. An 
hour later Colonel Plummer arrived and held a short confer- 
ence with Carlin. After this he went to Colonel Ross in the 
street, where the latter was awaiting him, and stated that 
Carlin ranked him as a Colonel and claimed the command of 
the entire forces. At the same time Plummer insisted that, as 


the question of rank had arisen, and as Colonel Ross ranked 
both of them, it was his duty to take command himself, and 
accordingly Colonel Ross assumed command of all the forces 
present, and then ordered Colonel Plummer to take such part 
of the command as he desired and pursue Jeff Thompson. He 
replied that he wished the iyth Illinois, Colonel Ross's Regi- 
ment, to take the advance. After starting the cavalry to the 
front as an advance guard, Colonel Ross marched out of town 
to the south in the direction Thompson was said to have taken. 
Colonel Ross had not proceeded over a mile before he met 
Captain Stewart of the cavalry force returning, who stated 
that things did not look just right at the front. On Colonel 
Ross going forward with him a few rods to the brow of a hill 
Stewart called attention to a clump of bushes that had the 
appearance of a mask for a battery. A few men were also 
discovered moving about on the opposite hill, near the point 
where they supposed the battery to be located. A small creek 
with narrow bottom lands intervened. On the north side of 
the creek was a corn field. Colonel Ross at once filed his 
Regiment to the left, passed out of the road into a field,and then 
deployed three companies, A, F and B, as skirmishers, and 
ordered them to pass through the corn field. Lieutenant 
White's section of artillery was advanced to the brow of the 
hill and directed to open fire on what was supposed to be a 
battery on the opposite hill. He had fired but two shots 
before the fire of Colonel Ross's forces was returned by the 
supposed battery, and it was evident that a fight was at hand. 
Colonel Ross at once started to his own Regiment, but before 
he had reached it, the men on the skirmish line had met the 
enemy in the corn field and had begun the fight with small 
arms. Colonel Ross, with the remainder of his Regiment 
moved rapidly to the front in line of battle until he reached the 
skirmish line, and the entire Regiment was engaged. During 
the engagement, other infantry troops the 2Oth Illinois and 
part of the nth Missouri formed on the left of the iyth Illi- 
nois and opened fire on the enemy. The left Company (B) 


of the i yth Illinois, which was started out as skirmishers, was* 
so far to the left that it turned the flank of the enemy and 
poured a destructive fire on their right flank. The enemy 
now began to retreat from the corn field. Colonel Ross with 
the 1 7th advanced at " double quick " and took position behind 
the fence that had at first sheltered the main force of the 
enemy. As they retreated from that part of the field the fire 
of the Union troops proved very destructive. The advance 
of Company B of the i7th Illinois was rapid, and having 
charged upon and captured the enemy's battery, the victory 
was complete and the enemy in full retreat. The cavalry now 
came up and pursued the scattered and fleeing forces of 
General Thompson for some distance, but in so doing sus- 
tained severe loss. The i7th Illinois in this battle suffered a 
loss of one killed and twenty-seven wounded. Only four 
hundred and twenty-six members of the regiment were en- 
gaged, the remainder having been left as camp guards or 
sick in hospital. None of the i7th Illinois, except Colonel 
Ross, had ever before been in battle, but all behaved like old 
and well-tried soldiers. In making pursuit, the cavalry, a por- 
tion of the 2d Indiana Cavalry, sustained about the same loss 
as the 1 7th Illinois had met with in the battle. Aside from 
these losses there were but five or six wounded on the Union 
side. During the engagement Colonel Ross did not see or 
hear from Colonel Plummer, except to receive a request from 
him that a company of the i7th Illinois should be sent to the 
rear to guard a battery. Company A, having been engaged 
from the beginning, was detached and sent to the rear. 

The battle of Fredericktown, compared with others that 
followed, was an unimportant affair, but it was one of the first 
decisive actions gained in the West. As it was fought mainly 
by the i7th Illinois, and as all the men of that Regiment 
engaged behaved so handsomely, it was afterwards generally 
referred to as the fight of the "i7th boys," and the com- 
mander, Colonel Ross, cherishes a feeling of pride and endear- 
ment towards all the members of this, his own Regiment, for 
their gallant and soldierly bravery. 


Colonel Ross with his Regiment started on the 23rd of October 
on his return to Cape Girardeau, where he arrived on the 
25th. Having on November 4th received orders from General 
Halleck, at St. Louis, to move out and make a demonstration 
on Bloomfield, the next day he marched twenty miles and 
went into camp at "Round Ponds." The next day he was 
ordered back again with his entire force, except the roth Iowa 
under Colonel Perczel. He reached the Cape on the yth, but 
the. next day was ordered to make another demonstration 
toward Bloomfield. He moved out again twenty miles, where 
he received news of the battle of Belmont, and then returned 
again to the Cape, November loth, his movements, the 
importance of which he was at the time ignorant of, being 
ordered to keep as many of the enemy as possible from Bel- 
mont, while General Grant attacked that place. 

On the 2pth he was assigned to the command of the post of 
Cape Girardeau, and the next day sent Colonel Wood with 
one hundred and fifty men on an expedition to Benton. 
December was mostly spent in drilling and other preparations 
for the field. On the i/ of the month, by invitation of 
General Grant, with two companies he went by the Steamer 
Illinois to Cairo, and attended a review there, and on the i6th 
attended reviews and inspections at Bird's Point and Fort 
Holt, and returned to Cape Girardeau. On the i8th he had 
a review and inspection of his own troops at Cape Girardeau, 
participated in by Generals Sweeney, Sturgis and Van Rens- 
sellaer, and on their invitation accompanied them on the 
Steamer Memphis to St. Louis, from whence he returned to 
the Cape on the 2oth. From this date till January 3Oth, 1862, 
ie remained at Cape Girardeau in command of that post and 
the troops there, the time being spent mainly in strengthening 
the defences of the place, in drilling and preparing the com- 
mand for more active service. Several expeditions were 
sent into the interior of the country in pursuit of straggling 
bands of Thompson's command. On the i5th three expedi- 
tions were sent out, one to Benton in command of Major 


Smith, one to Bloomfield under Captain Murdock, and the 
third to Dallas, commanded by Major Rawalt. Orders were 
given by Colonel Ross to those in command of these expeditions 
to take all prisoners found who had been in arms against the 
government and who had not yet taken the oath of allegiance, 
and to take their property, slaves included, to be used in aid 
of the Union cause. Again on January 25th Major Smith 
with two hundred cavalry was sent to Benton and below to 
capture a lot of rebels who had been firing on passing steam- 
boats on the Mississippi river. Colonel Wood with two 
hundred infantry, and Major Rawalt with the remainder of 
the cavalry, were sent to co-operate with Smith, and on the 
28th other forces were sent in the same direction on the same 
errand. These forays into sections of the country occupied 
by the enemy resulted in the capture of many prisoners, who 
were generally released on parole, with a pledge to return and 
deliver themselves upon demand. In this way many who had 
been coerced into the rebel service were enabled to return 
to their homes and remain there. 

At the beginning of the Rebellion many problems difficult 
of solution arose respecting the treatment by the military of 
citizens and their property at the seat of war. The following 
letters of instruction from General Grant to Colonel Ross in 
reply to the latter's application for directions from superior 
authority, but at the same time declaring his own opinions, 
show that their views on some of the most important of these 
coincided, and that they were views which, though puzzling 
many at the beginning, were substantially those held by all 
loyal citizens at the close of the conflict. 

We here copy the letter of instructions from General Grant 
under which Colonel Ross at this time acted. As will be 
seen it left to the latter a large discretion. 


COL. L. F. Ross, CAIRO, DECEMBER 4th, 1861. \ 

Commanding U. S. Forces, Cape Girardeau, Mo. 

Colonel: Your communication of yesterday is received and the following 
instructions are given in reply: 


You will require Colonel Murdock to give over to the Quartermasters all 
property taken by them from citizens of Missouri. Such as may be reclaimed 
by owners you will direct to be returned unless taken from persons directly 
giving aid and comfort to the enemv. 

When you know of depredations being committed by armed bodies of 
rebels within reach of you, you can use vour own discretion about the propriety 
of suppressing them. I know your views about allowing troops to interpret 
the confiscation laws; therefore no instructions are required on this point; one 
thing I will add: In cases of outrageous marauding I would fully justify 
shooting the perpetrators down if caught in the act. I mean our own men as 
well as the enemy. 

When you are satisfied that Thompson's men are coming in with honest 
intentions you may swear them, but in this matter I would advise great 
caution. As a rule it would be better to keep them entirely out of your camp, 
or confine them as prisoners of war. A few examples of "confinement would 
prevent others from coming in. 

Respectfully, your obedient servant, 


Brig. Gen. Com. 

Here also are General Grant's instructions through his aid, 
to Colonel Ross on the perplexing subject of the negro. 


COL. L. F. Ross, CAIRO, January 5th, 1862. \ 

Commanding U. S. Forces, 

Cape Girardeau, Mo. 

I am instructed by General Grant to say to you that he has carefully read 
jur communication with reference to the slave of Dr. Henderson and fullv 
>ncurs in your view of the case. 

While it is not the policy of the military arm of the government to ignore 
in any manner interfere with the constitutional rights of loyal citizens, 
except when a military necessity makes individuals subservient to the public 
interests, it certainly is not the policy of our army to in any manner aid those 
np in any manner aid the enemy. 

slave, who is used to support the master, who supports the Rebellion, 
is noy to be restored to the master bv military authority. If such a master has 
a civi\ right to reclaim such property he must resort to the civil authorities to 
enforcL that right. 

The General commanding does not feel it his duty to feed the foe or in any 
manner contribute to their comfort. 

If Dr. Henderson has given aid and comfort to the enemy, neither he nor 
his agents have any right to come within our lines, much less to invoke our aid 
and assistance for any purpose whatever. 

Very Respectfully, 

Your obedient servant, 




Here follows a letter dictated by General Grant on a subject 
which has not yet been so effectually disposed of as slavery, 

CAIRO, December, 2, 1861. \ 

Colonel: I am directed bv Brig. Gen. Grant to say your note of to-day is 
received. In the prohibition of the landing of merchandise in Missouri you 
will be governed by enclosed General Orders, No. 4, issued from Headquarters 
St. Louis Dist., St. Louis, Mo., Nov. 27, 1861. As to the great demand for 
whiskey he agrees with you, and is of the opinion the more whiskey they 
could get the better, but he has issued an order prohibiting the landing of boats 
or any merchandise whatever between Cape Girardeau and Bird's Point, ex- 
cept at Commerce, on the Missouri side in future, unless expressly commanded 
by the General commanding the department or commander of the district. 
I am sir very respectfully, 

Your obedient servant, 


To COL. L. F. Ross, Asst. Adjt. Gen. 

Commanding Cape Girardeau, Mo. 

By the end of January it became imperatively necessary for 
Colonel Ross to take a leave of absence on account of severe 
family affliction. He left Cape Girardeau January 3Oth, and< 
returned to his home in Illinois, from whence he went east 
with an invalid son. On his return west through Albany, 
New York, had he needed inspiration for his part in the great 
drama then being enacted, he would have received it in listen- 
ing to an oration there by Edward Everett on the war. On 
his return he had reached Gilman, a station on the Illinois 
Central Railroad, when he learned that his regiment had 
moved into Kentucky, and instead of visiting his home, as he 
had intended, he immediately changed his course for the front, 
and reaching Cairo on the I3th of February immediately took 
passage on the steamer Hannibal for Paducah. Learning 
here that his regiment was with General Grant near Fort 
Donelson, he went forward at once to join it, and reached the 
battle ground on the afternoon of the i5th, in time to take a 
conspicuous part in that glorious victory of the Union army. 
He was at once assigned to the command of a brigade com- 
posed of his own regiment, the iyth, and the 4pth Illinois, and 
directed to report to General Lew Wallace at the front. It 


was these two regiments with the 48th Illinois which the day 
before had made the unsuccessful assault on the enemy's lines. 
Had Colonel Ross been present at that time, it would have 
fallen to him as the ranking officer to lead the assault and 
perhaps to have received the wound with which Colonel 
Morrison of the'4pth Illinois was honored. On reporting with 
his brigade to General Wallace, Colonel Ross was assigned 
by him to hold possession of a ridge to the left. The position 
was stubbornly held till after dark, though constantly swept 
by shot, shell and grape-shot, when he was ordered to with- 
draw to a position near General McClernand's headquarters. 

Early on Sunday morning, the i6th, Colonel Ross called 
upon General McClernand .for orders for the day, when he 
learned that there were signs of a surrender on the part of 
the confederates, which in reality soon followed. The whole 
Union army, about thirty thousand strong, marched inside the 
works and received the surrender of the garrison. The 
sight was grand and imposing in the extreme. Union -flags 
were flying, bands playing, and thirty steamboats and gun-boats 
were in line on the river moving to take position above the 
Fort. : Fifteen thousand prisoners were in line and in squads 
over trie fields. It was indeed a grand sight and one seldom 
to be ^een in a lifetime. 

Colonel Ross with his command remained in the vicinity of 
Fort Donelson till the 4th of March. During this time many 
visitors came to them from the north, among them most of 
the governors from the western states, including Governor 
Yates of Illinois, to bring healing to the sick, balm to the 
wounded, and cheer and congratulations for all, and make 
them forget the cold, snow and winds of February. On this 
day, March 4th, Colonel Ross and his brigade started through 
muddy roads, almost impassable for wagons, on their march 
for the Tennessee river, which they reached on the 5th at 
Metal Landing, and on the 6th embarked on steamers for 
Savannah. Colonel Ross and the i7th Illinois with Car- 
michael's Cavalry company taking the Minnehaha, the 2pth 


Illinois the Champion, the 43d Illinois the Fort Wayne, and 
Schwartz's Battery the Alex. Scott. There was some delay 
in starting, but on March pth they were at Apple Orchard 
Landing, ten miles above Fort Henry. Here his fleet lay to 
a short time while he, on the steamer Dunlieth, visited Fort 
Henry, taking with him Captain Barnard of the Confederate 
Army, a prisoner of war. At Fort Henry Colonel Ross met 
General Grant on a boat tied up at the Fort, and was by him 
imformed that he, Grant, was under censure, why he knew not, 
and was to be left behind, and General Grant exhibited much 
feeling, not anger or resentment, but pain and dejection. Colonel 
Ross, in common with all others cognizant of the matter, felt 
that great injustice had been done General Grant, and on re- 
turning to his command, in conjunction with General McCler- 
nand and other officers, signed a note expressing sympathy and 
regret which was sent to General Grant. About March I4th 
Colonel Ross arrived with his brigade at Savannah, Tennessee, 
and debarked; on the i8th and ipth marched to Pinehook, 
twenty-five miles southeast, with all the cavalry of his division 
and four regiments of infantry, and thence a few miles to 
Martin's Mills, where he destroyed or distributed among'the 
poor a large quantity of flour that had been ground for the 
Rebel Army; on the 2Oth he returned to Savannah, and on 
the 2ist embarked his brigade on five steamboats for Pitts- 
burg Landing with orders to report to General Smith. March 
22d on arriving at Pittsburg Landing, General Smith being 
sick he reported to General Sherman, then in command. 
This General was at the time occupying a cabin near the 
landing, where, it being only five o'clock in the morning, he 
was lying in bed, from which he rose and in his off-hand way 
marked out on the floor the lay of the land, and directed 
Colonel Ross to go out and select his own encampment. 
Colonel Ross's Brigade at this time consisted of the i7th, 
29th, 43d and 49th Illinois, Taylor's and Schwartz's Batteries, 
and Carmichael's Company of Cavalry. The ground chosen 
by him for his camp was that afterwards occupied by General 


McClernand's Division during the battle of Shiloh, April 6th 
and 7th. 

On the 23d of March Colonel Ross, while there in camp, 
by the intelligence of the death of his wife at home, received 
a blow which, if not directly from the hand of Providence, 
would be accounted under all the circumstances, most cruel. 
His family then consisted of five children, the oldest a boy of 
fourteen and a confirmed invalid, the youngest an infant but 
nine months old. To him, thus situated, a leave of absence to 
return home was absolutely imperative, and it was granted by 
General Grant, who by this time had arrived and taken com- 
mand. On the 26th he started on his melancholy errand to 
make provision for the care of his motherless children, and on 
the 3Oth reached his desolate home at Lewiston. April 3d, 
having hurriedly made arrangements for the care of his chil- 
dren, he was on his way back to the front, by steamboat from 
Havana to St. Louis by the 4th, and from here on the 5th by 
the steamer J. C. Swan for the Tennessee river. On the 6th 
he was at Cairo, and on the 7th at Paducah, where he was met 
by vague reports of "skirmishing at Pittsburg Landing on the 
6th." On the 8th at Fort Henry he learned the truth of a 
great battle at Shiloh, and on the pth was on the battle ground, 
where many of the dead were yet unburied. On reporting to 
Generals Grant and McClernand he was assigned to the com- 
mand of the brigade he had left, which in the battle had been 
commanded by Colonel Raith of the 43d Illinois, who was 
mortally wounded and died soon after Colonel Ross's return. 
On the 24th Colonel Ross with his brigade, now strengthened 
by the addition of the 6ist Illinois, moved three miles from 
Camp McClernand to a position named Camp Stanton, five 
miles southeast of Pittsburg Landing. This last move he was 
compelled on account of illness to make by ambulance, and 
a few days afterward had to absent himself from his command 


in the hospital boat on the river. On the 3Oth, on his return 
to his brigade, he found it eight miles from the landing on the 
road to Corinth. May 4th he moved within one mile of 


Monterey, his brigade being now attached to Brigadier 
General Judah's Division. May 7th, being now in temporary 
command of the division, he held a review, at which Governor 
Yates and other civilians were present. On May nth he 
moved forward and encamped within seven miles of Corinth, 
his brigade forming the extreme right of the besieging army. 
On the 1 3th at this latter camp he received his commission as 
Brigadier General, in which capacity he had long been acting. 
From this time forward till the rebels stole out of Corinth, 
General Ross's brigade, with the rest of the army under 
General Halleck, was employed chiefly in making changes of 
camp. On the ipth he made an expedition to the west and 
destroyed part of a railroad, and on the 3Oth, having about 
day-break, visited his fortifications four miles from Corinth, 
taken a dense smoke over the city and heavy explosions to be 
signs of evacuation by the enemy, reported the same to 
General Sherman. The next day on entering Corinth with 
Generals McClernand and Logan the place was found to be 

After a short leave of absence General Ross again returned 
to the command of his old brigade, with the I2th Michigan 
added to it, and now designated as the ist Brigade, ist 
Division, and on the i8th of July took command of all the 
forces at Bolivar, and made arrangements for fortifying the 
place, in which he was greatly aided by the slaves from neigh- 
boring plantations, which occupied the time up to August i8th. 

August 27th General Ross was ordered to report at Jack- 
son, Tennessee, having been assigned to the command of a 
district with headquarters there. On the 3Oth, receiving a 
dispatch from Colonel Crocker commanding the Iowa Brigade 
at Bolivar, that that place was threatened with attack then 
that fighting had commenced he immediately repaired there 
by train, but returned the next day, after the enemy had 
retired with a loss of one hundred, the Union side losing only 
one-fourth that number. Before leaving Bolivar he sent a 
dispatch to Colonel Dennis on the Estenaula, about twenty 


miles northwest of Bolivar, who had about eight hundred 
troops, to move north to Jackson. General Ross had barely 
got over the railroad and back to his headquarters at Jackson 
when the enemy seized the railroad, fired some bridges, and 
were moving on Medon with a large force, but General Ross 
headed them off with reinforcements under Lieutenant Colo- 
nel Oliver, and by orders to Colonel Dennis to change his 
course for the same place and attack the enemy in rear. 
These foresighted directions had a happy issue. The confed- 
erates were handsomely repulsed at Medon with the loss of 
about one hundred, and were in full retreat west toward Den- 
mark, when on the following morning, September ist, Colonel 
Dennis met their cavalry advance and at once chose a, favora- 
ble position. A few rounds of artillery being discharged at 
them, they charged upon and captured both the cannon. They 
then made six successive charges on Colonel Dennis's little 
force, but each time were repulsed with great slaughter, their 
loss in killed being over one hundred, Colonel Dennis coming 
off victor in the engagement, which is known to history as the 
Battle of Britton's Lane. The Union loss was five killed and 
fifty-one wounded. General Logan having returned and taken 
command at Jackson on the 3d of September, on the 8th Gen- 
eral Ross went again to Bolivar to take command there, and 
took possession of Dunlap's Springs for hospital purposes. 
September i4th General Hurlbut having arrived at Bolivar 
with his division, General Ross was ordered to Corinth where 
he arrived the i5th with the ist and 2d Brigades and was 
assigned to General Ord's command, and encamped the next 
day three miles east of Corinth. On the i7th he marched 
his divison to Burnsville, where the next day Generals Grant, 
Hackleman, McPherson and McArthur arrived. Here Colo- 
nel Laggett's Brigade of General Ross's Division was sent 
out to reconnoitre. 

On the ipth a dense smoke having been discovered in the 
direction of luka led to the belief that that place was being 
evacuated by the enemy, and General Ross was ordered for- 


ward at five o'clock in the evening. He marched till darkness 
overtook his command and then went into camp four miles 
from luka, and the next day learned that the battle had been 
fought the evening before on the opposite side of the city by 
General Rosecrans, and that General Price, with the rebel 
army, was in retreat. On this day (the 2Oth) General Ross 
entered luka in the forenoon, and marched on to return to 

September 22d General Ross was ordered back again to 
Bolivar, when all the troops there were reviewed by General 
Hurlbut on the 27th, and on the 4th of October he moved 
toward Corinth. General Ord arrived the same evening and 
left for Pocahontas the next day (the 5th). Hearing cannon- 
ading on the 5th in the direction of Pocahontas, General 
Ross telegraphed this fact to General Grant, who, in reply, 
directed him to move out, which he did with alacrity, and on 
the afternoon of the 6th reached the battle-ground of the 
Hatchie. He returned to Bolivar on the pth, and moved his 
division to Grand Junction and LaGrange. 

On the zoth he again returned to Bolivar, and taking advan- 
tage of the lull in military operations, obtained a leave of ab- 
sence from the Secretary of War to visit his stricken home, 
with permission to leave on the arrival of General McPherson 
to take his place. On the I4th he left Bolivar for Jackson, 
and thence to his home. 

November 6th General Ross had again returned to Bolivar, 
and reported to General Grant, then at LaGrange. He 
received orders to report at Lagrange to General Hamilton, 
who had been given command of the right wing of the army 
then organizing to move south through Central Mississippi, 
and was assigned to the command of the division lately under 
General Stanley. .The march soon began. November i2th 
General Ross led his division three miles south of Grand 
Junction, and on the i7th established his headquarters at 
Davis's Mills, which he set to work grinding flour for his 
troops, and where he received many refugees from the south. 


On the 28th he marched fourteen miles and camped at Cold 
Water, and on the 2pth rested at Lumkin's Mills, seven miles 
south of Holly Springs. December 4th he was at Waterford, 
on the zoth in the vicinity of Abbeville; the nth he marched 
to Oxford and encamped two miles southeast of town, where 
he received orders to at once move his division north. The 
next day he was back to Holly Springs. 

General Ross remained in this vicinity till January 2ist, 
when he received orders from General Grant to turn over the 
command of his division to General Smith and with his staff 
to join General Grant at Memphis. These were acceptable 
orders to General Ross, as they presaged active duty in the 
environs of Vicksburg. On the 23d he was at Memphis, and 
on the 27th was on board the steamer Magnolia with General 
Grant and his staff, bound south. Arriving at Milliken's 
Bend on the 28th, and the next day at Young's Point, he was 
ordered to report to General McClernand, establishing his 
headquarters on the steamer Hiawatha near Vicksburg. 

Having received orders to take command of forces at 
Helena, General Prentiss being in command of this post, he 
arrived there on the nth of February, and on the I3th 
assumed command of the i3th Division. 

February i8th he received orders to get ready to move 
with his command, the I3th Division, into the Yazoo Pass to 
co-operate with a fleet of gun-boats. His force consisted of 
nine regiments of infantry and one light field battery. On 
the 24th the troops embarked at Helena on thirteen trans- 
ports, the gun-boats Chillicothe and DeKalb taking the ad- 
vance. Owing to the bad condition of the transports, which 
were constantly requiring repair, and the encumbrance of coal 
barges which the gun-boats towed along, the progress of the 
expedition, especially for the first few days, was very slow. 
The naval officer in command of the gun-boats could not be 
prevailed upon by General Ross to leave his barges temporarily 
behind under a strong infantry guard which the military com- 
mander offered to furnish, and push forward one or more gun- 


boats to Greenwood, at the confluence of the Yallabusha and 
Tallahatchie rivers, which was the objective point of the 
expedition, before the Confederates could concentrate and 
fortify there. On the 2d of March however, the entire com- 
mand got into the Cold Water, a tributary of the Tallahatchie, 
which was lined on either side by dense forests and cane- 
brakes, and on March 6th steamed into the Tallahatchie. The 
progress of the expedition was not seriously opposed by the 
enemy till they reached a point on the nth of March three 
miles above the mouth of the Tallahatchie, where the rebels 
had fortified a well chosen position, which they called Fort 
Pemberton, situated near the town of Greenwood. On ac- 
count of the overflowed condition of the banks of the river it 
was impossible to attack the fort with infantry. 

At five o'clock in the evening the attack on the fort was 
begun by the gun-boat Chillicothe, which was soon consider- 
ably damaged by the fire of the enemy, and was obliged to 
haul off. General Ross now erected a battery on shore and 
placed in it two thirty-pound Parrot guns. On the i3th he 
engaged the enemy again, the land battery co-operating with 
the gun-boats. The Chillicothe was soon disabled, but the 
fight was gallantly continued with the DeKalb, a mortar boat 
and the land battery. March i5th the land battery was 
strengthened with an eight-inch howitzer. On the i6th the 
33d Missouri and 28th Wisconsin were ordered to assault and 
capture the fort should its guns be silenced by the land and 
water batteries. The land battery opened fire at noon, the 
Chillicothe soon after. In fifteen minutes after the action be- 
gan the Chillicothe had been struck six times, and was dis- 
abled and withdrawn. The land battery obstinately continued 
the engagement till sunset, but without being able to seriously 
damage the guns of the fort. March 2ist General Quinby 
having arrived and taken command, the effort to reduce the 
fort was ineffectually persevered in till April 5th, when the 
attempt was abandoned and the expeditionary force returned 
to Helena, where they arrived on the 8th. 


April pth found General Ross again in command of all the 
troops at and around Helena, and on the I2th he assumed 
command of the Post of Helena also. He spent the time 
from this up to the following June in reconnoitering the sur- 
rounding country, instituting regular target practice, drilling 
and reviewing his troops, blocking up the roads by felling 
timber as a means of defense against possible forays by the 
enemy, and penetrating the surrounding country with scouting 
expeditions, in one of which the Union forces had a severe 
skirmish with the rebels, under Colonel Dobbins, themselves 
losing four killed and fifteen wounded, while the Confederates 
suffered a heavy loss. He also devoted much of the time of 
the troops to the erection of fortifications which proved of in- 
estimable value to the Union forces when the rebels attacked 
the place some weeks later and the bloody battle of Helena 
was fought, terminating so gloriously for the Union arms. 

It now again became imperatively necessary for him to re- 
turn home on a short leave, and on June 2d he started, return- 
ing July 6th, and the next day was assigned to the command 
of the troops there again. 

The troops at Helena had a grand celebration on the 8th in 
honor of the fall of Vicksburg, which they had done so much to 
secure, though not immediately participating in the siege of 
that place. On July pth he was assigned to the command of 
the District of Eastern Arkansas, which was the last com- 
mand General Ross held in the army. 

The Mississippi river, the great natural thoroughfare of 
the country, was now open and could be navigated to the 
mouth. The ultimate success of the Union arms was assured, 
and it seemed the war must soon come to a close. With 
these feelings of confidence in the future of that cause he had 
done so much to support and advance, under the pressure of 
urgent demands from home for his presence there, he tendered 
the resignation of his commission. This had been done be- 
fore on account of the helpless condition of his children, but 
it seemed impossible then that his services could be spared. 


Now, the situation being different, his urgent request was 
acceded to, and his resignation was accepted, and on August 
2d he parted with his army comrades with much regret, be- 
came again a private citizen, feeling that only by leaving the 
army could he do his duty to those dependent upon him. 

General Ross returned to his home at Lewiston, September 
pth. He soon became engaged in business and in farming. 
Before the close of the war he made several visits in the south 
to some of the points his previous military service had brought 
him to, where he enjoyed reunion with former army comrades, 
and for a short time was connected in business with the firm 
of Bland, Ross & Kimball, and acted as a financial agent of 
the firm of E. Parkman & Co. , all of Memphis, Tenn. 

January loth, 1865, at Monroeville, Ohio, General Ross 
was married to Mary E. Warren, with whom he returned to 
their home at Lewiston. In 1866 he removed from Lewiston 
to his farm at Avon, also in Fulton county, and devoted his 
time principally to stock raising. While thus engaged in 
1867, without his knowledge President Johnson appointed him 
Collector of Internal Revenue. In 1868 he was nominated 
by the Republicans as a candidate for Congress, but the 
Democrats being largely in the ascendancy in the district he 
was defeated. 

In 1869 General Ross resigned the office of Internal 
Revenue Collector in order to devote all his time to stock 
raising. His enterprise in this direction is indicated by his 
introducing in Fulton County, the year before in company with 
Mr. H. V. D. Voorhees, the first Norman horse brought into 
that county, and subsequently his introduction into that part 
of the country of fine specimens of Devon cattle. What- 
ever would tend to promote the interests of agriculture in its 
various departments he has always favored. He assisted in 
forming the Avon District Agricultural Society and was its 
first president. 

In politics General Ross, while always advocating the 
essential doctrines of the Republican party, supporting the 


Republican nominees at every presidential election, has con- 
stantly maintained an independent political demeanor. In 
1872 he served as a delegate at large from Illinois in the Repub- 
lican National Convention at Philadelphia, which nominated 
General Grant for a second term. Yet, in the passage of the 
law by Congress granting back-pay to congressmen and upon 
the "Credit Mobilier" revelations, he did not chord with his 
party, but attached himself for the time being to the "Indepen- 
dents," and in 1874 became the nominee for Congress of the 
independent elements of both the Democratic and Republican 
parties, but as the Republican party, by a reorganization of 
the district through the censns of 1870 had great numerical 
superiority, he failed of an election by 260 votes in a total 
poll of 19,250. He is now in accord with the Republican party. 

In 1872 and again in 1882 General Ross visited California. 
In 1882 he removed from Avon in Illinois to Iowa City in this 
state, where on his beautiful stock farm adjoining the city he 
has ever since, except during a short business visit to England 
in 1883, been engaged in the breeding and importation of Red 
Polled cattle, bringing the first of this strain of cattle into the 
State of Iowa, as he had in 1880 introduced them first into 
the State of Illinois. 

From the tributes we have to the ability, gallantry and 
generosity of General Ross, and showing the affection with 
which his officers and soldiers regarded him, a few extracts 
are here made, want of space debarring the letters entire. 

Mr. Marvin Scudder of Kansas City, Missouri, who was 
the Orderly Sergeant of Company K, 4th Illinois, which 
served in the Mexican War, says: "Rank did not lift him 
above his old associates, and only in the performance of duty 
did he assume any superior authority. True to the character- 
istics of a true soldier, he shirked no duty, evaded no re- 
sponsibility, shrank from no danger, and as he was a rigid 
disciplinarian over himself he was a strict disciplinarian over 
the company; still all was done in a spirit which plainly 
showed that it was not done to show his authority, but that he 


was proud of his men, and the honor and good of his com- 
pany was the inspiring motive of every requirement. I do 
not think there was a man in Company K who did not bear 
with him from the service fond recollections of many acts of 
kindness and favors received at the hands of Lieutenant 

Colonel A. H. Ryan of East Orange, New Jersey, who 
served on the staff of General Ross as assistant adjutant- 
general, and was afterward colonel of the 3d Arkansas Caval- 
ry, says: "As a military man I think General Ross had few 
superiors, if any, of his rank in the army. I say this after 
having seen him tried in every way, in camp, on the march, 
on post duty, and in battle. In the battle of Fredericktown, 
Missouri, October, 1861, as colonel commanding, he displayed 
commanding ability and judgment; completely defeating his 
adversary, General Jeff. Thompson. From this time until July, 
1863, and particularly in Grant's various approaches to Vicks- 
burg, General Ross always held important and responsible 
commands, as post, brigade or division commander. From 
Fort Donelson to Pittsburg Landing he commanded the ad- 
vance brigade of McClernand's Division, selecting the camping 
ground of the whole division, upon what afterward proved to 
be historic ground, the battle-rleld of Shiloh. In the spring of 
1863, General Grant assigned him to the Yazo Pass Expe- 
dition, one of the most intricate and perilous of the many 
approaches to Vicksburg, and in which General Ross suc- 
ceeded in cutting his way through the Pass into the Talla- 
hatchie river. He never to my knowledge did an unsoldierly 
act. He was kind and gentle, but firm in the discharge of his 
official duty. Intrepid and brave in action, he was ever a 
true and gallant soldier; a high-toned, kind-hearted gentleman, 
he did honor to every position and command held by him 
while in the service. Ever watchful of his men in camp, on 
the march, on the battle-field, or in the hospital, caring for 
their welfare in every way, he greatly endeared himself to 
them, and I know he still retains their love and respect, and 
will while one of them lives." 


Captain M. S. Kimball, of Springfield, Illinois, who also 
was a member of General Ross's staff, writes: "General 
Ross is a grand man, and was a gallant soldier, loved and 
honored by all who had the pleasure of being associated with 

As before stated, General Ross, removed in 1882 to Iowa 
City, where he has since resided, a liberal, public-spirited and 
honored citizen. Inadequacy of space has compelled the 
abridgment of this sketch, and forbids the writer dwelling 
upon the excellencies of the character of his subject. In the 
ancient time General Ross would have been a prophet, in the 
middle ages a knight, and now, in the old world such a man 
would be ranked with the nobility. 


[HE following is the body of the eloquent address of 
the Hon. Jas. H. Matheny of Illinois, before the 
Tri-State Old Settlers's Reunion at Keokuk, 
August 30, 1887. 

My friends, we are all here to-day to celebrate an old 
settlers' meeting, and you young friends must pardon us if we 
love to linger over the happenings of the past. There is 
something about the old cabin, the old fire-place, and the old 
spinning wheel that we old fellows can't forget. I don't 
propose, for one, to try to forget them. Not that they 
would do now. Not that they would suit this advanced age, 
by any means, but still the old memories that cluster around 
the old homes and the old times, when many of you were 
boys and girls, are exceedingly pleasant recollections and you 
must forgive us if we talk of these that we all once loved. I 
was born in this state no not in this, this is Iowa, but in 
Illinois. I was born just thirty days before the State of 
Illinois, and I have been a part and parcel of that state from 
that day to this. I have watched its wondrous advance 


taken part in its growth and all that constitutes the glory and 
grandeur of that state. I remember it when there was no 
more than 25,000 people in it, and now there is largely over 
3,500,000. The toils and the struggles endured by that 
people can never be described. They have advanced since 
those days at a rate that has been extraordinary. Their 
changes have been simply wonderful. In all the great avoca- 
tions of life there is no comparison now with what they were 

One of the greatest changes is in this very thing that we 
are doing here to-day. My friend Craig and others here 
remember how it used to be about public speaking. When I 
was a boy a good stump orator was a king. And why ? 
For the simple reason that the great mass of the people were 
ignorant, if I may use that expression. There were no schools 
then and no newspapers for the great mass of the people. 
There was no mode of obtaining information except when 
some one, who had better opportunities, would take the stand 
and tell the people what he thought. The stump orator was 
a king then, but he is no longer. The newspaper rules in his 

It tires me sometimes, over there in Illinois, at our great 
political gatherings. We have great mass meetings over 
there, of course, in advocacy of some great position or interest. 
And what are they ? Nothing but a flaunting of banners; 
the braying of brass instruments; the senseless marchings; 
the flashing of torchlights, and the infernal hiss of the 
torpedoes. What about the speaker ? He is a mere append- 
age the clown in the circus or the mountebank in the show. 
Nobody listens to him nor cares much what he says, knowing 
full well that if it is worth repeating, the morning papers will 
give it in full. The scenes on such occasions are painfully 
amusing. See the orator mount the platform, "his eye in a fine 
frenzy rolling," his bosom swelling with patriotic emotion and 
his mind o'erburdened with grand and glorious thoughts. 
See him pound the air in frantic energy; howl out his "grand 


thoughts" with increasing fury, in the vain attempt to rise 
above the rush and roar around him and at the last in- 
gloriously subside amid the dolorous groanings of the bass 
drum and the scream of the "ear-piercing fife." 

But it is better now. It is a good change. The people are 
all becoming intelligent, and you could not humbug them now 
if you wanted to. The merchant will lay down his yard stick 
and talk to you learnedly about the silver question. The 
mechanic comes home and delves deep into the mysteries of 
the tariff. The farmer comes to town with his wheat and he 
goes home with a lot of newspapers. This is a glorious 
change. There are a thousand other advances that I might 
refer to, that will show to you, my friends, how favored you 
ought to consider yourselves that you are living in this age of 
wonderful advancement. One thing I was reminded of to- 
day that struck me quite forcibly. Manners have changed so. 
We have changed in the matter of sociability. This is com- 
mendable. I am told that I am in a prohibition state when I 
get over here in Iowa, but I don't believe I w r ould have 
thought it in walking up the streets of Keokuk. 

You would be truly shocked to hear what took place over 
in Springfield not a great many years ago. One neighbor 
over there went to another who was a good old deacon in one 
of the leading churches and told him he wanted to borrow a 
gallon or two of whiskey. "No," says the deacon, "I can't 
let you have any for we are going to have prayer meeting 
to-night and we will need every drop." That old deacon was 
a good man, but he had not advanced far enough to know 
that he was dabbling with what was harmful. 

Another advancement. Take the great question of edu- 
cation. How wondrous is the change in that particular! 
Why, as I told you before, and I may refer to it again, when 
I was a boy there was no such thing as going to school at all. 
I never went to school any. What little learning I got I took 
by absorption. 

We had a schoolmaster or two, possibly three or four, before 


I went out to work. You see I had to go to work early. My 
father was poor and I have managed to follow in his foot- 
steps. We did have occasionally a broken-down Yankee 
come along that way out of money who would take up a sub- 
scription school so as to get enough money to take him back 
east. They could make impressions on our backs but very 
few on our brains. 

But, as you have heard to-day, the country now is dotted 
over with school-houses, and no wonder that this American 
people, East and West, are giving birth to the wondrous 
enterprises that are astonishing the world. No wonder that 
the telephone and the telegraph and the railroads that are 
bearing the commerce of the country, are here. Why? 
Because the intelligence of the world is at work greater than 
ever before. Again, in the mode of living what an advance? 
When I was a boy, 10, 12, 14 and 15 years old, suppose you 
went to a meeting of any sort, and what would you see? Not 
such people, such faces as I see now. Not such bright eyes 
and pictures of physical health. Pale, sallow-complected 
women, and why? Because of the thousand exposures and 
privations. And then they didn't know how to live. 

I have thought a good deal about mental development in 
making a great people, but you must first see to the physical 
development and then the mental if possible, and the advance 
of this Western people is greater in nothing than it is in the 
manner of living. I don't know so well how it is over here 
in Iowa, but I know that in Illinois if I go to one of these 
picnics I will find myself invited (and I always look out for 
that) to help eat as fine a dinner with all the delicacies and 
fine cooking, the pies, the cakes, the bread, as can be found at 
any hotel in Chicago. 

People in this Western country have found out how to live. 
The school-master is so enlarging the brain of this people that 
in a generation or two the sun will shine on no such people as 
inhabit this Western land of ours. We are a wonderful people. 
We are a mixture, and I have faith in what we will be and in 


humanity in general. I believe the Almighty when He made 
man and looked on His work and pronounced it good, knew 
what He was talking about. You hear some people growling 
about the world not growing any better about its growing 
worse; never a thing going right, always something going 

I believe in no such nonsense. The world is getting better 
every way physically, intellectually and morally. Better in 
everything just as God intended it should do. I have no 
patience with those eternal growlers. I was over in Indiana 
once and I learned a lesson from a little girl over there. I 
had just got home from the army where I wasn't killed. I 
am sorry I said that, but I want you to understand I wasn't 
killed. However, I had got home and all I had was a mort- 
gage over in Indiana put in the hands of a lawyer to foreclose. 
I had borrowed enough money to get over there and try to 
collect what was coming to me, but when I got there I found 
the lawyer had foreclosed, collected the money and spent it. 
He was broke up and I didn't get a cent. If ever a mortal 
had the blues, I had them. I started home and I had twenty- 
five miles to ride in the stage to get to the railroad. Along in 
some of that beech-woods a little girl got in. We finally 
went down a long hill where the trees were so thick they 
made it dark. Just along where the trees were the thickest 
and the shadows the deepest, the little girl commenced to 
get out. And I says to her, " you don't live down here in 
the dark, do you?" She answers, "yes, I make my own sun- 

So I say to you all, " make your own sunshine and you won't 
be growling so much." You don't at all know what the old- 
timers suffered fifty or sixty years ago, and I hope you will 
never know. You have a perfect paradise to what they had. 
You have your pleasant mode of travel, your fine horses and 
your spring wagons ; your daughters to play on the piano, and 
your good wife there to take care of you. No music did those 
old-time fellows hear more than the music of a crying child. 


That was the music they had. You have everything to be 
thankful for. You and I have heard to-day from our friend 
Craig that it is only an imaginary line dividing Iowa and Illi- 
nois, and I know we are all very friendly, though you growl 
occasionally, I suppose, as we do over there. 

But compare your condition with that of your predecessors 
and you will then see that you ought not to complain but that 
you ought to send up one continual prayer of thankfulness for 
your manifold blessings. We have the best country in the 
world, not only in a political aspect, but in its social and moral 
aspects. In this country there is no man that need ever hear 
his children crying for bread; who can not make a living for 
his wife and children and for himself if he will? Of course if 
he wastes his time and drinks it up, such a thing may happen, 
but in this land of ours no one need ever hear his children cry 
for bread. That is not always so in other countries. There 
are people in other countries who can't make a living, who 
are crushed out by tyrannical government, but that is not true 
here. No man here upon whom God's bright sunshine falls, 
who has his hands and his strength with which to labor, but 
can have the common blessings of life. 

For this you ought to be thankful, and a song of unceasing 
thankfulness go up to the Grand Master instead of the growl- 
ing of some people who seem to want the whole earth. 
Those old-timers of fifty and sixty years ago had but one 
wish, that was to make their wives and their babies a home. 
They had no political ambition, which is too much the case 
now with many people. Every man should be a politician to 
a certain extent old settlers and young enough to enable 
them to perform their duties to their country. But too many 
run wild about power and place in this country. I was a 
pretty good mechanic, and they made a poor judge out of 
what might have been a good carpenter. There is too much 
of that sort of disposition in this country, and it would be well 
for us all to try to correct that sort of spirit. 

" How like the roaring devil, is the heart full of ambition !" 


Another thing that I might speak of as among the won- 
drous changes. And I know of no better place to speak of it 
than this. That is the spirit of resistance to law. What is 
law? You can not see it. You can not touch it, and yet it 
is the guardian angel that is to-day hovering over your homes 
protecting all you love from pillage and violence. It is the 
invisible power of law. There is a spirit growing abroad 
in the world that is disregarding the law; that is inclined to 
trample down this grand superstructure built by you. It is for 
the young men to guard this grand temple of legalized 
human freedom with the same sacred fidelity that your fathers 

We have a grand country that reaches from the Atlantic to 
the Pacific, from the colder regions of the North to the burn- 
ing sands of the South, and yet as broad as it is it is not big 
enough for more than one flag to float in it. 

There is no room for the red flag of anarchy. The star- 
spangled banner is big enough to reach from the north to 
the south, from the east to the west. When the black flag of 
treason was reared in the Sonth all men, without creed or 
distinction, without a moment's hesitation rushed to the rescue 
of the old flag. And now that another is being raised in this 
country I warn you whenever the time comes for you to act 
to trample that flag in the dust just as the Northern heroes 
trampled the Southern flag. 

I have reason to be proud of this country I love it. And 
I will tell you why I love it. I love it because it recognizes 
no grades or distinctions among men. I love it because 
the ways to power and distinction are open alike to the poor 
man's son as well as the rich man's. I love it because my boys, 
if they have the strength and courage, can win its honor as well 
as the man's boys whose wealth groans in bank vaults. My 
boys will get nothing from me. They learned that long ago. 
I have come to the conclusion that the best way for a man to 
do is to spend his last dollar in paying for his funeral services. 
If you leave thousands of dollars foi your children they will 


quarrel over it and not thank you for your pains in saving it. 
I learned that lesson long ago and am trying to follow it out. 
I want my boys to have the same chance that I had; I want 
them to have the same government to grow up in that I had, 
and I trust and believe that they will. I never exactly under- 
stood what the word patriotism meant. I never understood 
fighting for an abstraction. Love of country! I love this 
country because it protected Susan and the babies at home 
when I was away, and I would not have loved it if it had 
allowed them to be trampled upon. You love that country 
that you can rely upon and trust. We have got that sort of 
a country. 


THE family of the Hon. Charles T. Ransom, who died on 
the 5th of last April, have reprinted for private distribution, 
in a handsome miniature volume, some of the previously 
published notices referring to the death of this eminent mem- 
ber of the Iowa Bar. Its contents are composed of the 
beautiful tribute which appeared in the State Press, the reso- 
lutions of regret adopted by the Board of Curators of the 
State Historical Society, (of which Mr. Ransom at the 
the time of his death was a member,) and the Board of 
Regents of the State University, and memorial resolutions 
and other proceedings of the Johnson County Bar, of the 
Supreme Court of Iowa, and of the U. S. District Court for 

founded on fact Washington, D. C., Brodix Publishing Co., 
1888. This is a well written fictitious work with a political 
bent, designed to exemplify the benefits of a protective tariff. 
Captain Michael, the author, as a stripling was a brave volun- 
teer from Iowa during the war, first serving as a soldier in 
the nth Iowa, and afterwards as a commissioned officer in the 
navy, to which he was transferred from the army. After the 


war, upon completing his studies in the Iowa State University, 
he had an experience in journalism as the editor of an Iowa 
political newspaper before removing to Grand Island, Neb., 
his present home, and engaging in the practice of law. On 
the death of Ben : Perley Poore, he became the worthy suc- 
cessor of that scholarly writer in the official position at 
Washington which assigns to him the compilation of the 
Congressional Directory. We are happy to be able to 
promise some contributions from his pen to the RECORD. 

PROCEEDINGS of Crockers's Iowa Brigade at the fourth 
reunion, held at Davenport, Iowa, Wednesday and Thursday, 
September 2ist and 22d, 1887, is a neat pamphlet of 129 
pages from the press of Egbert, Fidlar & Chambers, of 
Davenport, for the compilation of which credit is due to the 
excellent literary taste of the Recording Secretary, Capt. John 
H. Munroe, who was a gallant soldier of the nth Iowa. 


MAJOR PETER MILLER, late of the i6th Iowa Vols., in a 
fit of dependency last September, died by his own hand, in 
New York City. Major Miller was born of German parents 
in Michigan, and was about fifty years of age. He assisted in 
raising Company F of the i6th, of which he became succes- 
sively Second Lieutenant, First Lieutenant, and Captain, and 
finally at the close of the war was promoted Major of his 
regiment. His remains, at his request, were buried beside his 
parents, at Ypsilanti, Mich., his former home. Major Miller 
while in the service was unremittingly at his post of duty, and 
had such spirits that he was gay when others drooped, and 
with voluble speech and hearty laugh made the camp ring. 
After attaining his majority he was the youngest officer of his 
rank of Crocker's Iowa Brigade, and one of the bravest, most 
generous, and most popular of that heroic body of veterans. 

COLONEL JOHN A. GRAHAM, formerly a resident of Keo- 
kuk, Iowa, of which city he had been mayor in the old pioneer 


days, died at Washington, D. C., on the 22d day of last April,, 
in the fullness of ninety years, For the last twenty-seven 
years of his life Colonel Graham had been a resident of Wash- 
ington City, and from 1861 to 1876 was an officer in the 
Register's office of the United States Treasury Department. 
Before coming to Iowa his home had been in Merrick County, 
Indiana, where for twenty-one years he had been Clerk of the 
County Court. 

OZIAH PHELPS WATERS died at his home in Burlington, 
Iowa, on the 28th of last June, aged fifty-eight years. He 
was Past Grand Master of Masons in Iowa, and Past Grand 
Commander of Knights Templar, and was a most worthy 
exponent of this beneficent Order. At the time of his death 
he was the chief representative in Iowa of the Equitable Life 
Assurance Society of the United States. 


MR. C. F. DAVIS, of Keokuk, some time ago at his own 
expense erected a monument to the Indian Chief Keokuk, 
which stands in the park on the Mississippi river bluff just 
north of the city which was named after this celebrated 

SOME provisions should be made, as is well suggested by a 
writer in the 'Des Moines Register lately, by the legislature at 
its next session looking to the purchase and preservation of 
valuable relics of the late war associated with the names 
of distinguished soldiers from our state. The sword of Gen. 
Marcellus M. Crocker is mentioned as a typical representative 
of the class of articles referred to. From the heroism of the 
man who unsheathed it in the cause of the Union it reflects 
a lustre upon the whole state. Propriety forbids a solicitation 
of it as a donation to the rich commonwealth of Iowa from his 
meagerly pensioned widow, but a proffer of its purchase 
would be an honorable proceeding on the part of the state, 
which should preserve it as one of its most precious relics of 
the civil war. 


VOL. V. JANUARY, 1889. No. i. 


[HE edicts of heredity are as inviolable as any other 
natural laws. One born with a disposition to recti- 
tude will generally lean to virtue even if environed 
by the temptations of vicious example, while another, innately 
influenced by a sinister bias, will often fall into vice over the 
props and barriers of education and religious teaching. And 
so, for the origin of a noble manhood, one naturally inclining 
to charity, honesty, courage, and general virile grandeur, we 
look back to parental sources for the springs of these virtues. 
The high qualities which embellish the character of a good 
man may be developed through the influences of education 
and the church, but generally we cannot expect a child born 
of criminal parents to grow into the excellencies of character 
which distinguish the good any more than we would look for 
a Rarus from an ordinary strain of horses or an Astrakhan 
apple from a wild apple tree. 

In the integrity of his parents no less than in their moral 
example and instruction we find the mainspring of the honora- 
ble character and career of James Lee. 

His father, William Lee, was born in Glasgow, Scotland, 
in 1809, and his mother in Edinburg the following year, both 


of immemorial Scottish moral hereditaments. When a boy, 
after acquiring a fair education, which Scotch law and usage, 
above every other division of the British kingdom, provides 
and insists upon, his father, to learn the trade of a book-binder, 
was apprenticed for seven years by beaded indenture to Fisher 
& Brothers, an extensive publishing firm of his native city, who 
have also since established a branch of their house in New 
York City. 

Seven years is a long time for a boy of fourteen to surrender 
his liberty, and we may well suppose that, after reading the story 
of Robinson Crusoe, or seeing the white sails of the ships in 
the harbor of Glasgow outward bound for blue water, and 
hearing the hoarse but melodious voices of the sailors slowly 
singing the refrain: 

" A handy ship and a handy crew," 

he sometimes tired of the monotony of folding and stitching, 
paper ruling and pressing, and longed to partake of that free- 
dom which he knew to be over the sea, for some of his 
brothers, he being the youngest, ere this had become hardy 
and adventurous sailors. 

Having faithfully served his apprenticeship to the end, he 
bent his steps toward the world's metropolis, London, where 
he soon found employment at his trade. Here in St. Mar- 
garet's Chapel, an appendage of Westminster Abbey, he 
was married to Miss Jean Murray, November 28, 1830, by the 
the Rev. I. T. Connel, of the Church of England, the Church 
of his faith. Here, also, his daughter and four sons were born 
and here too his wife died, and was buried from the same 
church she had been married in, to be followed soon by the 
youngest son, Robert, who was buried beside his mother. 

In 1845, dissatisfied with the circumscribed sphere in which 
as a working man he was confined, and yearning for the oppor- 
tunities afforded by republican liberty in America, sentiments 
which were fostered by a political organization to which he 
was attached, he determined to seek his fortune in the New 
World, and with his four children, sailed in the ship Prince 


Albert from London for New York, arriving safely in the latter 
place after a voyage of thirty days. 

In July of the same year he started for the West by the Erie 
Canal and the lakes, going to Milwaukee, Wisconsin, where 
he remained till the spring of 1848, when he removed to St. 
Louis, Missouri. In St. Louis he was employed as foreman 
in the book-bindery of James Hogan till 1851. 

In 1851 Iowa City was the capital of the young state of 
Iowa, and the firm of Palmer & Paul were the proprietors of 
the Iowa Capitol Reporter (the embryo of the State Press of 
to-day) a weekly newspaper, the leading organ in the State of 
the Democratic party, and, as its name implied, published at 
the capital. This firm, composed of Major Garrett Palmer, 
who quite recently died at Winterset, Iowa, and the Hon. 
George Paul, the present postmaster at Iowa City, were at this 
time the State Printers and Binders. They were adepts in 
the art of printing, but had no practical knowledge of binding, 
and there being then but one bindery in all Iowa, and that of 
but limited capacity, they were compelled to resort 
to the slow, expensive and unsatisfactory method of sending 
this class of work to St. Louis to be done. At that time St. 
Louis held the same relation to Iowa that a mother's apron- 
string does to a child. If anything was lacking here Iowa 
caught on to St. Louis. So Mr. Paul turned thither in search 
of a competent book-binder, who might be induced to remove 
to Iowa, and here bind the Legislative Journals and Acts, and 
the Code, seven thousand copies of the latter having been 
ordered by the General Assembly. His inquiries brought him 
to Mr. Lee, with whom Mr. Paul returned to Iowa City. 

Here Mr. Lee was enabled to realize his long cherished 
ambition to establish a book store, which he did in about a year 
after coming to Iowa, in connection with the State binding. 
The work turned out of his bindery, under the contract of 
Palmer & Paul, was most satisfactory, so much so that the 
Iowa Code of 1851 is referred to to this day as the most dur- 
able specimen of book-binding ever done in the State. He 


prospered abundantly. His book store was the only one in 
Iowa City till 1862, and having passed from father to son, and 
from son to sister, still flourishes under the management of Lee 
& Ries as "The Pioneer Book Store." 

Mr. Lee died April 23, 1871, at the age of sixty-two. On 
feeling that the hand of death was upon him, he summoned his 
children and his old-time friend, Mr. Paul, to his bedside, and 
verbally communicated to them his wishes as to the disposition 
of the independent fortune he had secured, discarding the form 
of a written will. He also laid upon his children wholesome 
injunctions, one of which was to decline the proffer of any 
public office. He prohibited the least ostentation at his 
funeral and forbade any inscription on his' tomb. He was so 
averse to anything which might seem the result of vanity that 
he would never sit for a picture. His character for probity, 
benevolence and scrupulous business exactness was of the 
highest. He was very attentive to his patrons, and could not 
tolerate any negligence toward them on the part of his 
employes. In the latter years of his life the delicacy of his 
health prevented him from performing the duties of a salesman, 
but he usually sat in the rear part of his store, where he 
received and entertained his friends in social converse, and if 
a customer seemed to be unnoticed his quick eye immediately 
detected it, and he gave expression to a resonant, sound as if 
clearing his throat, which immediately brought every clerk to 
his feet. 

James Lee, the particular subject of this sketch, with such 
a father as has been outlined in the foregoing, could hardly 
fail to fill an honorable career in whatever he might have 
engaged in. He was born May 4th, 1839, * n tne c ^y ^ 
London. One of the three million of that seething metropolis, 
where no lull or hush ever comes to the strife and roar of 
commerce and business, the chance would seem to have been 
small for him to have secured so much distinction in a short 
life of less than fifty years as to entitle him to a place in the 
pages of even so modest a history as this. But, like Hermes, 


before he was well out of his cradle clothes he began to make 
provision for himself, and to lay the foundation of that 
character for honorable endeavor and rectitude of purpose 
which he inherited through his parents from a long line of 
Scotch ancestry. When only eleven years old he began to 
earn his own living in the office of the St. Louis Re-publican, 
where he worked one year before coming to Iowa with his 
father, acquiring the rudiments of the printer's art. On 
coming to Iowa he resumed this occupation, entering the office 
of the Iowa Capitol Reporter in the autumn of 1851, and 
leaving it, after having mastered the business, in 1859, * 
accompany his brother William on his intended journey to 
Pike's Peak. But after penetrating the wilderness of 
Nebraska, then infested with hostile Indians, forty miles 
beyond Omaha they met the return tide of disappointed emi- 
grants with such bad news that they reversed their course and 
returned home. The next year, with Gaelic perseverance, 
he desired to undertake the expedition again, but his father, 
dissenting he dutifully yielded his wishes. And this filial 
reverence for parental desire was common to the whole family. 
His sister Margaret, in deference to her father's opinion, sup- 
pressed the tenderest sensibilities of a woman's heart. Mr. 
Lee was in everything a self-sacrificing person, wont to take a 
cheerful view of everything. "Take people as they are, not 
as you wish them to be," was an every-day saying of his. 

A very beautiful association, founded on friendship, mutual 
confidence and a community of taste, which lasted for many 
years, and until interrupted by death, was formed between 
Mr. Lee, Mr. Charles G. Reiff and Mr. George P. Plumly, 
who died a short time before Mr. Lee. These three for many 
years were inseparable. Their meetings were daily, and their 
expeditions by field and flood many. Mr. Reiff, as the senior, 
soon came to be looked upon as the mentor of the party, and 
as such was humorously styled "Dad." If a project of doubt- 
ful propriety were broached, the question as to what "Dad" 
would say at once arose. If it were likely to meet with his 


approval it was adopted, if not it was rejected. And if, 
without due consideration, some enterprise had been engaged 
in sure to be condemned by their chief, the word was passed, 
"Don't tell Dad." 

The Riverside Boat Club, which planned and arranged for 
their friends many delightful encampments and aquatic excur- 
sions from their boat-house at Butler's Landing on the east 
bank of the Iowa, two miles above Iowa City, drew much of 
its inspiration and social 'charm from these three bachelors, 
Mr. Reiff acting as caterer and generally preceding the others 
by a day or two to make full preparation. The other original 
members of the Riverside Boat Club were John P. Irish, 
Green Choate,* M. W. Davis, S. J. Hess, H. O. Hutchison* 
and Ed. Clinton.* 

His fondness for field sports sometimes took him beyond 
the camping grounds of the boat house club. The beautiful 
lake region of our state occasionally attracted him there with 
other huntsmen. Six years ago, with Mr. George W. Koontz 
and others, he visited Pelican Lake in Palo Alto County, 
where the blue-bills and other game were very plenty and the 
neighboring country not yet sufficiently settled or cultivated to 
obliterate the charms of its wild and native scenery, and where 
he could indulge his passion for hunting, fishing and camping 

Mr. Lee visited Colorado several times during the fifteen 
years preceding his death, formerly on business, latterly in 
quest of health. The "stone of destiny" venerated by the 
ancient Caledonians on account of its having been used by 
the old Scottish kings and queens to stand upon during the 
ceremony of their coronation, which in the superstition of the 
times was regarded as the sure guaranty of fortune to its 
possessors, and which is now preserved as a relic in West- 
minster Abbey, near which Mr. Lee was born and lived as a 
child, would seem, to prolong the superstition to the present, to 

* Deceased. 


have imparted to him some of the good fortune which it was 
supposed to have the magic power to confer. 

Cinnidh Scuit saor am fine, 
Mar breug am faistine : 
Fur am faighear un lia-fail, 
Dlighe flaitheas do ghabhail. 

The race of free Scots shall abound, 

If this prediction do not fail, 
Where e'er the stone of destiny 's found, 

By Heaven's right they shall prevail. 

Or, more literally, "the race of the free Scots shall flourish, 
if this prediction is not false; wherever the stone of destiny 
is found, they shall prevail by the right of Heaven." 

At any rate, his trips to Colorado, probably more by wise 
selection and judicious investment than by simple good fortune, 
crowned him with golden affluence, and, with other accumula- 
tions, enabled him to leave a fortune which moderate com- 
putation puts high in the thousands. 

It has been mentioned that Mr. Lee's father advised his sons 
against accepting public office, which was really an unneces- 
sary precept, as they have all been averse to holding public 
trusts. Nevertheless they have all literally had offices thrust 
upon them, and in this way Mr. Lee held the office of trustee 
in the City Council of Iowa City for the term of two years, 
beginning March, 1873, and that of a member of the Board of 
Supervisors of Johnson County for the term of three years, 
beginning January 1877, in both of which positions his services 
were characterized by the same business prudence that marked 
the conduct of his own private affairs. 

After his father's death Mr. Lee continued his residence 
at the family home in Iowa City, with his only sister, Margaret, 
for whom he had a sincere fraternal affection which was 
warmly reciprocated. Their's was a quiet hospitable home, 
with an ample board and a gracious welcome for all who 
came, and serenity and content seemed there permanently 
established. But illness and decline gradually came to Mr. 
Lee, and after a year-and-a-half of ill health, upon partially 


recovering his strength, in May of last year, accompanied by 
his devoted sister, he sought for a more complete restoration 
in the mountain breeze of Colorado, which before had given 
him health and fortune, and in the society of his two brothers 
and their families. The change brought amendment. Steady 
improvement inspired hope, and new plans were being formed 
for further travel, when death came to him suddenly at the 
home of his brother Henry in Denver on May 8th. 

His remains were brought by his sister and brothers to 
Iowa City, where on the 22d they were deposited beside his 
father's in Oakview Cemetery, followed there by a large 
concourse of friends. 

A special meeting of the Board of Curators of the State 
Historical Society was held on the receipt of the news of Mr. 
Lee's death, at which the board adopted the following. 

WHEREAS, James Lee, a member of this society for twenty years and for 
seventeen years a member of this board has been removed from among us: 

Resolved, That in his death this society loses an active and valuable mem- 
ber, the community a citizen who by a life of integrity and a high-toned 
honorable business career has retained the character established by his father 
half a century ago. The two, father and son, have made the name of Lee 
honored ever since the settlement of this portion of the state. 

Resolved, That a copy of these resolutions be sent to the members of his 
family and furnished the press for publication. 

Resolved, That the members of this society attend the funeral in a body. 

Never having been married the immediate relatives left by 
Mr. Lee are his sister Margaret, who resides at the old 
homestead in Iowa City, his elder brother William, who mar- 
ried Miss Mary Jane McBride and has four children, and who 
resides on his farm near Denver, Colorado, where he settled in 
1859, before the organization of Colorado as a territory, and 
where he was elected and served as a member of the conven- 
tion, which in 1875-6 framed the constitution of the centennial 
state; and his younger brother, Henry, who married Miss 
Jennie, the daughter of Hon. George Paul, and has three 
children. This brother is a prominent merchant of the city of 
Denver, which has been his home since the early settle- 


ment of Colorado in 1865, and where he has been elected to 
the lower branch of the Legislature twice and to the Senate 

The predominant elements of Mr. Lee's character were 
derived from his Scotch extraction. He wore not the bonnet 
nor the breacan, nor did he retain the Scotch accentuation. 
But the Gaslic traits of benevolence, personal independence 
and obstinate friendship were his. The continuity of his 
friendship was above all a distinguishing feature of the man, 
and was well shown in the loyalty of his interest in an 
acquaintance, at one time prosperous but afterwards indigent, 
whom he cared for in his long poverty and sickness, supplying 
all his wants, and finally defraying his funeral expenses, the 
chief claim of the recipient of his bounty being that he was a 



'Let all the ends them aim'st at be thy country's, thy God's, 

and trutlt^^ Shakespeare. 
"Truth is brought to light by time." Tacitus. 
Magna est vcritas et prevalebit. 

JOME seven, and five, and three years ago we wrote 
and published articles under the same or a similar 
heading to that which forms the query we have 
again essayed to answer. 

In each and all of those essays we told the " the truth, and 
nothing but the truth;" but upon neither of the occasions did 
we "tell the whole truth;" because we did not, as too 
many do who scribble for the press upon such themes, profess 
^to "know it all." We have essayed to again "speak in public" 


and take for our following the same text. And we can truth- 
fully say with the immortal few, that our aim is to glorify our 
state, "render honor to whom honor is due," and to vindicate 
the truth, "only this and nothing more." The time which has- 
elapsed since we wrote our first and last paper upon this topic 
has "brought to light" new truths and "more light." And 
it may be that our contributions shall afford some data for the 
historian who shall undertake the task of writing the "History 
of Education in Iowa." 

We propose to follow this paper with one upon the "Early 
School Legislation in Iowa," the necessity for which may be 
found and made apparent by the following extract which we 
clipped from one of the many papers in Iowa which gave it 
a place in their columns. 


It is probably not generally known that Hon. Horace Mann, the educator of 
Massachusetts, was the founder of the Iowa public school system, and which has 
made it one of the foremost states in the Union. When he was president of 
Antioch College he was selected by a committee of the legislature to prepare 
a law embodying his ideas of a public school system, which he did, providing 
for the the township as the unit in school administration, teachers' institutes, 
county superintendents and normal schools for teachers. Although his law 
was far in advance of the public sentiment of that day, and the legislature did 
not adopt it entire, they did adopt the fundamental principle of it and have 
since been adding to the structure according to Mr. Mann's idea, as public 
sentiment would warrant. It was the earnest desire of that great educator to 
see his plans carried but in Iowa. 

There are several fundamental errors in this statement, 
which some over-zealous friend has set afloat to belittle 
the state and defraud others as far back as the date of the 
organization of the territory in 1838 of the honor their due. 
President Mann was not "the founder of the Iowa public 
school system," nor was "he selected by a committee of the 
legislature to prepare a law," etc., as we will prove in a sub- 
sequent article. More than this, Iowa had established a State 
"Normal School" in 1849; held "Teachers Institutes" in 1849, 
and the "Township System" had been recommended as early 
as 1838 and often later. Mr. Mann's report was not presented 


till December, 1856, reminding us of the fable of the "wolf 
and the lamb." 

Again the necessity of a thorough research into the history 
of "Early Education in Iowa" is made apparent from the fact 
that no less than three living persons claim the honor of being 
"the first teacher of the first school in Iowa." It is a histori- 
cal fact that seven cities of the ancient world put in a claim to 
the honor of having been the birth place of Homer the 
greatest poet of all time and the sweet singer of Greece. 
Why, therefore, following so illustrious a precedent, should not 
a citizen of Iowa, of Illinois, and of distant Oregon put in 
their claim and contest for the honor in view. 

In an autobiographical sketch of one of our "old settlers," 
published in 1883, the author claims that "he (we will not name 
him, because of the gross absurdity of his claims,) was the 
first teacher of the first school in Iowa." The absurdity not 
to say folly of his claim is presented by himself in a further 
paragraph, where he adds that "he opened his school in 
Burlington, the first Monday in November, 1838." All 
readers of Iowa history know the Territory of Iowa was 
separated from Wisconsin and organized July 1838, and Wis- 
consin and Iowa separated from Michigan Territory, when it 
became a state in June 1836 and that both were "attached for 
judicial purposes to Michigan in April 1834. There was 
therefore an organized government for Iowa from 1834 to 
1838 and until it became a state in 1846. The population of 
Iowa in 1836 was 10,531 and in 1838, 22,859 among whom 
there were, as any one might know, some children of a 
school age. At the date of our admission into the Union 
(1846) the population was 102,388. And in 1856 when Hon. 
Horace Mann presented his . "revision and improvement of 
school laws of Iowa," and not a new "public school system," 
the population was 517,875. It is hardly presumable even by 
a gullible person that half a million people mostly emigrants 
from the New England and Eastern States had lived and 
prospered for twenty years without a "public school system." 


So too must every one know, as the old settler aforesaid ought 
to have known, that the people of either ten or twenty 
thousand had not suffered their children to run wild without the 
benefit of schools for a period of either two or four years as 
his statement asserts. 

In our first paper we were unable from the data at our 
command to trace a school back of and prior to the spring of 
1834, taught in Dubuque in a building (of which more anon) 
erected in 1833 for "the use of the Methodist Episcopal 
Church," but when not occupied for divine service might "be 
used for a common school," as it was the following year. 

The publication of that paper brought forth new claimants 
and "further light" upon the subject of our "Early Schools 
and School Teachers." In 1866 the Burlington Gazette put 
forth the claim of I. K. Robinson of Mendota, as the first to 
teach a school in Iowa, in the winter of 1830-31 in Lee 
County. Before the date of the Gazette article, December 
1886, we had secured evidence that Mr. Berryman Jennings 
(published in the Minutes of the Old Settlers Association of 
Lee County, as Benjamin Jennings) had also taught school in 
Lee County in 1830. It may prove a matter of interest as 
illustrating the course pursued and the difficulties in the way, 
obstructing our earlier efforts to get at the facts and elicit 
the truth we sought, to present some of these mountains 
which we later reduced to mole-hills. We accidentally fell in 
with a paragraph stating that one Benjamin Jennings had 
taught school in Lee County as early as 1830. But an ex- 
tended correspondence with the early settlers failed to inform 
us who he was, or if living where he resided. As a Mason 
and custodian of the large Masonic Library of the Grand 
Lodge of Iowa, we had long known that Berryman Jennings 
was the first Grand Master of the Grand Lodge of Oregon, 
organized in 1851. After some correspondence with the 
officials of that jurisdiction we learned that Berryman Jennings 
quite old and very feeble resided at Oregon City, an old but 
small town on the Willamette river, and some ten or fifteen 


miles above Portland (also on the same river and not the 
Columbia as most people supposed). We accordingly addressed 
him a letter, and another when after some months we received 
from him a long and interesting letter, in his own hand. This 
letter is so full of important facts and promising great interest 
to the new as well as old settlers that we transcribe it for 
preservation in a durable form (the original is in the autograph 
collection we gave the Grand Lodge in June last). 

OREGOX CITY, November 28, 1884. 
T. S. PARVIN, P. G. M., Iowa City, Iowa. 

Dear Sir and Brother : Y6ur letter of January yth asking whether Berry- 
man, rather than Benjamin Jennings, taught school in Lee County, Iowa, in 
1830, was received. I could not use the pen then, nor can I now, but will try 
with a pencil to reply. I was residing on the Half Breed Tract, now part of 
Lee County in 1830. Dr. Garland (We knew him well the name is incor- 
rectly spelled; it is Galland his son Washington is now, 1888, living, and the 
earliest settler in Iowa at Montrose, Lee County,) an eminent physician and 
citizen lived six miles above the present site of Keokuk on the Mississippi 
river, near where resided several American citizens who had children of a 
school age. The doctor prevailed upon me to teach a three month's school. 
Dr. Garland furnished room, fuel, furniture, and board in his family- While 
teaching he gave me the use of his medical books (with which he was well 
supplied) to read. And after school I continued to read then till mid-summer 
of 183:, when I was taken sick. Convalescing, I returned to my father in 
Warren County, 111. [It will be borne in mind that young Robinson, whose 
parents also resided in Illinois, did the same thing, removed to his father's 
home when school was out.] 

This school room was, as all other buildings in that new country, a log 
cabin built of round logs or poles notched close, and mudded for comfort. 
Logs cut out for doors and windows, and also fire-places. The jamb-back of 
the fire-places was of packed dry dirt, the chimney topped out with sticks and 
mud. The cabin, like all others of that day, was covered with clapboards, 
weighted down with cross poles. This was to economize time and nails, which 
were scarce and far between. There were no stoves in those days and the fire- 
place was used for cooking as well as comfort. You mention Capt. Campbell, 
who went with his father to Iowa in 1830. I remember an Isaac R. Campbell, 
who went from near Nauvoo, 111., to Iowa in 1830. I can hardly realize that 
the lad Campbell (a son of the former) whom I then knew and who would 
now be sixty years old, is still a resident there. I would like to relate many 
incidents of the early settlement of that county, but fear 1 might make 
mistakes, as some others have done. 

Dr. Ross, whom I knew well, made some mistakes. [He refers to his 
address read at the semi-centennial celebration of the settlement of Iowa, at 
Burlington in 1883. Dr. Ross, whom we also knew well, was the first post- 


master in Iowa, at Burlington in 1834, an< ^ a ' so furnished a room in his house 
for the first school in Burlington in 1834, taught by Zadoc C. Ingraham, who 
died in Missouri the past winter. His son, Mr. I., is now a citizen of Burling- 
ton. Dr. Ross died at Lovilia, Iowa, also this last winter.] Capt. Campbell's 
mistake in my name is easily accounted for. I usually sign my name "B." 
I do not remember the names of the pupils of my school [Bro. J. is quite old, 
over eighty years and quite feeble] or of my patrons, but I do remember that I 
taught school in Iowa in 1830, and that it was the first school taught north of 
Missouri and west of the Mississippi river a very large school district extend- 
ing to Canada on the north and the Pacific ocean on the west, where there are 
now some thirteen or more states and territories. What a growth in fifty-five 
years! About thirty years ago I met Dr. Garland in Sacramento, Cal., totter- 
ing with old age. Some say he was buried near Sacramento, with no stone to 
mark his grave, others that he died at Ft. Madison. I don't know. [We do, 
he died at Ft. Madison in 1858, where he had first located in 1828.] Thus one 
after another of the old settlers pass away and are soon forgotten, [a sad truth, 
for they builded wiser than they knew," and the present generation of citizens 
are enjoying the fruit of their toil and labor to build a state.] 

Your Annals [I had sent him the periodical published by the State Historical 
Society] of loiva will perpetuate the names and services of some of them for 
the benefit of future historians. 

With fraternal regards, etc. 


This letter, around which clusters so much of interest to 
old settlers and those seeking to unravel the mysteries con- 
nected with the early history of our state and especially its 
educational history, failed to give the date (save the year) in 
which he taught that "first school." It was at that time 
(1884) however deemed conclusive and so we stated in our 
second paper in 1886. The Gazette's claim of priority later 
in that year reopened the question, when having obtained the 
address of Mr. Robinson, in whose behalf the Gazette put 
forth the claim, we addressed him a letter of inquiry as to the 
month in the year 1830, he had taught his school. To that 
letter he promptly and courteously replied as follows: 

MENDOTA, ILL., January 20, 1887. 
T. S. PARVIN, Cedar Rapids, Iowa. 

Dear Sir and Brother: In answer to your letter of inquiry of the J7th 
inst., about "the early schools in Iowa," I answer, I commenced teaching a 
school December ist, 1830, in the employment of a Mr. Stillwell, who was 
then the owner of a warehouse and wood yard at the present site of Keokuk, 
Iowa. His only child large enough attended the school. A brother of Mrs. 


Stilhvell, whose Christian name I have forgotten, but whose surname was 
Vanausdal, Seth Wagoner and his brother of ''Wagoner's Run," Hancock 
County, 111., one or two children of Mr. Brierly, a sister of Mrs. Forsythe, a 
Chippewa Indian girl and I think a son of Dr. Muir were as I remember, 
members of my school. It is possible that Capt. Campbell, of Fort Madison, 
can furnish you the address of Mrs Stillwell and her brother Vanausdal as they 
were living in the summer of 1884. The school was conducted until some 
time in the spring of 1831. The winter was one of remarkable severity and 
noted for the great amount of snow falling at one time, being over two feet in 
depth. If there were any schools in Iowa previous to this one, I do not know 
where or by whom taught. Battese, a full-blooded Indian boy, and adopted 
bv Mr. Blondeau in his familv, informed me that he had went to school and 
learned the letters and could spell words of one syllable but that he go* flogged 
every time he went to recite his lessons. He was probably attending the same 
school with Mr. Blondeau's daughters at St. Charles or Portage de Sioux, Mo. 

Yours respectfully, 


In his subsequent letters he supplies two omissions, and 
gives the name of Mr. Seth Wagoner's brother as "Christian" 
and Mr. Vanausdal's Christian name as "Valentine." 

One of Mr. Brierly's sons, a pupil of Mr. Robinson, is also 
living in this state. His father, James, was one of the repre- 
sentatives from Lee County in the legislature which met at 
Burlington (the first) November 1838. 

This letter of Mr. Robinson disproves the criticism of the 
papers alluded to above, that "there were no settlers in Iowa 
in 1830, and that "Mr. R. taught school in Iowa in the winter 
of 1829-30." 

This letter so courteously written in response to our request 
establishes the fact that "a school was kept" at the landing-^ 
the present site of Keokuk, Lee County, as early as Decem- 
ber ist, 1830, and was taught by Mr. I. K. Robinson, then a 
young man, now an octogenarian residing at Mendota, 111. 

A word explanatory of the fact disputed by the State 
Register when we published our third article that there were 
children in Iowa at so early a period as 1830. We have seen 
that Iowa, first called the "Iowa District of Wisconsin," west 
of the Mississippi river, was first organized into a government 
as an attachment to the Territory of Michigan, but only for 


"judicial purposes" to throw the aegis of the law over the 
miners of the "lead mines" in the vicinity of Dubuque. 
There are yet a few of those early miners residing there, who 
commenced mining "under difficulties" as early as General 
Jackson's election in 1828. The difficulties were that before 
the Blackhawk War of 1832 and the capture of that grand 
chieftain, the strip of country along the Mississippi river ceded 
in 1832 was not to be opened to settlement till the spring of 
1833, and the settlers (squatters) were often removed (trans- 
ported across the river) by the U. S. troops, stationed at Fort 
Crawford, Prairie du Chien, under command of Captain, 
afterward General and President Taylor and his lieutenant, 
afterward the famous Jeff. Davis. 

But prior to this in the year 1824, the Indians, Sacs and 
Foxes, in a treaty ceding a portion of their lands in Missouri 
and Illinois, ceded to half-breeds of their tribe the celebrated 
"half-breed tract," comprising a large portion of the county of 
Lee, on the Des Moines Rapids. 

Later the "New York Company" purchased of a portion of 
those half-breeds their share (for they held it in common), 
and sent parties out to reside upon and hold it. Man}* of 
those persons were heads of families and had children, and at 
that early day established schools (we purposely use the plural) 
on the tract. 

The priority of claim was still in doubt upon receipt of 
this interesting and valuable letter of Mr. Jennings giving 
particularly the month of the year in which he taught that 
so-called first school. We addressed the same query to 
Captain James W. Campbell, then and now one of the leading 
business men of Ft. Madison, Lee County, where he has 
resided for almost sixty years. Mr. Campbell was one of Mr. 
Jennings' pupils, whereupon his testimony becomes conclusive 
of the fact to which he testifies. As these letters are historical 
evidences of an essential fact elucidating the early history of 
education in Iowa, we present them to our readers in this 
form for preservation for the use of the future historian of 


Iowa. That from Mr. Jennings was written by his daughter 
and is as follows: 

OREGON CITY, February 14, 1887. 

Dear Sir: Your favor of the 24th was received some days ago when my 
father was laboring under a severe illness. He is recovering, but unable to 
attend to his correspondence, and I hasten to reply for him. He does not 
remember the exact month, it is so long ago, but it was in the fall of 1830 that 
he commenced his school and closed that year in December, as near as he can 
recollect. Father left Iowa and came here (Oregon) in the year 1847. [Here 
follows some data furnished for a sketch of his life we will present in our 
Masonic annals should we survive our aged brother.] 

Yours respectfully, 


The following is the letter from Capt. Campbell who not 
only fully corroborates the statement of Mr. Jennings but is 
more full and minute. 

FT. MADISON, March 2oth, 1887. 

I have delayed answering your question relative to the authenticity of the 
facts stated as to the first school taught in Iowa. I now have information 
which is unquestionable, and communicate to you the following facts: 

Berry man Jennings was the first to teach a regular school in Iowa, which 
he did at what is now Nashville, Lee County, Iowa, in October, 1830. This 
locality was then known as Ahwipetuc on the Half-breed Reservation. The 
first school taught at Pucke-she-tuc, now Keokuk, was taught by Jere Creigh- 
ton in the winter of 1832-33. He was a shoe-maker by occupation and about 
sixty years of age then, and came from New Orleans, La. The attendants at 
Creighton's school at Keokuk were Valincourt Vanorsdal, Valincourt Stillwell, 
Margaret Stillwell, Forsythe Morgan, John Rigg, alias Keokuk John, George 
Crawford, Henry C. Bartlett, Mary Bartlett. Mary Muir, Sophia Muir, Michael 
Forsythe, Eliza J. Anderson and the writer, J. VV. Campbell. 

In regard to the claim of Mr. I. K. Robinson's friend that he taught the first 
school in Iowa, there is some mistake. He, or his frienJ for him claim that 
Valincourt Vanorsdal and the Muir children attended his school. I have a 
letter now from Vanorsdal stating the contrary. Now I have in my posses- 
sion Dr. Muir's books, which show that he was a practicing physician at Gale- 
na, 111., and did not remove to Iowa (Keokuk) till the autumn of 1830, a short 
time before Berryman Jennings opened his school at Ah-wi-pe-tuc. And 
further, I have in my possession Mr. I. K. Robinson's receipt, signed by Chauncey 
Robinson, for school services at Commerce (then 1830) now Nauvoo, at which 
school I attended August 5th, 1830, on the hill in the Gouch school house, 
about three hundred feet east of where the Mormon Temple was in after years 
built. Mr. Robinson is in error in his statement that Francis Labersure was 
one of his scholars, He was not less than twenty-six years old at that time, 
and was far advanced in educational accomplishments over Mr. Robinson or 


any one else at Keokuk at that date. He was educated at a Jesuit school at 
Portage de Sioux under the supervision of the Chouteaus, and was their inter- 
preter for the American Fur Company at that time. Mr. R. claims he was an 
attendant at his school taught in 1830 1831. [This Indian or Half-breed, called 
by Mr. Campbell, Labersure, must be the same person that Mr. Robinson calls 
in his letter, Battese.] 

I think it superfluous to add more in refutation of the claim of Mr. Robin- 
son being the first school teacher in Iowa. That honor belongs to Berry man 
Jennings, of Oregon, and his pupils now living, Capt. Washington Galland, at 
Montrose, Lee County, Tolliver Dedman, and myself assert these facts. 

Yours truly, J. W. CAMPBELL. 

Not having the address of Mr. Dedman, and having per- 
sonally known Capt. Galland for nearly fifty years, we ad- 
dressed him and give his reply in corroboration of Capt. 
Campbell's statement. 

Not that any further evidence is needed, though it makes 
" assurance doubly sure," but as containing additional facts 
bearing upon that very early period in our history we append 
the letter addressed us upon the same and other subjects by 
Capt. Washington Galland now as at that early date a citizen 
of Lee County. We are certain we need offer no apology for the 
insertion of these letters in full rather than present extracts 

Capt. Galland writes: 

MONTROSE, IOWA, April i6th, 1887. 
PROF. T. S. PARVIN, Cedar Rapids: 

Dear Sir and Brother : Replying to your favor of the gth in regard to the 
school taught by Berryman Jennings, now a P. G. M. of Oregon, I would say 
from my best recollection and limited data at my command, that the time must 
have been the fall and winter of 1830, and the place Ah-wi pe-tuck (the Indian 
name), afterwards " Brierly's Point," then Nashville, and now changed by order 
of the Board of Supervisors of Lee County, to the town of Galland, that being 
the name of the post-office. 

The " settlers" resident with families then were, as far as I can now remem- 
ber, Dr. Isaac Galland (my father), Isaac R. Campbell (father of Capt. J. W. 
Campbell), James and Samuel Brierly Samuel afterwards married Sophia, a 

daughter of Dr. Galland W. P. Smith, Col. Dedman (father to Tolliver, 

referred in Capt. C.'s letter), and Abel Galland. My father's brother lived with 
his family in a cabin some distance back from the river and on the hill. Among 
those without.families was Berryman Jennings, our school teacher. 

Among the young people who were his pupils I can only remember the 
following names: James W. Campbell, Tolliver Dedman, James Dedman, 


David Galland, Thomas Briefly, Eliza Galland, and I think, but am not sure, 
George W. Kinnev, then a lad of fifteen or sixteen years of age (a brother of 
my mother), and myself. 

With sincere and fraternal regards, 


The testimony here produced and from living witnesses and 
all of them parties either teachers or pupils of the first two 
schools taught in Iowa conclusively establishes the following 
facts : 

ist. That Berryman Jennings, now of Oregon City, Ore- 
gon, taught a and the_/2rs/ school in Iowa, in Lee County, near 
the present site of Nashville on the Des Moines Rapids, Octo- 
ber to December inclusive, 1830. 

That three of the pupils of the school yet reside in Iowa 
(two of whom testify to these things), viz. : Capt. J. W. Camp- 
bell, of Fort Madison, and Washington Galland, of Montrose, 
Iowa, and Tolliver Dedman. 

2d. That I. K. Robinson, of Mendota, 111., taught in the 
same county and where Keokuk now is in December, 1830, 
Januarv and February, 1831. 

That two, if not three, of his pupils are still living in Iowa 
Thos. Brierly and Valincourt Vanorsdal and Mr. Seth Wagoner, 
in Illinois. 

3d. That the claim of the third claimant for these first 
honors that " he was the first teacher of the first school in 
Iowa," is not true, as he himself says in his autobiography 
that " on the first Monday (fifth day) of November, 1838, he 
opened the first common school in Iowa." It must have been 
very common indeed even for that early period, as he did not 
seem to know that a dozen " common schools " had been 
" opened in Iowa," before he came to Burlington, Iowa, the 
5th day of May, 1838. 

The facts are interesting to know that schools were taught 
in Iowa four years before our connection with Michigan, six 
earlier than our union with Wisconsin and eight before Iowa 
had an independent organization. It is also worthy of note 
that amid -the mutations of time pupils now honored citizens 


of our State still survive in our midst. And that those vener- 
able teachers still live (at this date, 1888), though past four- 
score years of age, honored and respected in the countries 
where they reside and have lived for so many years. 

Within a year we have personally met two or three of those 
old pioneers, Captains Campbell and Galland, whom we have 
known for half a life-time and found them hale and hearty 
and full of reminiscences of early times. 

Within a month the " Iowa Masonic Library " at Cedar 
Rapids has been presented by Louis A. Gerolamy, artist. Chi- 
cago, with a fine large crayon portrait, nicely framed, of Past 
Grand Master Jennings, whose claim to the honor of having 
taught " the first school in Iowa," is fully established. Such 
a portrait should grace the walls, also, of the Department of 
Education at Des Moines and were it not that "the school- 
master is abroad," and but little interest, seemingly, felt in 
matters of "ye olden times," the fathers of our educational 
system would be more highly honored, and such honors no 
longer bestowed solely upon those- as shown in one of our 
extracts who come in as laborers at the eleventh hour. 


|N November 25th last, the Rev. Wm. Salter, D. D., 
in commemoration of the fiftieth anniversary of 
the original formation of the Congregational 
Church in Burlington, of which he has for many years been 
the pastor, preached a memorial sermon to his congregation, 
which has been published in a pamphlet with the above title, 
from which we make bold to take some extracts, on account 
of the local historical and personal references they contain, 
which will be found as follows: 

* * * 

"We commemorate to-day a work * * that was com- 
menced in this city fifty years ago, on a similar last Sunday 


in the month of November, 1838, then as now the 25th day 
of the month. 

The scene is changed. Burlington was then a frontier town. 
Fifty miles west was the Indian line. This was the Black 
Hawk Purchase, which had come into the possession of the 
United States on the first day of June, 1833. It had been 
attached to the territory of Michigan for two years, 1834-6; 
it had constituted a part of the original Territory of Wisconsin 
for two years, 1836-8; it was then the Territory of Iowa, 
which had been organized the previous summer, and of which 
Burlington was the capital. The first legislative assembly of 
the new territory was then in session, in what was known as 
Old Zion Church. The first land sales were then taking 
place. There was stirring activity and excitement. The 
people were intent upon making homes and receiving their 
titles from the government. They believed that they were 
laying the foundations of" what would some day become a 
great and prosperous state; but their minds never expatiated 
over such a realization as fifty years have brought. 

Among the first settlers were men of Christian faith and 
devotion who planted the gospel upon these shores. Dr. Wm. 
R. Ross, who built some of the first cabins in 1833, who was 
the first postmaster of the town, told us in this place five years 
ago that the school and the church were founded in 1834. 
He was a man of public spirit, of unbounded generosity, a 
warm-hearted Methodist. He was the right-hand man of the 
teacher and the preacher. One of his cabins furnished the 
first school house. He built "Old Zion" Church, which was 
free for every order to preach in." His work survives not 
only in the large and flourishing Methodist Church, that has 
grown out of his labors, but also in all the churches and schools 
that have been built from that day to this. His work joins 
with theirs in pledging and binding our city to the sacred 
cause of education, and to the Christian religion. They are 
all as living stones, built into a spiritual house in that measure 
of intelligence and virtue and piety, which marks us as a 


people, and which in each and every part rests upon the one 
Christian foundation. * * * 

This church was born of the spirit of Christian co-operation, 
that led good men of a former generation to merge doctrinal 
and denominational differences in a larger charity, and absorb 
points of variance in a unity of the spirit and in the bonds of 
peace. At the very time this part of the country was re- 
claimed from the savage, and was thrown open to civilization 
as the consequent of the Black Hawk War of 1832, there 
were students in Yale College, who were considering what 
mission was awaiting them in life, and what work there was 
for them to do in the Christian ministry. In the class of 1834 
there were two students who became ministers of the gospel 
in Iowa, James A. Clark and Reuben Gaylord. Another 
member of the same class, William H. Starr, studied the 
profession of law, and settled in this city, and was one of the 
founders of this 'church. It is interesting to trace the connec- 
tions of our history with one of the great seats of learning in 
our country to see how the select Christian influences that 
have been centered there for two centuries have flown out in 
blessings to portions of the land far remote. The enlarge- 
ment of mind which such a college gives to young men in- 
spires them with high aims and noble ambitions. 

In addition to Mr. Starr and his wife, who were both 
natives of Connecticut, Mr. and Mrs. James G. Edwards 
occupied a chief place among the founders of this church. 
Mr. Edwards was a native of Boston and cherished with a 
religious fervor its traditions of the school and the church. 
With these four persons eight others joined in forming this 
church, making the whole number twelve, of whom five were 
gentlemen and seven ladies. They met in a building on 
Court street at the northwest corner of Main, then occupied 
by a school, and were joined together under the ministry of 
the Rev. J. A. Clark, as living stones upon the foundation of 
apostles and prophets, Jesus Christ being the chief corner 


Mr. Clark had come to the west the previous summer as a 
missionarv of the American Home Missionary Society, and 
was then stationed at Fort Madison. He was invited to 
remove to Burlington, but was already making a home in 
Fort Madison, and preferred to continue there. For several 
years the church enjoyed the ministrations of the gospel only 
at irregular intervals by missionaries of the American Home 
Missionary Society, who were laboring in the territory; mainly, 
in additon to Mr. Clark, by Rev. Asa Turner, Rev. R. 
Gaylord, Rev. W. C. Rankin. The Rev. John M. Boal, 
from Lane Seminary, Cincinnati, came here in 1842, and 
labored a few months. The meetings were held in private 
houses, or in small halls over stores. Early in 1843 the 
ground we now occupy was purchased, the foundations of a 
church building were laid that summer, about which time the 
Rev. Aaron Button, who had studied theology with President 
Dwight, and was pastor at Guilford, Connecticut, for thirty- 
five years, came to Iowa under a commission from the Ameri- 
can Home Missionary Society and visited Burlington; but 
sickness compelled him to return to Connecticut. 

On the 23d of October, 1843, a number of young clergy- 
men arrived in this city, who had been students together in 
the Theological Institution at Andover, Massachusetts, where, 
as they looked out upon their own country and upon the 
world, the field to which the Divine Master seemed to point 
the way more plainly than to any other, in answer to many 
inquiries and to many prayeis, was the Territory of Iowa. 
They came under the direction and at the expense of the 
American Home Missionary Society. Of this company the 
Rev. Horace Hutchinson was invited to remain here. The 
following is from his first quarterly report to the missionary 
society : 

"I came here to remain about the first of November, though 
I preached here a few times before. Our congregations have 
nearly trebled since I came, as they had no regular preaching 
before. Our room is full in good weather, and more would 


come if there was room. The audience is uniformly attentive. 
The church numbered eighteen members at the time of my 
coming. At the reorganization of the church under its 
present form (Congregational) others came; at our last com- 
munion six more united, making our present number thirty- 
two. Eight or ten more, we hope, will join us at our next 
communion, though prejudices of education may prevent some. 
Our Sabbath school numbers not far from one hundred 
scholars. Our Thursday evening prayer meeting is interest- 
ing and tolerably well attended, considering the circumstances 
of many of our members. We need a house of worship much. 
Our congregation would soon more than double if we had a 
good place of meeting. I feel sad when I write that we have 
had no revival since I came. I think there has been a steady 
progress, but there are some evils -here which a revival alone 
can remove. These evils are such as arise naturally from the 
unsettled state of a new community, educated in different 
sections and under different influences. Hence there is a sad 
want of union among Christians which sadly weakens our 
power to do good." 

The reorganization of the church was completed on the 
28th of December, 1843, by the adoption of a new constitution, 
of which the following is an extract : 

"WHEREAS, the subscribers having been known and recog- 
nized as the New School Constitutional Presbyterian Church 
of Burlington, Iowa, at a regularly called meeting, have freely 
and voluntarily agreed to change the form of government of 
said church, all the elders concurring therein, so that it shall 
hereafter be recognized and known as the Congregational 
Church of Burlington, do hereby bind themselves and their 
associates to be governed by the following 


ARTICLE I. This church shall be called the' Congrega- 
tional Church of Burlington. 

ARTICLE II. Satisfactory evidence of Christian character 


and assent to the confession of faith and covenant shall be the 
conditions of membership." 

Only one of the members disapproved of the change at the 
time and declined to concur in it, but in after years approved 
of it and became a member of the church, and continued with 
us until removed bv death. 


After a faithful and devoted ministry of t\vo years Mr. 
Hutchinson's health failed. Called to lay down the cherished 
work of his heart and to leave the field which he had 
assiduously cultivated and the friends which his kindness of 
heart and his noble qualities of mind had attached to him, and 
the beloved companion, who had left her New England home 
to share with him in the privations of a frontier missionary, it 
was not without a struggle that faith triumphed, and he bowed 
in resignation to the Holv Father's will. It was my privilege 
to be with him at the last, and to stand by his grave as his 
form vanished, "dust to dust." We had been companions 
together in sacred studies. I had seen his activity and muscu- 
lar vigor on the ball ground and on the skating pond; we had 
joined together in the parting hymn of our class : 

"Where through broad lands of green and gold 

The western rivers roll their waves, 
Before another year is told 

We find our homes perhaps our graves." 

We had been companions in travel around the great lakes and 
over the prairies of Illinois to this place, and now he was called 
to lay down his work, and I was called from another field in 
the territory to leave the humble beginnings I had made there, 
and enter into his labors. 

After long and painful struggles a House of Worship was 
erected upon this ground, in December, 1846, at a cost of 
$6000. For two years later the church remained dependent 
upon the A. H. M. S., and received aid from its treasury. 
The whole amount expended by that society in the cultivation 
of this field was $1480. The sum of $800 was also collected 
bv Deacon Shackford from Christian friends at the east to aid 


in the building of the first house of worship. These facts of 
our early history may remind us of the affiliation of Christian 
sympathy and co-operation with our beginnings, on the part of 
those far away, which is interwoven with our work, and should 
also remind us that as in our feebleness and weakness we 
freely received, so also in our wealth and in our strength we 
should freely give to help others in the new and remote places 
that are in need. 

Albert S. Shackford and James G. Edwards were our first 
deacons. Men of superior intelligence and deeply imbued 
with the Christian spirit, they were pillars of honor and 
strength to the congregation. Few young laymen acquire 
such maturity and consistency of character as Mr. Shackford 
possessed. I had known him when a boy in his New 
Hampshire home by the sea. Largely from his partial friend- 
ship, and in response to letters from his hand, I came to 
Burlington to preach. He was the superintendent of the 
Sunday School, and had introduced into its opening exercises 
the responsive reading of the scriptures, which continues to 
this day, and which is now generally adopted in all Sunday 
Schools. He carried into every department of Christian 
activity the sweet and gentle courtesy and kindness and the 
quick intelligence that were his uniform characteristics. But 
I was permitted to enjoy his sympathy, counsel and support 
for only a few months. He died at Auburn, New York, 
August 17, 1846, where he had stopped for rest, while on a 
trip to New England. 

Mr. Edwards came west in 1829, and took an active part in 
the counsels and labors of those high-minded and philanthro- 
pic men who were associated in the settlement of Jackson- 
ville, Illinois, and with those Yale men who founded Illinois 
College. Theron Baldwin, the founder of Monticello Semi- 
nary, and Dr. Sturtevant, for many years president of Illinois 
College, were his cherished friends. He removed here in 
1838. He was the founder and for more than twelve years 
the editor of the Hawk-Eye. As a Christian, he was a man of 


firm religious convictions, warm in his affections, catholic in 
spirit, zealous in every good work. For two years, 1839-40, 
he was superintendent of a Union Sunday school, which was 
held in Old Zion Church, and he was subsequently superinten- 
dent of the Sunday school of this church for several years. 
The interests and honor of this church lay near his heart. It 
was the child of his unceasing toil and care. The stranger, 
the sick, the bereaved, the poor, the pastor, had in him a sym- 
pathizing and helpful friend. Generous, as men said, to a 
fault, no call of charity, no object of benevolence, appealed to 
him in vain. His home was hospitality itself, always graced 
with guests. Unless detained by sickness, his place was never 
vacant in the sanctuary or in the meeting for prayer. 

Rev. Abner Leonard was a man of mark, prominent and 
honored among the early founders of this congregation, as in 
other walks of life. His mind was vigorous and independent. 
He was an intelligent farmer, a skillful horticulturist; his 
farm and garden and orchard stocked with the best of all the 
products of the earth. Preferring the simple principles of the 
Congregational order * * he gave his influence to set- 
ting up that order here, and became a member of the church 
bringing to its counsels dignity and discretion, and inspiring 
respect for its character and work. He too, was given to 
hospitality, and was a lover of good men and a liberal suppor- 
ter of religious institutions and charities. 

For twenty years, 1851-71, Deacon Ritchie served the 
church, and many were witnesses, and God also, how holily, 
and justly and unblamably he went in and out among us. In 
our years of feebleness and poverty he frequently served as 
trustee and as treasurer of the church and society, and, by 
painstaking and care, making a little go a good ways, by the 
prudence of his counsels and the uniform kindliness of his 
spirit, largely contributed to our harmony and prosperity. 
Gifted in prayer, which he made a study, and ready to every 
good work, he kept in special sympathy with the poor and 
neglected, and often embraced opportunities to speak a word 


for his master to the humblest and lowest. For many years, 
and with great heartiness, he acted as depositary of the Coun- 
ty Bible Society, and helped in promoting the circulation of 
the Scriptures. Among his last services in the Sunday school 
was to teach a large class of colored refugees, who came here 
during the war. Scrupulously conscientious and just, he pur- 
sued the even tenor of his way with uniform courtesy and 
kindness, and was a fine example of that balance of charac- 
ter of which the Apostle speaks, "Not slothful in business, 
fervent in spirit, serving the Lord." Amid many cares, and 
with habits of close attention to business, he preserved spirit- 
uality of mind, and never lost relish for acts of Christian duty, 
for works of charity, or for divine worship. Having filled out 
life with usefulness, he was borne to his grave as a shock of 
corn in its season with a bunch of ripened grain in his hand. 

After the death of D eacon Shackford, David Leonard was 
chosen to the office of deacon, and in a life of eminent fidelity, 
consistency and devotion, sustained the honor of religion as a 
man of God, an Israelite indeed, in whom there was no guile. 
Though his home was at a distance of three miles from the 
church, no one was more regularly in his place in the sanctua- 
ry, or more steady and steadfast in every good work. Firm 
in his moral and religious convictions, they gave strength and 
elevation to his character, as they were finely svmbolized in 
the superiority and dignity of his person. Sharing the pure 
tastes of his father in horiiculture, he did his part in embellish- 
ing the land with the choicest varieties of trees and plants, to 
enrich the orchards and gardens and environ the homes of the 
people with beauty and protection. The summons came sud- 
denly that called him into the joy of his Lord. It was the 
universal feeling that a Prince in Israel had fallen. 

Deacon Moses Hill brought to us the strength and glory of 
the granite hills of New Hampshire, amid which he was born. 
His firm and resolute character, rooted in holy faith, blended 
w r ith benignity and grace and a tender conscientiousness and a 
zeal for religion pure and undefiled, gave honor to the Chris- 


tian profession, and justice, temperance, truth and love his in- 
ward piety approved. 

Deacon Charles Hendrie brought to our Christian work the 
activity and energy that marked him in the industry and en- 
terprise of a life full of labor and toil. Never sparing him- 
self, a man of public spirit, zealous for progress and improve- 
ment in society and the nation, for the elevation of labor, and 
the advancement of both the temporal and the spiritual wel- 
fare of mankind, he was a living stone in our Christian foun- 
dations, true to the Divine Master, giving strength and sup- 
port to every endeavor for the bettering of the world and the 
promotion of Christ's kingdom. 

Deacon John Darling walked among us in simplicity and 
godly sincerity, an example of the Christian virtues, showing 
forth the lineaments of his Saviour in the daily beauty of a life 
hid with Christ in God, and unfolding in his conversation and 
conduct the excellent fruits of the holy spirit. 

All these died in faith. They rest from their labors. 

Far from this world of toil and strife, 

They're present with the Lord; 
The labors of their mortal life 

End in a large reward. 

* * * 

To the cause of temperance, to the cause of public educa- 
tion and the common school, to the cause of our countrv and 
of human liberty the world over, to the work of our national 
salvation in the horrid times of the civil war, this church has 
given the best of its energies and strength. We have believed 
it has been as an article of the Holy faith among us that 
the great principles of our national life make us as a republic 
of God, that they came into the world with the advent of our 
Saviour, and are as really an outcome and expression of the 
Christian religion as any article in any creed that the Chris- 
tian world has constructed or approved. Believing that god- 
liness has promise of the life that now is, and making it our 
daily prayer for the coming of God's kingdom down from the 


skies, that His will may be done in earth as it is in Heaven, we 
have accounted the purification of human society, the regener- 
tion of nations, the moral and social reformation of the world, 
the advancement of social Christianity, an integral portion of 
our religious work, and have preached practical righteousness 
and the golden rule and human brotherhood as the common 
law of man's earthly life. * * * * 

The ladies of the Church gave a public reception to the 
older members, and to other persons not of this congregation, 
on the 27th of November. A goodly number of septuagena- 
rians and octogenarians were present, and received cordial 
salutations of respect and honor; also one lady in her ninetieth 
year, at whose wedding, in 1817, General William Henry 
Harrison was present. Portraits were exhibited of Mr. and 
Mrs. James G. Edwards, Rev. Abner Leonard, David Leon- 
ard, Charles W. Ritchie, Moses Hill, John Darling, Mr. and 
Mrs. E. D. Jaggar, Thomas Hedge, E. D. Rand, Mrs. Cath- 
erine Nealy, Mrs. Eliza J. Foote, Mrs. John Buel, Mrs. Lydia 
Lorrain, Mrs. Stevens Merrill, Mr. and Mrs. Solomon Sher- 
fey, Mrs. Clark Dunham, Mrs. Enoch May, Mrs. Emily Jag- 
gar, Mrs. Mary E. Palmer, "who have all gone into the world 
of light." The oldest living person whose photograph was 
exhibited is the Rev. William C. Rankin, now in his ninety- 
fourth year. 






'Mong valued gifts from many friends, 

Upon mv mantel lies, 
A Gvpsy hat of plaited straw, 

Of fairy shape and size. 

And with the hat a cherished note: 
"This hat my mother sends, 

On this, her ninety-fourth birth-day. 
With greeting to her friends. 

>'Her aged fingers deftly wrought 
To plait each yellow strand, 

Each measured stitch that binds the 

She sewed with steady hand." 

And so among my precious gifts 

I prize this hat of straw, 
And oft to friendly eyes I show 

Its work without a flaw. 

And often when the firelight flares 

Its flashes on the walls, 
Her peaceful face, her gentle voice, 

This fragile hat recalls. 

As 'mid these changing lights I sit 
At twilight's lonesome hour, 

This fairy hat o'er all my sense 
Exerts a mystic power. 

I spurn the trammels of the flesh, 

To inner eye and ear, 
Through subtler ethers visions fall. 

And voices sweet and clear. 

A distant home, a happy group, 

Before my vision rise, 
Where busy towns are clustered thick 

Beneath New-England skies. 

I see the children at their sports, 

I hear a merry call. 
And Lucy's shout amid the rout, 

Is merriest of all. 

Along the roads with asters fringed 
Go happv groups to school; 

Their lessons learned thev toe the 
Such is the rigid rule. [mark : 

In the long line fair Lucy stands, 
Light gleaming in her face; 

They read, they spell, the rules they 
That govern verb and case. [tell. 

As home they go the western sun 
Its light around them pours ; 

Their waiting mothers welcome them, 
At many open doors. 

When supper's ended round the fire 
In busv groups thev draw, 

'Mid merrv jokes and stories old 
To plait the vellow straw. 

Young Lucv's voice ^is cheerv there, 
And dextrous are her hands, 

As fast they bend the pliant straw 
To braid the even strands. 

Again as daylight fades away. 

And fire more brightly glows, 
This mystic hat o'er all my sense 

Its might of magic throws. 

Maid, mother, grandmother pass by, 
Great-grandam now appears, 

Upon whose placid brow there rest 
Almost a hundred vears. 



I see a quaintly castled house, 
Along whose roomv halls, 

'Mid sound of many busy feet, 
Her gentle footstep falls; 

A spacious room where floods of sun 
Through curtained windows spread, 

And round her, with angelic touch, 
A saintly halo shed. 

Here loving hearts guide loving hands 

In constant works of love, 
For her whose peaceful life below 

Reflects the peace above. 

A gray-haired son here daily reads 
The news from many lands; 

And while she lists her skillful touch 
Still braids the even strands. 

And from the work her dainty skill 
Here wrought without a flaw, 

She sent with friendly words to me, 
Yon precious hat of straw. 

O, aged friend, not long thy feet 
Shall walk with ours the way, 

Not long with ours thy voice shall 
God's blessing on the day. [ask 

Not long to wisps of worthless straw 
Thy skillful touch shall lend 

A priceless worth, to those who get 
The gifts from thee, their friend. 

For, all too soon, thy call will sound; 

"Come home, O welcome guest, 
Thy work is done, thy crown is won, 

Now enter into rest." 

For us too soon, but not for thee! 

For in thy fearless eye, 
And softly shining on thy brow. 

The light of Faith doth lie. 

Thou trustest that his perfect love, 
That made this world so fair, 

Will joy provide for every child, 
With more than Father's care. 

With faith like this thou canst not 
Thou liv'st in joy to-day ; [fear. 

Thou'lt live in joy where'er thou art, 
For God is God alway ! 

Thou'lt walk His higher paths with 
Familiar to their ways; [feet 

Thou'lt hear with joy familiar words 
From friends of other days. 

Thy deeds seem saintly work e'en 
Upon our ears doth fall [now; 

Thy gentle speech in tones as sweet 
As when the angels call. 

Thou seem'st in truth a spirit here, 
And round thee seems to shine 

A light as from a brighter world, 
A radiance divine. 

Perchance thy ear now hears the 

Heard first on Christmas morn : 
"Peace on earth, good will to men; 

To-day the Christ is born." 

We hail for thee this Christmas day : 

To thee \ve greetings bring, - 
That same sweet song of peace and 
Thou hear'st the angels sing. [love 

"Glory to God!" thy friends below 

Unite in this glad song; 
"Peace on the earth, good will to 

Rejoin the risen throng. [men :" 

When thou shalt join these risen 


Who now so near thee draw, 
We'll prize for aye as work of thine, 

These priceless hats of straw. 




JON. GILBERT B. PRAY, the present Clerk of 
the Supreme Court of Iowa, at the reunion of 
Crocker's Iowa Brigade at Davenport, September 
2ist and 22d, 1887, paid the following eloquent tribute to the 
1 6th Iowa Volunteers of which he was himself a gallant 
soldier : 

"General Belknap, to you or the members of Crocker's 
Brigade, it is needless to say a word of or for the i6th Iowa. 
You know them; you have tried their mettle and seen it tried. 
Your blood and theirs was mingled in the same soil. In all 
that makes a brotherhood of soldiers, they have joined you 
and been one with you. If there were none to hear save you, 
my comrades, it would be needless to address you, but to a 
very large number the war and its soldiers is a tradition or 
history. It seems to me like a passing dream, yet it is twenty- 
six years this month since the first of the companies that 
were mustered into the i6th regiment came into your city and 
were quartered here, forming the nucleus of what was 
supposed to be the last regiment Iowa would be called upon 
to furnish for the war ; and oh, how fearful the boys were that 
they were going to be left ; that the war would be over before 
they got to the front. 

They were gathered here and mustered during the fall and 
winter of 1861 and 1862, seven as fine companies of men as 
ever gathered on a tented field or mustered into any service in 
any land. Two other companies were mustered at Keokuk, 
and the tenth at St. Louis, the three being the equal of the 
seven in every respect. Every company was a good one, 
every soldier was a good man, and of course the regiment 
was good so good that the "Old War Governor" sent them 
to the field without a chaplain ; and from beginning to end this 
regiment never had a chaplain, and, as was said by a waggish 
war correspondent at the time, had no need of one, for the 
following reasons: 


First Because it was a moral regiment, and the office 
would be a sinecure. 

Second Because the form of prayer was always either 
marching or righting, and in this way they got sufficient 

Third Because the form of prayer adopted by the colonel 
was such that it could be said by any soldier in the regiment. 

Fourth There was only one deck of cards allowed in the 

I know the fourth reason is correct, because, when on a 
former occasion I alluded to the Crocker Brigade as the "four 
of a kind" brigade, there was not a man in the i6th Iowa who 
knew what I meant. 

As the child goes forth from the arms of the loving parents 
to perform a willing service, so went the boys of the i6th from 
.the doors of their Iowa homes, willingly, gladly, into the 
service of an imperilled country, assuming all the risks of 
war, without a doubt, without a fear. 

The regiment left your city and the state in March, 1862, 
and ere they returned for muster-out had made a record for 
themselves and for Iowa that was and is to-day untarnished, 
and that was and is unequalled, save by other Iowa troops. 

That record is as long as the road from Pittsburg Landing 
to Washington, by way of Corinth, luka, Vicksburg, 
Chattanooga, Kennesaw, Nickajack, Atlanta, Andersonville, 
Jonesborough, Raleigh and Richmond a record that would 
of itself be a history of the war in the west. Every milestone 
on that long road is a monument of the valor of the i6th, a 
headstone at the grave of a departed hero. 

In July of 1865, after this long and toilsome road had been 
traversed on foot, after these great battles had been fought 
and great victories won, after the last rebel had been disarmed, 
this regiment returned to your city, not in holiday attire; not 
on dress parade; not seeking plaudits or laurel wreaths, but 
oh, so glad to get back to dear old Iowa's soil again. It was 
then we were glad to see you people of Davenport, and the 


kind little greetings you gave us then sunk deep into our 

hearts and have made us remember you kindly and desire to 

return, as we have. 

The ranks of this regiment were then decimated and torn; 

many a friend of the old boys looked in vain for the faces of 

some who departed with it but were not of it then, save in 

spirit and memory. 

Though it had had the names of over two thousand men 

upon its muster-rolls during the four years of service, it 

returned on that bright morning With but a trifle over four 


Of those who returned not I cannot speak. No pen or 

tongue can do them justice. They have given their all to 
their country, to the good name and glory of their state; they 
were with God. 

But of the living, if I may be permitted to speak of them, 
I can say, four hundred braver men, truer and manlier, never 
returned to honor a state or enrich its citizenship. Every man 
who could be worn out by toilsome and weary marches had 
been worn out. Every man who could be made to fall by the 
wayside by sickness or disease had long since fallen. Every 
man who could be made disheartened or whose spirit could 
be broken had long before been broken down. Every man 
who by the chances of war could be was wounded or killed; 
for this regiment had accepted every opportunity to meet its 
country's foe. They had represented you and their state in 
that highest type of citizenship the volunteer soldier. No 
greater complinent can be paid them than that expressed by 
that greatest of volunteers, our lamented friend and comrade, 
General Logan: "They were ready in storm and in the sun- 
light; they were ready in the darkness or daylight. When 
orders came they marched, they moved, they fought, whether 
their guns were of the best quality or not; whether their 
clothing was adapted to their position or not; whether their 
food was all they would have it or not was not the question 
with these men. The question was: Does our leader want 
us to go? And when must we move?" 


These men marched through valleys, over hills and moun- 
tains, across rivers and through marshes. There was no ques- 
tion as to time and number of the enemy; but where is the 
foe the foe of your country and theirs? 

They returned, asking naught but permission to stand side 
by side with you in the duties of civil life and citizenship, ask- 
ing naught but the privilege of bearing their strong arms and 
aiding in the struggle to repair the waste of war; aiding in 
building up an empire of peace within the domain of Iowa. 

As the rain-drops on the great river become assimilated 
with and a part of it, so the volunteer soldier melted away and 
became part of and one with the citizenship of Iowa. As such 
you know and respect him to-day. Under the impulse given 
society by the return of so many earnest workers, Iowa has 
marched steadily forward on the old route-step of her volun- 

Since that return twenty-two years have elapsed; the mid- 
dle-aged man and matron who on that day watched for the 
return of a son are now old and decrepit. The young man 
and the maiden who welcomed the return of a lover, friend, or 
brother, are now in middle life ; and the dancing, joyous, light- 
hearted girl who waved her little handkerchief in sheer delight 
at sight of the marching column is now in the full tide of ma- 
turity and womanhood, and the barefooted boys who crowded 
the curbstone and hurrahed themselves hoarse, where are 
they? You will find them in all the toils of manhood. To 
them the war and the soldiers is a tradition. They have giv- 
en place to a generation who must learn its story from history; 
for the good of the nation, may they learn its lesson well. No 
boy is expected to remain a boy except the boys in blue. As 
such you won lasting name and fame. No matter how old 
you get, in the hearts of this generous people "boys in blue" 
you will remain forever. 

To-day the i6th is with you again. Many of you do 
not recognize them, but they are the same brave boys who re- 
turned to you twenty-two years ago. True, many of them 


are now wearing the gray, but it is the gray that crowns a loy- 
al life a gray that comes to all, and brings respect from all; 
the gray mist that dims the eye, and frosts the hair, and de- 
notes the passing away; the gray mist of that eternal morn- 
ing; the gray that warns you to honor them with the tributes 
of to-day. It is a gray that has come there through age, has- 
tened by the exposure of sleeping under the stars or standing 
guard amid snow and sleet. They are a little stooped and 
bent, and the eyes of all are dimmer than when, in days of yore, 
they sighted their guns. The limp of rheumatism plainly 
marks their steps as they keep time to the drum-beats to which 
they marched a quarter of a century ago. But in heart and 
spirit they are the same grand fellows who made so much his- 
tory for this country to be proud of. 

"Some day the air will echo to sweet music 

Of drum and bugle-call and martial tread; 
And with the flag draped o'er his pulseless bosom, 
The gallant soldier will be cold and dead. 

"And all the tributes heaped upon his bosom 
Will fail to fill his heart with joy or pride. 

But had he heard in life one-half vour praises, 
Or felt your fond caress, he had not died." 

Davenport was and still is the home of many of this regi- 
ment. This but adds to the pleasure we have in coming to 
your city. Here resides that gallant and most meritorious 
officer, Colonel Sanders, one of the living idols of the regi- 
ment. We are delighted to visit him at his home. Here was 
the home of one who was not permitted to return with us, one 
who after winning the greatest renown that comes to a volun- 
teer soldier, found rest from the turmoils of war in the peace- 
ful serenity of a soldier's grave: one who at the hands of our 
greatest leader, the gallant McPherson, received the golden 
medal, voted by Congress to the bravest man of the iyth 
army corps; the one who of all the brave men of the i6th 
regiment, or of the Crocker Brigade, of all the gallant soldiers 
of the 1 7th army corps, was designated the bravest of the 
brave; his home was here, and here his memory is cherished 


and the golden medal preserved to his honor. I refer to Lieu- 
tenant Samuel Duffin, of Co. K. i6th Iowa. 

In honor of him and his memory, and in honor of the mem- 
ory of all his brave comrades who fell in their country's bat- 
tles, or have since fallen in the battle of life, the surviving 
members of the i6th regiment, and of Crocker's Brigade, the 
bonds of whose fraternity were cemented by the agonies of 
war, are glad to accept the hospitalities of the good people of 


||Y the favor of Gov. Kirkwood I was appointed As- 
sistant Surgeon of the nth Iowa Infantry Volun- 
teers on the organization of that regiment. I joined 
it at Camp McClellan, the place of rendezvous, three miles 
above Davenport, on the Mississippi river bluff. The Colonel, 
A. H. Hare, lived at Muscatine, and had not yet joined. The 
Lieutenant Colonel, William Hall, was in command. Hall's 
home was in Davenport, where he had been a young attorney. 
He was about thirty years old, wore his dark hair, parted in 
the middle, long and streaming over his shoulders. He had 
a full dark beard and a pale intellectual face. He was 
kind-hearted, generous, gay with his friends, impulsive and 
brave. He had a line mind, lodged in a small frail body. 
He labored under a chronic nervous disease, which made his 
legs unreliable. In walking, when he threw forward his foot 
to take a step, it was sure to go too far forward, or to one 
side, or perhaps backwards, while the other, when it came its 
turn to progress, would execute movements opposite and con- 
trary. This unfortunate infirmity, which was temporarily 
benefited by stimulants, often occasioned him to be wrongly 
accused of intoxication when he was sober, and credited with 
sobriety when he was toned up with whiskey. The parents 
of Col. Hall's wife, Mr. and Mrs. Higgins, had an elegant and 


hospitable home on one of the hills back of the city, and here, 
just before leaving camp McClellan for the south, Hall took all 
his officers one evening to tea. Our table zests are much en- 
hanced by the recollection of delicious flavors relished when 
hungry youths, and the rich aroma of Mrs. Higgin's coffee has 
often lent for me a sweet flavor to bad decoctions of rye and 
Rio since that evening. 

It was a cold snowy November day on which we left Daven- 
port on a steamboat. The men murmured at being crowded 
on one boat and exposed to the weather, and Gov. Kirkwood 
being aboard he obtained additional transportation when we 
landed at Burlington, and half the regiment was transferred 
to another boat. We took aboard Col. Hare at Muscatine, 
and the Major, J. C. Abercrombie, at Burlington. The Ma- 
jor, who proved himself a very trusty and gallant soldier, had 
command of the battalion on the boat I was on. Soon after 
leaving Burlington supper was served on the boat, the cabin 
of which was assigned to the commissioned officers. At this 
hour a great many of the men reported themselves sick. I re- 
quested the steward of the boat in such cases to supply them 
with cabin fare and allow them beds in the state-room. Pret- 
tv soon the long dining table in the cabin was lined on either 
side with sick soldiers disposing of the cabin viands at a rapid 
rate. Abercrombie, who had had experience as a soldier in 
the Mexican war, took me aside, and told me those men at 
the table were evidently not sick, and that if I did not use 
more discrimination I would soon have the whole battalion in 
the cabin. After promising more care, I soon learned from 
the Major that he was familiar with the place of my residence, 
which he said he often had visited on business during the ses- 
sions here of the legislature, but, as I divined from the drift of 
his conversation, to pay his addresses to a young lady at the 
Crummy House. 

Col. Hall's ill-health made his temper irritable at times. 
After the battle of Shiloh, in the slow march from Pittsburg 
Landing to Corinth, we were for some days encamped in a 


dense swamp, devoted previously to our coming entirely to 
the uses of owls and ticks. One night Hall lay there in his 
tent unable to sleep. He had issued strict orders against noise 
in camp after taps. On this night the orders seemed to be ig- 
nored. To /too, to /ioo, sounded a voice, very distinct and very 
human, and to a nervous man could easily be transmuted to 
Totigh Hall, Tough Hall, to h-l, to h-l, or anything else dis- 
respectful. The Colonel called the guard who was pacing in 
front of his tent, sent for the officer of the day, and had many 
suspects arrested. But the offender was not detected till dawn 
revealed the culprit roosting on a pine bough over the Col- 
onel's tent, in the form and semblance of a screech owl. The 
Colonel accepted the apologies of the bird, who sent his re- 
grets in a parting to /wo, to hoo, and Hall devoted his atten- 
tion for some time afterwards to extricating himself from the 
toils of a huge tick. 

It was during this short campaign that the "scratches" be- 
came so prevalent as to suggest to a casual visitor the idea 
that the regular old-fashioned itch was raging in the army as 
an epidemic. All soon became familiar with the pests which 
occasioned the discomfort. On one occasion when the camps 
of the i6th and the nth joined, Surgeon Wm. Watson of 
the nth, visited a friend in the i6th, to which I had by this 
time been transferred. He began to chafe his friends of the 
1 6th with the prevalence of "grey -backs" and their large size 
in the i6th, claiming that the nth was comparatively exempt 
from the nuisance. At this moment Capt. Alpheus Palmer 
of the 1 6th, by the light of our rail fire detected an enormous 
one crawling on the cape of Watson's overcoat. This so 
turned the jest against Watson that he shunned the camp of 
the 1 6th for sometime afterward. 

It was about this time that the Government having author- 
ized an additional assistant surgeon to each regiment, the new 
medical officers began to join their regiments. Dr. D. C. 
McNeal, of Clinton county, was appointed to the i6th. Mc- 
Neal was a man of varied abilities. In addition to his profes- 


sional qualifications, which were good, he had been a Metho- 
dist minister and an editor, and was an amateur actor, musi- 
cian and ventriloquist. He wore a full beard and his goatee 
reached to his belt. Soon after he joined the i6th I made a 
visit to Chaplain Estabrook, of the i5th, and in the course of 
conversation remarked on the arrival of McNeal. Estabrook 
was a very social man, and distinguished himself in his brave 
ministrations to the wounded on the field during the battle of 
Shiloh. On this occasion he w r as sitting on a camp stool at an 
improvised table where he had been writing. At the mention 
of McNeal's name, he laid his face between his hands on the 
table, and I could see bv the convulsive motions of his sides 
that he was indulging in a fit of silent laughter which he could 
not suppress. After a while he raised his head, and, gave 
me some account of McNeal's varied accomplishments, which 
I soon afterwards learned for myself. 

It was while w r e were at Grand Junction, just previous to 
the beginning of the Central Mississippi campaign, that 
McXeal, tucking up his beard, changing his dress, and dis- 
guising his voice, deceived Capt. Turner, of the i6th, into 
the belief that he, McNeal, was Judge Thayer, then of Mus- 
catine, but now editor of the Clinton Age, who was ex- 
pected daily on a visit with others from Iowa. Turner was 
seated on a canvas stool, taking a hand in a game of old 
sledge, by the light of a tallow dip, on an inverted candle box, 
but was so completely deceived that he deserted the game, 
shook hands, and entered into conversation about home matters 
with the supposed judge. 

It \vas before this, and while we were at Bolivar, that 
Col. Add. H. Sanders, of the i6th, now editor of the Daven- 
port Tribune, who was near-sighted, mortified himself before 
a squad of comrades. We had just gone into a new camp, 
and the tents were pitched irregularly. Sanders had every- 
thing in his tent always in precise order. In this instance he 
came into Capt. Palmer's tent, supposing it to be his own, 
and flopped down on the cot, and began to give directions how 


those present should conduct themselves while there. "I 
don't want you, captain," he began, "to smoke that strong 
pipe in here, nor you, doctor, to put your feet on that stool." 
Pretty soon some one intimated to the colonel that he was in 
the wrong pew, when he hastily beat a retreat. 

Sanders, however, was not given to retreating before the 
enemy. He was brave to rashness, and if commissioned 
officers had been included in the competition for prizes for 
bravery, he would have given Sergeant Dufh'n a hard tussle 
for the gold medal. I recollect how disappointed he was after 
the battle of luka because he had not been wounded. Two* 
weeks afterwards we had another battle at Corinth, where 
Sanders was more fortunate. The first day's fight was 
nearly over and Sanders was still unwounded, though wooing 
the enemy's lead. Finally, in desperation, he rode a long way 
in front of his regiment, as if to reconnoitre, and the coveted 
bullet came, carrying away a good-sized slab of flesh from the 
outside of his thigh. With all his bravery he dreaded pain, 
and while being taken to the rear expressed some anxiety to 
know whether the ball was lodged and would have to be cut 
out which proved unnecessary, as the missile, after laying 
bare his thigh bone, which glistened like a smooth quarter, 
had gone on, perhaps to kill another less lucky man. 


From Historical Society of Pennsylvania, 

Magazine of History and Biography, July. 
From Miss Elizabeth Thompson, Stamjord, Conn., 

"The High Caste Hindu Woman." 
From Tale University, 

Obituary Record of Graduates of Yale for the year ending 
June, 1888. 

Catalogue, 1888-9. 


From American Geographical Society, N. Y., 

Bulletin for June, September and December. 
From y. P. Walton, Muscatine, 

Proceedings Old Settlers' Celebration of Iowa's Semi-Cen- 

tennial, July 4, 1888. 
From Bureau of Statistics, Washington, D. C., 

Quarterly Report, ending March 31. 

Annual Report on the Foreign Commerce of the U. S. 
From Ne-w York Geneological and Biographical Society, 

Record for July and January. 
From Publishers, 

'American Antiquarian," for July, September, November. 
From U. S. Coast and Geodetic Survey Office, 

Report for 1886. 
From Smithsonian Institute, 

Smithsonian Report, 1885, Part 2. 
From N. E. Historic and Genealogical Society, 

Register for July and October. 
From M. W. Davis, 

Fish Commissioner's Report, 72-3, 74-5, 75-6. 

Twenty-six volumes Miscellaneous Works. 
From U. S. Fish Commissioner, Washington, 

Annual Reports, 77-8, 79-80, 81-3, 84-5. 

Annual Bulletins, 6 volumes. 

Fisheries Industry, Sec. i, plates. 
From Hon. T. S. Parvin, 

Proceedings Grand Lodge, 1888. 
From Hon. Frank D. Jackson, Secretary of State, 

Laws passed at 22d General Assembly. 

Twenty copies Supreme Court Reports. 

Horticultural Report, 1887. 

Report Joint Committee to Investigate Office of Auditor of 

From F. D. Stone, Secretary, Philadelphia, 

Proceedings of Banquet to commemorate the Framing and 
Signing of the Constitution of the U. S. - 


From John R. Schaeffer, Secretary. 

Premium List State Fair, 1888. 
From Library Company, Philadelphia, 

Bulletin for July. 
From Omaha Public Library, 

Annual Report, 1888. 
From American Congregational Society, Boston, 

Thirty-fifth Annual Report. 
From Department of State, Washington, 

Reports from the Consuls, Nos. 91-96. 
From Signal Service, 

Weather Report for May. 

Report of Chief Signal Officer, 1885, '86, '87. 
From JMational Museum, Rio de Janerio, 

Archives, Vol. 7. 
From Rev. C. D. Bradlee, Boston, 

Four Pamphlets. 

Sermons of all sorts. Bound. 
From Boston Public Library, 

Bulletin, Summer Number, 1888. 
From Department of State, Washington, D. C., 

Foreign Relations of the U. S., 1887. 

Commercial Relations, 1885-6, 2 vols. 
From T. H. Lewis, St. Paul, Minn., 

Seven Pamphlets on Archaeology. 
From Neiv Jersey Historical Society, v 

Proceedings No. i, of Vol. 10, 1888. 
From Secretary Crocker's Iowa Brigade, 

Proceedings of 4th Reunion, 1887. 
From New Hampshire Historical Society, 

Proceedings, Vol. i, Part 4, 1884-88. 
From Prof. W. J. Me Gee, 

Three Formations of the Middle Atlantic Slope. 
From Dr. J. B. Kessler, 

Two Pamphlets. 


From University of California, 

Register of the University, 1887-88. 

Address at the Inauguration of Horace Davis. 

Annual Report of Secretary of Board of Regents, 1888. 

Report on Physical Training. 
From Board of Education, New fork City, 

Higher Education a Public Duty. 
From Essex Institute. 

Historical Collections, October, November, December, 1887. 
From the Author, Oscar IV. Collet, St. Louis, 

Notes on Parkman's "Conspiracy of Pontiac." 
From Col. L. B. Marsh, Boston, Mass. 

The Genealogy of John Marsh, of Salem, and his de- 
From the American Antiquarian Society, 

Proceedings of Society, April 25, 1888. 
From Gen. W. W. Belknap. Washington, D. C. 

An address by Gen. Edward F. Belknap, Col. 4th Iowa 
Vet. Cavalry at reunion, Mt. Pleasant, Iowa, 1888. 

Proceedings of the ipth Annual Reunion, Army of the Po- 

The Inaugaration of President Patton of Princeton College. 
From School Board, Oskaloosa, Iowa, 

Manual of the Public Schools o/f Qskaloosa- 
From Department of the Interior. 

Forty-four Miscellaneous Reports. 
From Hon. Pliny Earle, Northampton, Mass. 

"Ralph Earle and his Descendants." 
From Ohio ArchcEologtcal and Historical Society, 

Journal for September. 
From H. D. Rowe, Esq. 

Fifty Pamphlets. 
From Dr. C. M. Hobby, 

Cerebro Spinal Fever as a cause of Deafness. 
From Massachusetts Historical Society^ Boston, 

Collections of Society, i888~ 


From Dr. Samuel A. Green, Boston, 
Trials of a Public Benefactor. 
Manual of the General Court, 1880. 
Report of the Young Men's Christian Service, 1888. 
Hubbard's Map of New England. 
Proceedings on the Presentation of three Portraits to the 

Peabody Normal College University. 
Thirty-three Miscellaneous Pamphlets. 
From Commissioner of Labor, Washington, D. C., 

His Third Annual Report. 
from Canadian Institute, Toronto, 
Proceedings for October, 1886. 
From Treasury Department, 

Quarterly Report. 
From Birchard Library, Fremont, Ohio, 

"The Loyal Girl of Winchester," 1864. 
From Georgia Historical Society, Savannah, 

Sketch of the Life and Writings of Sidney Lanier. 
From State Library, Harrisburg, Penn., 

Nine volumes Reports. , 

From Bureau of Education, 

Thos. Jefferson and the University of Virginia. 
Industrial Education in the South. 
From Cayuga County Historical Society, Auburn, JV. Y., 

Collections of Society, No. 6. 
From the Johns Hopkins University, Baltimore, 

"Arnold Toynbee." 
From C\ W. Donling, Utica, N. T., 

"New Amsterdam," "New Orange," "New York." 
From American Catholic Historical Society, Philadelphia 

Historical Researches for January. 
From Gov. Wm. Larrabee, Des Momes, 

Statutes of the United States passed at first session 5oth 

NOTES. 239 


O. F. MAIN, born in Canandaigua, Ontario County, New 
York, but a resident of Iowa since 1855, died at ms home in 
Marion, Linn County, August 7th, 1888, aged 58 years. He 
had been engaged in the Methodist ministry, and was 
prominent in the Masonic and other benevolent orders. 

MAJOR WILLIS DRUMMOND, formerly conspicuous in Iowa 
politics, died at San Diego, California, January ipth, 1888. 
He was elected to the State Senate of Iowa in 1857, was 
editor of the McGregor News, and served with distinction in 
the war of 1861, and afterwards was Commissioner of the 
General Land Office during the administration of President 

W. F. HUDSON, Assistant Disbursing Clerk of the Federal 
House of Representatives, died August 25th last, in Wash- 
ington City. Mr. Hudson's residence had been in Iowa before 
his removal to Washington. 

THE wife of Gen. George W. Jones, died on the 2pth of 
last April. She was the daughter of Charles Cirrille 
Gregoire, a French political refugee of noble birth, w r ho in 
1795 married Miss Mary Meunier of Philadelphia. In 1808 
Gregoire removed to St. Genevieve, Missouri, where he 
engaged in trade with the Indians, and where Mrs. Jones was 
born, June 7th, 1812, and where on her seventeenth birthday 
she married Gen. Jones. Gen. and Mrs. Jones had had their 
home in Dubuque or its vicinity since 1830. Mrs. Jones 
ornamented the various high positions held by her husband 
and well represented in Washington the social refinement 
of the west. 


formed at Washington City, with the Smithsonian Institute for 
its repository. 


THE city of Boston, through an authorized committee, has 
determined to erect statues to the memory of Genls. Grant 
and Sheridan and Admiral Farragut. 

The old settlers of Muscatine County celebrated Iowa's 
semi-centennial anniversary at Muscatine last Fourth of July. 
The principal speakers were Hon. J. P. Walton, Rev. A. B. 
Robbins, and Hon. Theodore S. Parvin. 

HON. CHARLES B. RICHARDS, of Fort Dodge, is the owner 
of an autograph order of Gen. Washington, dated at Valley 
Forge, March 9, 1778, directing Capt. Caleb Gibbs to 
send Lieutenant Livingston and fifty men to Norristown as 
an escort to Messrs. Richards, Clymer and Potts, which has 
been in the possession of his family for more than a hundred 
years. The order, which is written on heavy unruled paper, 
is in a good state of preservation and little faded. Some time 
ago it was deposited in the State Library at Des Moines 
through Hon. Charles Aldrich. 

AT the beginning of 1888 there were in the army 
thirty-five commissioned officers whose appointments were 
credited to Iowa. Of these two were in the medical depart- 
ment, one in the pay department, three in the corps of 
engineers, seven in the cavalry, three in the artillery, sixteen 
in the infantry, one post chaplain, and two on the retired list. 
Eleven of them served in the volunteers and one in the regular 
army during the war. The highest in rank are two colonels, 
Edward Hatch, who was captain, major, lieutenant-colonel, 
and colonel of the 2d Iowa Cavalry, and brigadier-general 
and brevet-major-general of volunteers, and who is now 
colonel of the pth Cavalry, and next below the ranking colonel 
of the army, and Charles E. Compton, who was sergeant- 
major of the ist Iowa Infantry, captain in the nth Iowa 
Infantry, major of the 47th and lieutenant-colonel of the 53d 
U. S. Colored Infantry, and is now the colonel 'of the 4th 
Cavalry. Both these cavalry colonels went to the war from 
Muscatine, and by wounds and gallant service nobly earned 
their preferment. 


VOL. V. APRIL, 1889. No. 2. 


]U R E N R. SHERMAN was born in Phelps, 
Ontario County, New York, on May 28th, 1836; 
being the third in a family of nine sons, six of 
whom attained majority. His parents were Phineas L. Sher- 
man and Eveline Sherman, both of whom lived to over 
seventy years, and died in Iowa in 1873 and 1876 respectively. 
His father was an axemaker by trade, and a man of consider- 
able prominence in his county, whose efforts in the cause of 
temperance, and for a free-school system, and honest govern- 
ment, were of wide influence. Originally a Democrat, but 
of the Silas Wright school, he abandoned his party because 
of the slavery issue, and was one of the organizers of the 
Republican party, with which he continued ever after, living 
to see the full fruition of his hopes his country a nation of 
freemen, and nowhere a slave. Young Sherman attended 
the schools of his native village, and also in Elmira, New 
York, whither his father had removed in 1849, un til in 
1852, when he was apprenticed to S. Ayres, Esq., a prominent 
jeweler in that city, with whom he remained until in 1855, 
when the family removed to Iowa and settled on an unbroken 
prairie in what is now Geneseo Township, Tama County, and 


there commenced life anew as Iowa pioneers; the nearest 
neighbor two miles distant, and the nearest postoffice nearly 
twenty miles away. Here he worked, "breaking" prairie and 
"chopping in" sod corn, until in 1857 he obtained employment 
in the store of Dr. Jesse Wasson, who had platted the new 
town of Laporte City, with whom he remained about two 
years. In the meantime he continued the study of law, which 
he had commenced in Elmira, under the patronage of Messrs, 
Diven and Hathaway, eminent lawyers of that city. At the 
June term, 1859, ^ tne District Court of Cem> Gordo 
County, Hon. John Porter presiding, Mr. Sherman was 
examined, and on motion of Hon. W. P. Hepburn, then 
district attorney of that judicial district, was duly admitted to 
practice law. Afterwards, in 1860-, he was admitted in the 
.Supreme Court of the state. In the spring of 1860, Mr. 
;Sherman removed to Vinton and entered into a law partner- 
ship with Hon J. C. Traer, which continued until the breaking 
out of the War of the Rebellion, when Mr. Sherman promptly 
enlisted as a member of Company G, i^th Iowa Infantry 
Volunteers, commanded by Col. M. M. Crocker, one of Iowa's 
^bravest and greatest heroes. He was promoted through the 
grades of second sergeant of his company and sergeant 
major of the regiment to that of second lieutenant of 
Company E. At the great battle of Pittsburg Landing, or 
"Shiloh," as now called, Lieut. Sherman was very severely 
wounded, and left to die on the field; but after the battle was 
over he was discovered, and sent to the military hospital at 
Mound City, Illinois, for treatment*, His recovery was almost 
miraculous, for his wounds were not dressed until his arrival 
at the hospital on the sixth day after the receipt of the injuries, 
and he yet surfers from their effects. However, in due time 
he was allowed to return to his regiment, having in the 
interval been promoted to the rank of captain, and remained 
in active service, doing what duty he could, until the summer 
of 1863, when his wounds breaking out afresh, and incapaci- 
tating him for field work, he tendered his resignation, which 


was accepted by Gen. Grant, in special field orders, "on 
account of wounds received in battle." He thus left a service 
personally agreeable to him, because in the line of patriotic 
duty, and which also promised further promotion, and return- 
ing to Vinton, was complimented by a public reception by the u 
citizens. Capt. Sherman was personally popular in his regi- 
ment and throughout his brigade, which was the famous 
Crocker's Iowa Brigade, composed of the nth, I3th, i5th 
and i6th Iowa regiments. It was as assistant surgeon of the 
nth Iowa the writer first made his acquaintance, which he 
still cherishes. After the war, the surviving members organ- 
ized a brigade society, and Capt. Sherman was unanimously 
elected their first president, in which capacity he served 
several years, and was succeeded by Maj. Gen. W. W. 
Belknap, of the i5th Iowa, who has been unanimously re- 
tained to this day. The secretaries, Cols. H. H. Rood and 
J. H. Munroe, have also continued in service from the organi- 
zation of the society. 

Capt. Sherman is an honorary member of the societies of 
the 3d Iowa Infantry, and the 22d Iowa Infantry, and of the 
2ist Illinois Infantry, which was the regiment first commanded 
by Gen. Grant. He is an active member of the G. A. R. 
Department of Iowa, and of the military order of the Loyal 
Legion, and also of the Society of the Army of the Tennessee. 

On his return to Vinton, Capt. Sherman desired to resume 
the practice of law, but a grateful people immediately elected 
him county judge, and afterwards clerk of the District Court, 
to which latter position he was three times re-elected, finally 
resigning to accept the more responsible office of auditor of 
state, to which he had been elected in 1874, an< ^ which he 
assumed in January, 1875, removing to Des Moines for that 
purpose. His administration of this office, the next in import- 
ance to that of the governorship, of the executive offices of 
the state, was marked by a thoroughness not always found in 
public position, and he proved himself a worthy successor to 
Hon. J. W. Cattell, and "Honest" John Russell, than whom 


the state never had more industrious nor deserving officials. 
Auditor Sherman's reports were models of clear and concise 
statement, and it was in reference to them that the legislature, 
for the first time in the history of the state, ordered a second 
, large edition printed for general distribution. Mr. Sherman 
was twice re-elected auditor of state, thus serving three full 
terms, and retiring therefrom in January, 1881, being suc- 
ceeded by W. V. Lucas, of Cerro Gordo County. 

At the October election, 1881, Mr. Sherman was elected 
governor of Iowa, and on the I2th day of January, 1882, in 
the presence of the General Assembly and a large concourse 
of the people, among whom were his former compatriots in 
arms in large numbers, he was inaugurated. He brought to 
the discharge of the duties of this exalted station the same 
modest demeanor, and the same habits of industry, which had 
ever characterized him ; and from the beginning it was evident 
that the state had a chief magistrate in fact, as well as in name. 
To his credit, be it said, Governor Sherman was always 
accessible to every citizen. Himself a man of the people, 
who had grown to manhood among them, and was a part of 
them, he relied upon the people, and was trusted by them. 
Never has the state enjoyed a more thoroughly democratic 
administration than was that of Governor Sherman. Without 
bombastic display, or self-important manner, the new governor 
went about his duties with the quiet determination of a man 
who desired to meet every responsibility rightfully belonging 
to him, and his success therein fully demonstrates the wisdom 
of his positions. 

The most serious question then agitating the public mind 
was that of constitutional prohibition of the liquor traffic, 
which Governor Sherman insisted should be submitted to the 
people for final judgment. In this he antagonized many of 
the leading men of his party, but he could not be swerved 
from his position, that the people had the right to be heard 
upon all important questions; a doctrine he had avowed in his 
inaugural address: and despite all opposition, the legislature 


approved, and the proposed amendment was ordered sub- 
mitted at a special election to be held in June following. The 
canvass for and against the measure was one of the most 
earnest ever known in Iowa. Governor Sherman did not hesi- 
tate to distinctly avow his opinions; and in public speeches, and 
by correspondence, -advocated the amendment. He was the 
only state officer who dared to publicly voice his position, while 
some of his associates in the state offices did not even dare to 
vote upon the proposition. The amendment was adopted by a 
majority of nearly 30,000 votes, and immediately the governor 
issued his famous proclamation announcing the result, and 
declaring the amendment to be a part of the Constitution of 
the state. A question w r as then raised as to the legality of 
the legislative act in providing for the submission, and on 
appeal to the Supreme Court, it was held, but by a divided 
court, that the act was not valid; and, as a consequence, the 
amendment was not a part of the Constitution. Public meet- 
ings were called in all parts of the state, and intense excitement 
prevailed; so that a state convention was held and resolutions 
adopted, demanding that the governor should convene the 
legislature in extra session in order to procure a resubmission of 
the amendment. But, in a calm and dignified letter to the com- 
mittee, he refused, because he did not believe such action as 
proposing amendments to the Constitution would be valid, 
except at regular sessions of the legislature; a position not 
then popular, but which the reflective judgment of the ablest 
jurists in the state has since fully approved, and is now 
universally endorsed by the people. A less prudent official, 
or an executive who was disposed to play the demagogue, 
might then easily have plunged the state into almost endless 
litigation, besides the expense attending the session. 

In a recent interview with him by the writer hereof, 
Governor Sherman still insists that the court had no juris- 
diction of the subject matter; that its holding was extra- 
judicial, and as a consequence the amendment is as valid in 
the Constitution as any other part of that instrument. 


Governor Sherman favored other reforms in state policy, 
among the most important of his recommendations being that 
allowing taxes to be paid semi-annually, which was enacted 
into a law and has given universal satisfaction; also relative 
to uniformity in text books used in the common schools, and 
for state publication of the same. These, however, have not 
yet been adopted, although a growing sentiment in favor, 
manifest throughout the state, promises better results in the 
near future. In his attention to the various state institutions, 
Governor Sherman proved himself efficient, and in all the 
exacting duties of his office, was ever the courageous and 
careful official, who understood the requirements of his position, 
and was diligent in their performance. 

At the Republican State Convention in 1883, Governor 
Sherman \vas unanimously renominated, and in October 
following was again elected as governor of Iowa. He was 
inaugurated on the I'jih day of January, 1884, the ceremonies 
being held in the rotunda of the new capitol, conjointly with 
those of the dedication of the building. Besides being the 
first state officer to occupy the building, it was during his first 
term in the gubernatorial office that the last vestige of the 
war bonds was paid, and our citizens relieved of the stigma 
of a bonded debt; and during his second term the capitol was 
practically completed, and occupied by all the state officers 
and the General Assembly. 

The duties and labors of the executive office during Mr. Sher- 
man's second term were not materially different from those of 
the first, but throughout he gave to their administration his 
entire time and devoted service. In January, 1885, he was 
confronted by a new question, as to what should be done with 
a public officer, who on re-election failed to make accounting 
for the acts of his previous term, which the law required of 
him, before his new bond could be approved. Although this 
was in the case of a high state official, Governor Sherman 
did not hesitate as to his duty, and suspended the officer; and 
the order being resisted, he summarily ejected him from the 


office. In this proceeding he was strongly endorsed by the 
, ablest lawyers in the state, by all the ex-governors, and also 
by the best citizens of the state, who believed that no dis- 
criminations should be made on account of rank, or high 
position, but that a state officer should be held to as strict 
accountability as the most humble official. There were some, 
however, moved by selfish desires, who were not satisfied, and 
a public meeting was held in Des Moines, at which inflamma- 
tory speeches were made, denouncing the governor for his 
action, and declaring that unless he retraced his steps, and 
reinstated the suspended officer, he would not live forty-eight 
hours! And himself and his family \vere fairly deluged with 
anonymous and bitter letters, threatening his life, unless he 
changed his course! But a man who had faced death upon 
battle fields was not to be dismayed by these cowardly 
methods, and Governor Sherman persevered with that grim 
courage which belonged to him, because satisfied he was in 
the right, and the law would uphold him. In this he was not 
disappointed, but was sustained by the Supreme Court of the 
state, in an elaborate and learned opinion delivered by Chief 
Justice Adams, which settled the legal. status of the matter, and 
confirmed the governor in his authority. After his retirement 
from office, his successor, the new governor, Larrabee, 
reinstated the removed official; but he was immediately 
impeached by nearly the unanimous vote of the House of 
Representatives, and a long and exciting trial resulted, the 
Senate sitting as the Court of Impeachment. On the final vote, 
although question was scarcely made upon the facts as 
charged in the articles of impeachment, a bare majority 
of the Senate voted "not guilty;" and the precedent was 
established, that if an officer refused to make accounting, and 
therefore was not allowed to continue in office, he might, on 
trial before an Iowa Senate, be certain to expect excuse for 
disobedience to the plainly written law, and immunity from 
punishment therefor! To what extent party policy interfered 
to bring such result, the writer will not venture to express 



opinion. The reader may contrast the finding of the Senate 
with the judgment of the Supreme Court, and judge for 

Aside from those above related there were no extraordinary 
incidents during his four years' administration. A state official 
informs the writer that in the appointments to office, of which 
Governor Sherman had an unusually large number, he was 
exceedingly careful, and with one exception all his nominations 
were promptly confirmed by the legislature or executive 
council; and, as to that one, the same council, after reflection, 
approved the selection, thus leaving the record unbroken. 

He closed his official term, January I4th, 1886, on the 
inauguration of his successor, and retired from office with 
clean hands and an honored name, and established in the con- 
fidence of the people. 

As a public speaker, Governor Sherman is one of the most 
experienced, and ranked among the ablest and most eloquent 
in the state. And his written messages and addresses show 
him to be a man of superior practical and literary ability. The 
writer remembers a speech by him in Iowa City, at the 
banquet given by the citizens to the Iowa Brigade Society, at 
its reunion in 1885, there being present many distinguished 
guests from abroad, which was highly commended for its 
originality and comprehensiveness, and proved the resources 
always at his command. 

In Masonic circles, Mr. Sherman has been honored by 
election to the highest positions in the fraternity, and is now 
an officer and life-member in the Supreme Council of Masons 
of the Thirty-Third Degree. 

The Iowa State University has bestowed upon him the 
honorary degree of LL.D., in recognition of his abilities and 
faithful service in the cause of education in Iowa. 

Governor Sherman was married at Vinton, in August, 
1862, to Miss Lena Kendall, one of the most estimable 
and accomplished of young ladies. He removed his residence 
to Waterloo in the spring of 1887, where he now resides 


with his family, consisting of wife, daughter Lena, and son 
Oscar E., all of whom enjoy the esteem and friendship of 
the people. He is engaged in active business life as president 
of the Citizens' Mutual Fire Insurance Company. 

Governor Sherman was the youngest in years of any of 
Iowa's governors, and is yet in robust health,' and in the very 
prime of his manhood. 

In preparing the foregoing brief biographical sketch of one 
of Iowa's heroic volunteers and exalted citizens, hardly more 
than the most striking episodes of his official life, military and 
civil, have been touched. With bravery goes modesty, and 
knowing Governor Sherman's aversion to praise, however 
merited, all inclination to eulogy has been restrained as inap- 
propriate to the living, and liable to be misinterpreted as 
flattery, which surely would be offensive to him. 




''I will find where truth is hid, though it were hid indeed within 

the center. Shakespeare. 
"Truth crushed to earth shall rise again." Bryant. 

|N a previous paper we both asked and answered 
"Who taught the First School in Iowa ? " Berry- 
man Jennings, October to December, 1830, at 
Nashville, Lee County. 

We shall in this article discuss the query, "Who is the 
Founder of the Iowa School System ? " or, as another writer 
puts it, "Who is the Father of Free Schools in Iowa?" 
Rather we shall not essay to answer who, but prove that the 
Hon. Horace Mann, whom both writers claim is, is not. 

In that paper we transcribed one of the articles which has 
run the gauntlet of all our leading papers of the state, for the 


purpose ofjputting in a denial of all the essential points stated, 
as we wished to reach the public ear at an early date. Now 
we will present our proof. 

The IOWA HISTORICAL RECORD is the official organ of the 
Iowa Historical Society, and therefore the proper place for 
both the history in whole or part of Iowa when written, and 
also the preservation of proper data of that history, to be 
written some future time. 

The points presented by his injudicious admirers, we say 
"injudicious" because we are a sincere and honest admirer of 
the man and work, are: 

1. That Horace Mann "was selected by a committee of 
the legislature," 

2. "To prepare a law embodying his ideas of a public 
school system; which he did," 

3. "Providing for the township as a unit in school adminis- 

4. For "Teachers Institutes;" and 

5. "Normal Schools for Teachers;" and 

6. "County Superintendents'" 

7. And that he "was the founder of the Iowa public 
school system." 

(i). At the special session of the General Assembly held 
at Iowa City, July 3d, 1856, Gov. Grimes in his message 
"recommended that three competent persons be selected to 
REVISE all the laws on the subject of "Schools and School 
Lands." Thus the General Assembly approved but did not 
originate the idea. It passed a law July I4th providing that 
"there shall be three commissioners appointed by the Governor, 
whose duty it shall be to revise and improve the school laws 
of Iowa;" not as asserted to ignore existing laws, and present a 
new law "embodying the views" of any one man, nor yet of 
three men. 

In his succeeding, and last, message, Gov.. Grimes reports 
December 3d, 1856, that he "had in compliance with law, 
appointed Hon. Horace Mann, of Ohio; Mr. Amos Dean, of 


New York, president (chancellor) of the State University, and 
F. S. Bissell, Esq., of Dubuque, commissioners to revise the 
school laws of Iowa. Here the first statement is proved 
wholly incorrect and unfounded, and here we might rest 
upon the law maxim Falsum in uno, fahuni in omni. But 
we will proceed with number 

(2). The commissioners were, i under the governor's 
recommendations; 2 under the law providing for their 
appointment; 3 under the governor's commission, only to 
"revise and improve" the existing school laws of Iowa, and 
not prepare a new law, new system, "embodying the ideas" 
of Mr. Mann, one of the commissioners, nor based upon the 
ideas of all the three, i The governor in his message July 
3d, says to ''revise all the laws on the subject of schools." 
2 The law reads: "It shall be the duty of the commissioners 
to revise and improve the school laws," of what? not Mr. 
Mann's ideas, but "of Iowa." 3 The governor reported that 
"commissioners had been appointed," how and for what? 
"under the law, to revise the school laws, etc." . Nay more. 
The commissioners in their report, December, 1856, say in the 
first sentence: 4 "The undersigned," two of the commis- 
sioners, Mr. Mann and Amos Dean "appointed to revise the 
school laws of Iowa." Again they say: "They found the 
previous legislation of this state, upon this great subject, in 
the main, judicious in its provisions, etc." Clearly then Iowa 
had already a school system, and some man or set of men 
must have been its "founder" unless like Topsy, it had no 
maker. Neither Mr. Mann nor Mr. Dean ever claimed to 
have created a new system but only to "revise" the old. The 
revised law, not new one, presented by the two commissioners 
it is claimed contained Hon. Horace Mann's "ideas of a public 
school system" in that the two, not one, commissioners embod- 
ied in that law 

(3). "The tow r nship system as a unit of school administra- 
tion. 4. Teachers Institutes. 5. Normal Schools for 


Each and all of these three had been recommended and two 
of them practiced in the Iowa School System for years. Gov. 
Lucas, Iowa's first executive, in his first (and indeed subse- 
quent) message recommended this wise provison and in lan- 
guage quite as plain and unmistakeable as that used by the two 
commissioners. Hear ye him. Message, November 12, 
1838, the Governor says, and it was the first "subject" he 
treated upon, "The subject of providing by law for the organ- 
ization of townships * * * I consider to be of the first 
importance. Without proper totvnshij) regulations it will be 
extremely difficult, if not impracticable, to establish a regular 
school system" Again further on he "emphatically calls the 
attention of the legislature at the commencement, of our polit- 
ical existence to a well digested system of common schools, 
and as a preparatory step toward effecting this important 
object. * * * I urge," he repeats, "upon your consider- 
ations the necessity of providing by law for the organization of 
townships." Bear in mind that he, Lucas not Mann, did this 
in November, 1838,. and not December, 1856, or almost two 
decades later. Horace Mann and Amos Dean recommended 
and so did Lucas, and so did several governors and superin- 
tendents of public instruction, between the years 1838 and 
1856, recommend "the township system as the unit of school 
administration." All they did, all they could do, was to 
recommend, for both in 1838 and 1856 the legislature neg- 
lected, to use a mild term, to enact into an act their wise, 
wholesome and important suggestions, upon this and other 
topics also. It would take too much space to follow up this, 
the first, with other later recommendations of the successors 
of Gov. Lucas and the several superintendents upon this vital 
as we regard it point. It has not even yet been made 
universally the unit of administration, because the old and 
imperfect district system still prevails and obtains among us. 
Moreover, "Teachers Institutes" had been held, both county 
and state, since 1849, April, and June, 1856. So the law was 
the outgrowth of, and engrafted upon the system in use and 


not the reverse better keep the horse before the cart. They 
had been held every where, and became bone of the bone and 
flesh of the flesh of our system; only the state from the 
beginning had not provided the means to defray the expenses 
of holding the same till after Superintendent Benton had 
recommended and urged the measure. 

, Again "Normal Schools for Teachers," no more than 
Teachers Institutes, originated with Mr. Mann or Mr. Dean, 
for the State of Iowa had by law provided, in 1849, ^ or tne 
establishment, and did establish "Normal Schools for Teachers" 
at Andrew and other places. And again in 1855, the state 
opened a distinct "Normal Department for Teachers" in con- 
nection with the State University; which was free to all, largely 
attended, and made most efficacious in the work of education 
in the state. These two measures "Teachers Institutes" and 
"Normal Schools" were seven years older than Mr. Mann's 
appointment, recommendation or bill, and had already become 
one, and inseparable from the Iowa school system. 

(6). Here is a new, and the only new feature, as claimed 
by these false claimants in the bill reported by Messrs. Mann 
and Dean County Superintendents. And we italicised it in 
our enumeration of the several points because it was theirs 
not "his," nor indeed ours before. It was and is a most "im- 
portant addition" to the school system of Iowa; and most 
gladly do we acknowledge its merits and give to them, not 
him, all credit for its recommendation and incorporation into 
our system. 

(7). A few words as to whether Mr. Mann alone or 
Messrs. Mann and Dean are the founders of the "Iowa Public 
School System." It was a joint commission; the two labored 
together; the two submitted their report; the General 
Assembly praises them alike for their service. Is there a man 
in his senses who would assert that Amos Dean, chancellor of 
the State University of Iowa, would share with Horace Mann 
equally in the compensation if he had not equally shared in 
the labor? Thus why and wherefore ignore Dean and give 


all the credit to Mann for their joint labors. Yet more, Hon. 
J. B. Grinnell, who was the chairman of the committee in the 
Senate a warm personal and political friend of Hon. Horace 
Mann; selected for that work by Gov. Grimes, himself to have 
in special charge the bill of the commissioners, says distinctly 
personally to the writer at the recent State Teachers' Associa- 
tion in December, 1888, and by letter dated January, 1889, 
that the Hon. Amos Dean was entitled to share (half and half 
indeed) the honors of that report, and the authorship of the 
bill reported. Moreover, he writes that in later years when 
in Congress, Mr. Mann was his colleague, and in a conversa- 
tion had at Washington with him upon this subject he (Mann) 
generously gave to Mr. Dean full credit for his share of the 
work. Why then, in view of these facts, omit the name of 
Mr. Dean in all reference to that "Revision?" 

Iowa became a state in December, 1846. The constitution 
provided for the office of superintendent of public instruction. 
Hon. Thomas H. Benton,Jr., a classical teacher of experience, 
was elected and served in that capacity six full years before 
the revision of the school laws by Messrs. Mann and Dean. 
Is it presumable, on the contrary is it not the absurdity of folly, 
to suppose for a moment that the great and growing state of 
Iowa, full of people and legislators born, raised and educated 
in the older and earlier states with school systems of long 
date, and with such an educator as Benton could and would 
remain all the ten years without a school system? That it 
would "watch and wait " 'till Mr. Mann should come along and 
give our people the bread of life an educational system, 
without which no state can grow into greatness or even exist 
as a government? It is time, high time, that these libelers of 
men, and of truth, be silenced and made to hide their brazen 
faces in shame. 

The Iowa school system has no one or even two men for its 
"founders." It was not created at one time, nor did it have 
an author at one period. It is a growth; a development from 
the beginning in 1838 and through all the years 'till 1858; a 


period of a full score of years. It has grown much since, 
and will continue to grow, improve and develop with the 
years, and the wants and the demands of the people and the 

To Messrs. Mann and Dean great credit and honor is due, 
and we who knew them and were in office in the state at the 
time of their appointment and labors, most gladly give to 
them the credit their due of a most thorough "revision" and 
improvement of the previous school legislation of our state. 
But to others, especially to Hon. Thomas H. Benton, Jr., is 
due in a larger measure and a greater degree, the honor of 
having left the impress of his educated mind and experience 
and character upon the school system of Iowa. 

Neither Hon. Horace Mann, nor Amos Dean, nor the two 
jointly "were the founder of the Iowa public school system," 
nor are they or he (Mann) "the father of free schools in 

"The truth makes us free" and there is no truth in the 
claim so absurdly and falsely set forth by these writers that to 
Horace Mann belongs this honor. 

In conclusion we will quote from an address delivered by 
Hon. Geo. G. Wright, ex-chief justice and ex-U. S. senator, 
October i3th, 1886, before the Tri-State Old Settlers' Associa- 
tion, at Keokuk, who knew whereof he affirmed, being an 
old settler himself: "The pioneer lawyers, farmers, merchants, 
ministers, men of business from all the eastern states, and 
from the lakes to the gulf, made our laws, framed our consti- 
tions, * * * organized our school system, * * * 
and what we are to-day is largely due to them. We owe 
them a debt of gratitude, which grows with the years and 
without the possibility of liquidation." 


APRIL SOTH, 1789-1889. 

!|PON the 28th day of September, 1787, the consti- 
tution, having been duly signed upon the i7th of 
the same month, was submitted to Congress 
through "His Excellency, the President of Congress," with a 
letter by George Washington, president of the convention; 
whereupon it was unanimously 

Resolved, That the said report with the resolutions and letter accompanying 
the same be transmitted to the several legislatures in order to be submitted to 
a convention of delegates chosen in each state by the people thereof, in con- 
formity with the resolves of the convention, made and provided in that case. 

The battles of the convention were fought over upon twelve 
fields Rhode Island at first having refused to call a conven- 
tion. Acts of ratification were passed in order and manner as 
follows : 

Delaware Dec. 7, 1787 unanimously. 

Pennsylvania Dec. 12, 1787 46 to 23. 

New Jersey Dec. 18, 1787 unanimously. 

Georgia.. Aug. 2, 1788 unanimously. 

Connecticut Aug. 9, 1788 128 to 40. 

Massachusetts Feb. 7, 1788 187 to 168. 

Maryland t April 28, 1788 63 to 12. 

South Carolina May 23, 1788 149 to 73. 

New Hampshire June 21, 1788 57 to 46. 

Virginia June 26, 1788 89 to 79. 

New York July 26, 1788 31 to 27. 

North Carolina at first refused to ratify without a bill of 
rights and amendment by a vote of 184 to 84. 

Rhode Island did not call a convention, but submitted the 
question to the town meetings, where it was rejected by a vote 
of 2708 to 232. 

Both North Carolina (November 2ist, 1789) and Rhode 
Island (May 29th, 1790) ratified the constitution. 

With the ratification by New Hampshire, June 2ist, 1788, 
the constitution was given full force. Congress received notice 
of the ratification of New Hampshire, July 2d, 1788. The 
several ratifications were referred to a committee who were 
empowered to report "an act for putting the said constitution 

APRIL SOTH, 1789-1889. 257 

into operation in pursuance of the resolutions of the 1'ate federal 

The committee reported upon July I4th. As debate arose 
upon the question of the location of the seat of the new 
government, action was delayed until September I3th, 1788, 
when the following resolution was adopted: 

Resolved, That the first Wednesday in January next, be the day for appoint- 
ing electors in the several states, which before the said day, shall have ratified 
the said constitution ; that the first Wednesday in February next, be the day 
for the electors to assemble in their respective states and vote for a president ; 
and that the first Wednesday in March next be the time, aod the present seat 
of Congress,* the place for commencing proceedings under the said constitu- 

During the winter of 1788-9 the election of members of 
the First Federal Congress occupied the thought of the 
people. Many of the ablest and best men of the nation were 
chosen to the House and the Senate. 

After the i3th of September, 1788, the Congress of the 
Confederation felt its work accomplished, and though nomin- 
ally in session no quorum was obtainable. This culpable want 
of punctuality and apparent indifference to public business 
seemed to be transmitted to their successors, though "bad 
roads" were made the excuse for delays. The vote of the 
electors upon the first Wednesday of February was not 
officially announced to the president-elect until the I4th of 
April, simply because the votes were not opened and counted 
until the 6th of April more than a month after the govern- 
ment should have been in operation. The Senate consisted 
of twenty-two members; House, fifty-nine. 

Upon the evening of March 3d a salute of farewell was 
fired in memory of the dead confederacy. Upon the morning 
of March 4th a salute was fired in greeting the new govern- 
ment kept at home by "bad roads." Eight senators and 
thirteen representatives answered the roll-call upon this day, 

* Early in January, 1785, Congress had removed to New York on account of 
troubles bv soldiers at Philadelphia. 



which should have witnessed the beginning of new things. 
It was the ist of April before a quorum appeared in the 
House, and five days later twelve senators announced the 
Senate organized. Upon knowledge of the organization of 
the Senate the House was engaged upon the discussion of 
financial measures, but adjourned in a body to the Senate 
chamber for the purpose of counting the electoral vote and 
declaring the result. The Senate was not ready to receive 
their visitors, questions of etiquette having been discussed 
after the sergeant-at-arms of the House had appeared at the 
door of the Senate. Ignorance of methods of procedure, 
except those in vogue in the English parliament, is a valid 
excuse for delay. The vote of electors was announced as 
follows : 










































i i 







New Hampshire. . 



Massachusetts . . . . 







New Jersey 




















South Carolina.. . . 






















George Washington was the unanimous choice of the 
electors, and was declared president. As the next highest 
candidate was John Adams, he was declared vice-president* 
though not having a majority of the electoral votes. It will 
be seen that New York (in recent vears often a pivotal state) 
had no voice in the first presidential election. Internal dissen- 

*Each elector voted for two persons, either of whom might be president as 
majority should determine; the second becoming vice-president. 

APRIL SOTH, 1789-1889. 259 

sions prevented the casting of her vote upon the day desig- 
nated. Had the entire vote been cast by the states which had 
ratified the constitution Washington would, without doubt, 
have received eighty-one votes, as there was no opposition to 
him in New York. The apparent opposition to Mr. Adams 
was due in part to the purpose of tendering Washington 
the presidency without going to the House as would have 
been necessary if Adams had received an equal vote with 

The method of choosing electors is interesting. New 
Hampshire chose by the legislature; Massachusetts elected 
two and chose the other eight from sixteen names sent up 
from the eight congressional districts by the legislature; 
Pennsylvania, Maryland and Virginia chose by direct vote of 
the people; the remaining five states Connecticut, New 
Jersey, Delaware, South Carolina and Georgia, elected by 
legislatures. Popular vote was not what we are accustomed 
to in this day. The voter then must own property, rent a 
house or pay tax. There was little chance for a poor man in 
those days of restricted suffrage to express his will at the 
polls. Bancroft in his history of the constitution gives the 
following account: 

"On the I4th of April he (Washington) received the official announcement 
of his recall to the public service, and was at 10 o'clock on the morning of the 
sixteenth on his way. Though reluctant in the evening of life to exchange a 
peaceful abode for an ocean of difficulties, he bravely said : 'Be the voyage 
long or short; although I may be deserted by all men, integrity and firmness 
shall never forsake me.' But for him the country could not have achieved its 
independence; but for him it could not have formed its union; and but for him 
it could not have set the federal government in successful motion. His 
journev to New York was one continued march of triumph. All the way 
he was met with addresses from the citizens of various towns, from societies 
universities and churches. His neighbors of Alexandria crowded around him 
with the strongest personal affection, saying: 'Farewell, make a grateful people 
happy ; and may the being who maketh and unmaketh at his will, restore to us 
again the best of men, and the most beloved fellow citizen.' 

"To the citizens of Baltimore, Washington said: 'I hold it of little moment 
if the close of my life shall be imbittered, provided I shall have been instru- 
mental in securing the liberties and promoting the happiness of the American 


"He assured the society for promoting domestic manufactures in Delaware 
that the promotion of domestic manufactures may naturally be expected to 
flow from an energetic government; and he promised to give a decided prefer- 
ence to the produce and fabrics of America. 

"At Philadelphia, 'almost overwhelmed with a sense of the divine munifi- 
cence' he spoke words of hope: 'The most gracious being who has hitherto 
watched over the interests and averted the perils of the United States, will 
never suffer so fair an inheritance to become a prey to anarchy or despotism.' 

"At Trenton he was met by a party of matrons and their daughters dressed 
in white, strewing flowers before him. 

"From Elizabethport he was conveyed in a barge manned by pilots dressed 
in white, between gailv decorated boats to Murray Wharf, in New York, where 
he was met by members of Congress and state officers, who escorted him to 
the house of Gov. Clinton for dinner." 

The merchants of New York had subscribed a sum of 
$25,000 to be expended upon the building used as a capitol. 
The work not completed led to a delay of the services of 
inauguration till the 3Oth of April, when the oath of office was 
administered by Chancellor Livingston after which the in- 
augural address was delivered, in person, in the Senate 
chamber, and at the close the president and both houses of 
Congress were escorted to the Church of St. Paul, where the 
chaplain of the Senate read the prayers suited to the occasion. 

Recently Mrs. Margaret Mitchell died in Cleveland, Ohio, 
at the age of 100 hundred years and three months. She was 
four months old at the time of President Washington's inaugu- 
ration. At the age of eighteen she might have witnessed the 
trial trip of Fulton's steamboat upon the Hudson River. At 
the age of thirty-one she could not have found an iron plow in 
all the world. She had attained the age of forty-one before 
she could have taken passage upon a railway train. Up to 
forty-four years of age she knew no way of building a fire, 
except by borrowing coals from a neighbor's hearth, or in use 
of steel, flint and tinder. She was forty-nine before the first 
steam vessel crossed the Atlantic Ocean. At the age of fifty- 
five the postoffice furnished the only means of communication 
with distant friends. At her birth she was one of less than 
three million of people within the bounds of the United States. 


At her death probably sixty million citizens survived her. Her 
span of life extended through the administrations of twenty- 
two different presidents and into that of the twenty-third. 
She was a charming woman and could entertain her guests 
with stories of every presidential canvass except the first. 
Such a statement gives one a clearer idea of the progress of 
this country than can be obtained in any other way. Tracing 
backward the conveniences we now enjoy and which to us 
appear as if they had always existed, we find them recent in 
origin when placed beside such a life. 

We of this day of steam and electricity may excuse the 
apparent slowness of the fathers of the republic when we 
compare our means of travel and of communication with 

[From "Iowa in War Times" Chapter XXVII of Adjutant S. H. M. Byers's 
new work, recently published.] 


DECEMBER, 1864. 

lALF the people of America have grown from child- 
hood to manhood since the country was electrified 
by the news that Sherman's army had marched 
from Atlanta to the sea. Twenty years have gone, and we 
begin to know better the significance of the most picturesque 
as well as the most important campaign of the civil war. 

Not less than seventeen Iowa regiments took part in the 
brilliant campaign. 

The pth Iowa Infantry, commanded by Capt. McSweeny, 
severed the last link of the railroad that connected Sherman's 
army with the North. The last train had passed northward 
from Atlanta, when, on the I2th of November, the Iowa boys 
tore up the track and filled in the cuts behind it when, with- 
out a base, without communications, and with a three hundred 
miles march in front of it, the army swung loose for the sea. 


The battle of Chattanooga had proved the most crushing 
disaster that had happened to the confederacy during the war ; 
but a greater disaster still was waiting the South. Grant had 
gone to the armies in the East, and Sherman was threatening 
to cut what was left of the confederacy in two. Of course 
that could not be done without first destroying or crippling 
the rebel army in his front. It was a long and perilous 
journey for an army from Chattanooga to Atlanta, the "gate 
city of the South." Nature had fortified the country against 
invasion almost every foot of the way, and a well commanded 
army of veterans occupied intrenchments, and river banks, 
and bridges, and mountain heights, in such force as to make 
almost disheartening any attempt at a forward campaign. 
Sherman's campaigns, however, had all been of the forward 
kind. He had seldom fought twice over the same ground, 
and he led an army accustomed to victory. In himself was 
represented a type of soldier that comes not once in a century; 
courageous, original, blest with great resources of intellect; a 
trained soldier with the heart of a civilian, perfect in knowl- 
edge of the conduct of wars, cool in judgment, audacious in 
action, enthusiastic in the cause he was fighting for; an intense 
patriot, and possessed of the universal affection of his troops. 
Only such a leader could undertake with hopes of success a 
campaign so difficult as the 1 20 days' battle that lay between him 
and Atlanta. This 1 20 days' fighting was more than preliminary 
to the march to the sea; in a sense, it was a part of that 
march. To destroy the armies in front of him , to take 
Atlanta, the central flourishing depot of the South; to destroy 
the lines that fed Lee's army; to show the Confederacy that 
their very interior and strongest places were not invulnerable; 
to put a victorious Northern army right in the heart of the 
South, and show the world that it could stay there; this was 
what Sherman set out to do. To do it, the Atlanta campaign 
become a necessity; so did the march to the sea. Throwing 
the same army that marched to Savannah right into Lee's 
rear, and later compelling him to surrender to Grant or flee 


to the mountains, was the additional possibility planned for, 
and believed in, long before the march seaward was com- 
menced. The plan to strike Lee's rear with Sherman's army 
from Atlanta, 1000 miles away, developed slowly. Its execu- 
tion meant a tremendous move on the military chess board. 
Lee saw the fatal danger, ere the campaign was half done, 
and mentally resolved, as we see later, on leaving Richmond 
the moment Sherman's columns should get as far toward him 
as the Roanoke River. 

The terrific events in Sherman's campaign, between the 
Tennessee River and Atlanta, had never been surpassed 
on the continent. They were scarcely surpassed by the 
great single battles of Spottsylvania, the Wilderness, and 
Cold Harbor. It was not so much one very great battle, 
as a constant succession of heavy battles and fights in the 
woods. Day and night were heard the roar of cannon and 
the clash of musketry. Those not engaged in the perpetual 
conflict on the lines could scarcely sleep when the cracking of 
musketry ceased at times, so accustomed were they to the 
continued sound of guns. It was like a constant siege, filled 
up by never ending assaults, charging breastworks, taking 
bridges, maneuvers, reconnoissances, skirmishes, and battles; 
then the siege, and the assaults on Atlanta itself, the flanking 
movements, and, at last, the end. "Atlanta ours, and fairly 
won," flew across the wires to Washington, and the first act 
in Sherman's campaign was finished. It had been a tremen- 
dous succession of hard fighting a constant battle for four 
months. The great commander on the James realized the 
magnitude of the events. "You have accomplished," said 
Grant, in a letter to Sherman, "the most gigantic undertaking 
of any man in this war." 

And what next ? Grant wrote from Virginia. And he, too, 
asked what next. What had Sherman gone to Atlanta for ? 
Could he stop there ? "It is now my opinion," wrote Sherman 
to Grant, "that I should keep Hood employed, and put my army 
in fine order for a march on Charleston (the sea)." These 


are the first written words about the "march" to be found in 
the records of the war. And again he wrote: I would not 
hesitate, were there a new base in our hands at the coast, to 
cross the State of Georgia with 60,000 men." The possibility 
of a march somewhere seaward, had, as said, been looked for- 
ward to when the army left Chattanooga. Where he should 
strike, when he should strike, or whether new events would 
permit a march at all, were left wholly unsettled in his mind in 
the beginning; but at Atlanta, Sherman conceived the true 
plan, and adopted the direction he would take, if only Hood 
would be foolish enough to march his confederate army north 
into Tennessee, where Thomas stood waiting to welcome him. 
At last Hood did move, and northward; and, to make the 
blunder more visible, Jefferson Davis himself rushed out to 
Palmetto, near Atlanta, and approved the plans of his general. 
Addressing the soldiers and the pjiblic, he pictured Sherman's 
army as now about to be lost. Advance he could not; and 
the retreat of Napoleon from Moscow was child's play com- 
pared with what would happen were the federal general to 
attempt to fall back. A scout took the speech to Sherman, 
and that moment he determined on his "march to the sea." 
Davis was commander-in-chief of the confederate armies, and 
his speech had convinced Sherman that the confederate presi- 
dent was as weak in generalship as he was strong in boasting. 

All surplus material and men were at once sent to the rear, 
and arrangements for another move in the brilliant campaign 

The origin of the plan of marching to the sea was Sher- 
man's own, as much as was the execution of it, spite of certain 
malevolent critics who sought to rob him of this part of the 
glory. "The honor is all yours," wrote President Lincoln, 
when success had crowned the march; "none of us went 
further than to acquiesce." Nothing but the overzeal of one 
of Gen. Grant's admirers, or the malice of some jealous enemy, 
.could have thought to put the origin of the march in doubt. 

To Halleck, Sherman now telegraphed: "I prefer for the 


future to make the movement on Milledgeville, Millen, and 
Savannah;" and almost the same day he telegraphed Gen. 
Grant: "If Hood goes north, why will it not do for me to 
leave Tennessee to Thomas and his forces at Nashville, and 
for me to destroy Atlanta, and march across Georgia to 
Savannah or Charleston ? " Grant advised him first to follow 
Hood, destroy him, and afterward move toward the sea. 
Thomas opposed the idea of moving south entirely, as did 
others. In no direction was the undertaking much encouraged. 
Events were drifting slowly; Hood was starting northward, 
and then Grant telegraphed to Sherman on November 2d, 1864: 
"I say go on, then, as you propose" Being authorized to act, 
Sherman wrote to Thomas, speaking of the march: "I want 
all things bent to the plan. I purpose to demonstrate the vul- 
nerability of the South, and make its inhabitants feel that ivar 
and individual ruin are synonymous terms" And again, to 
Thomas: "The only hope of a Southern success is in the 
remote regions, difficult of access. We have now a good 
entering wedge, and should drive it home. We must preserve 
a large amount of secrecy, and I may actually change the 
ultimate, point of arrival, but not the main object." Still again 
to Thomas: "Let us keep Beauregard busy, and the people 
of the South will realize his inability to protect them." 
Beauregard was kept busy very busy. He, like Hood, and 
all the rest of the confederates there, had, in fact, been hav- 
ing a busy time of it for many months, opposing soldiers like 
Thomas, Schofield, Logan, Howard, Hooker, McPherson, 
Dodge, Blair, Morgan L. Smith, Cox, Gresham, and others of 
the great fighting heroes of the Atlanta campaign. 

To Stanton, Sherman now wrote: "I will wait a few days 
yet to see what head he (Hood) makes about Decatur, and 
may yet turn to Tennessee, but it would be a great pity to 
take a step backward." On the same day, learning more of 
Hood's starting north, he telegraphed again to Washington: 
"I am pushing my preparations to march through Georgia." 
He had telegraphed to Thomas that "things must be bent to 


his plan," and they were bent. Messages were sent in every 
direction to urge haste in getting the trains and the sick to the 
rear; no neglect, no delay of any kind would be brooked for 
a moment. Even apparent delays, and the temper of the com- 
mander flew to a white heat, no matter who might be at fault. 
Certain condemned horses and cavalry trains had been 
ordered sent back. Somebody had blundered, or not been 
prompt. "I gave ten days' notice," exclaims the general, in a 
furious telegram to the chief of cavalry, "and I want to know 
who is responsible for this outrageous delinqijency ? I hope 
all will be killed or captured. Be ready for the saddle at an 
hour's notice." Here is the laconic order for the final de- 
struction of Atlanta: 

Capt. Poe: You may commence the work of destruction at once, but don't 
use fire until towards the last moment. SHERMAN. 

In burning Atlanta, he was fighting the rebels, not conciliat- 
ing them. Of course, a roar followed all over the South, 
finding a little echo even in the North. It did not disturb him. 
"If my reasons," he wrote to Washington, "are satisfactory to 
the United States, it makes no difference whether it pleases 
Gen.. Hood and his people or not." He was now ready for 
the start. Jefferson Davis was apparently doing his best to 
aid him on his way. Cotton was no longer to be "king" in the 
South. Jefferson Davis had said it. "Corn" must grow on 
every field. It must have been with a grim smile that Sher- 
man wrote to Secretary Stanton : "Convey to Jefferson Davis 
my personal and official thanks for abolishing cotton, and 
substituting corn and sweet potatoes in the South. These 
facilitate our military plans much, for food and forage are 

Just then came the news of Sheridan's victory in the East. 
Sherman had been killing men all summer, and he liked to see 
war of just the killing kind, the more desperate the better, 
and the sooner ended. The kindest hearted man in the world, 
he still liked Sheridan's way. "I am satisfied," he wrote the 
latter, just before leaving Atlanta, "and have been all the time, 


that the problem of this war consists in the awful fact that 
the present class of men who rule the South must be killed 
outright, rather than in the conquest of territory. Hard bull- 
dog fighting, and a great deal of it, remains yet to be done." 
Sheridan was one of the men he believed capable of doing it. 
The South had thrown down the desperate gage of battle. 
It was kill or get killed, and while Sherman, as his course 
always proved, pitied the South and would have given his life 
for honorable peace, nothing to his mind could bring that 
peace so quick as fighting in dead earnest; peace restored, 
no man in all America so prompt to offer the hand of recon- 

Sherman's first thought, after Atlanta had been taken, was 
to march on Augusta, connecting with the coast by the 
Savannah River. "If you can manage," he writes to Grant, on 
September loth, "to take the Savannah River as high as 
Augusta, or the Chattahoochee as far up as Columbus, I can 
sweep the whole State of Georgia." 

In fact, three routes seaward had been considered by Sher- 
man: The line direct south, striking the sea at Appalachicola; 
the line to Augusta, and the middle, or southeast one to 
Savannah. Events proved the last the best in many senses; 
that route followed, Lee's army could be hurt the quickest, and 
it was Lee's army now, not Hood's, that Sherman was striking 
at. It was also time to choose. The whole confederacy was 
waking to the danger of leaving him longer at Atlanta. The 
time had come, possibly, to drive him to death. Davis said it 
had come. Hood was reaching his lines of communication, 
and quietly putting an army between him and the North. 
Grant telegraphed Sherman on the 2yth September, that 
an awful effort was being made to crush him at Atlanta. 
Three courses were open to him; to remain at Atlanta, and 
risk losing his supply lines; to turn back and follow Hood's 
army northwards; or to cut loose, march south, and destroy 
Lee's chances from his far rear. He had already determined, 
however, not to fight the old ground over again to take no 


step backward, but leave Hood 'and his northern invasion to 
the competent hands of Gen. Thomas. 

The gigantic labor of supplying large armies from distant 
points can scarcely be realized. To feed Sherman's army 
about Chattanooga, from its supply base at Nashville, had 
required the labor of thousands of men and teams, and the 
use of one hundred and forty-five railway cars daily. That 
meant the use of a hundred locomotives and a thousand rail- 
way cars. The risk to supplies, with thousands of well led 
hostile cavalry in the rear, was too serious to contemplate. A 
move somewhere from Atlanta was rapidly becoming not only 
the best thing to do, but a necessity, if the fruits of the last 
campaign were not to be lost. 

The reveille beat at four o'clock in the morning of Novem- 
ber i5th, 1864, and waked the sleeping soldiers about Atlanta 
to break camp and start, many of them, on their last campaign. 
Daylight saw sixty-two thousand two hundred and four men, 
with sixty-five cannon, moving in separate, but nearly parallel, 
columns seaward. The orders had been carefully given; 
every officer, every soldier, knew his place, and something in 
the very air told them they were starting on a march that 
would end with the closing of the war. Sixty-two thousand 
men was no small army to cut loose from a base and enter the 
lines of a hostile country, with no foothold but the ocean 
beyond. The last mile of the railroad behind had been de- 
stroyed; the last message, a good-bye and an "all right," had 
been telegraphed back to Thomas ; the wires were cut, the last 
link lost communicating with the North. 

Passing the city in flames and ruin, Sherman rode forward, 
joined one of his columns, and the "March to the Sea" had 

Three hundred miles southeast lay Savannah and the ocean. 
Toward this point all columns were headed, though greatly 
diverging at times, threatening important positions, like Macon 
and Augusta, right and left, and, by mysterious movements on 
the flanks, leading the enemy at the front to concentrate to-day 
in one place and to-morrow forty miles away. 


Two great wings, almost equally divided as to numbers, 

formed the marching army. The right was led by Maj.-Gen. 
Howard, and Maj.-Gen. Slocum commanded the left, with 
soldiers such as Blair, Davis, Williams and Osterhaus,* direct- 
ing army corps, and veterans like Corse, Geary, Force, Ward, 
Mower, Morgan, Woods, Hazen, Smith, Leggett, Baird and 
Carlin, leading divisions, fighting men, every one of them, and 
the soldiers were veterans, hardened by scores of battles. 

Sherman's cavalry, kept under his personal direction, was 
commanded by Kilpatrick but in numbers, it was inferior to 
the cavalry of Wheeler in his front, and hanging on his flanks 
The enemy possessed strong garrisons all along the seacoast 
and in the interior towns. Columns from these were liable to 
be concentrated and thrown in front of Sherman at any hour; 
troops from Virginia, even, might be hastening, by train, to 
stop the invaders' way. If there had been audacity in con- 
ceiving the movement, and entering on the march, the utmost 
caution and vigilance were necessary to prevent surprise, 
detection of routes and concentrating of hostile forces at 
unexpected places, and at unexpected times. Possibly for 
safety, the cavalry force seemed inadequate, but the weakness 
was made up by a force never before known in war the 
mounted "foragers." Every twentieth man in the army was 
regularly detailed to scour the country right and left, and 
sometimes front, for food and forage. In three days' time the 
greater number of these foragers had mounted themselves on 
some species of horse or mule, and the "foragers" became a 
sort of irregular, or partisan cavalry flying hither and thither 
at all times, and in all places. They confiscated horses, mules, 
cattle, pigs, sheep, poultry, grain, fodder, potatoes and meat in 
such enormous quantities as to supply the whole army. Only 
occasionally were the regular rations in the supply trains 
touched at all. The army was living completely off the 

*Maj.-Gen. G. M. Dodge, commander of the Sixteenth army corps, who had 
played so important a role in the battles of Atlanta, helping to make the march 
to the sea a possibility, was wounded, and home on leave of absence. Logan 
also was absent on leave. 


country. The corn. Jefferson Davis had ordered planted in 
the cotton fields was feeding Sherman's soldiers. The 
"foragers" were becoming the historic personages of the cam- 
paign. They w r ere men accustomed to danger, to improvising 
defenses, to fighting on foot or mounted, to ambuscades and 
open fields; soldiers of infinite resources, and it is doubtful if 
any cavalry in existence could have been half so useful to the 
army as Sherman's mounted "foragers." Their irregularities, 
and they were not great, for discipline met them when they 
came to camp, were overlooked in the good that they accom- 

At times on the march, the whole army concentrated, as at 
Milledgeville, Millen, and at the approaches to Savannah, and 
diverged, or else marched in parallel lines, seldom more than 
tw r enty miles from flank to flank, keeping to the right and to 
the left of them, as protectors, the Savannah and the Ogeechee 
rivers, leading seaward. Sometimes the columns, as at 
Duncan's farm by Macon, met the enemy, and with a sharp 
battle hurled them back ; or, as at the crossing of Briar River, 
where the cavalry met in severe engagement, fighting for a 
bridge, or when the advance ran on to the hidden intrench- 
ments in the swamps outside Savannah. Unexpectedly, how- 
ever, there was little fighting on the march; but fighting, 
of a desperate kind, too, might still occur at any moment. 
Once, the enemy's wires were tapped, and a dispatch captured 
saying that Bragg, with ten thousand men and part of Wade 
Hampton's cavalry, was leaving Augusta for Sherman's rear 
that very night. Day after day the invading army tramped 
along through the unknown country, their very whereabouts 
a mystery to the waiting North, whose anxiety, fed by false 
reports from Richmond, became intenser every hour. 

For twenty days the columns swung along with a steady 
step, and then, in . the distance, they beheld the sea. The 
swamps, the woods, the intrenchments and the well manned 
forts guarding the city of Savannah had been reached. Sher- 
man's eyes strained for the white sails of the friendly fleet. 


They were not to be seen. His army lapped almost around 
the city, but there was no possibility of reaching the seaside 
or the union ships. On his left, lay the swamps, the forts, and 
a rebel army; on his right, bristling with heavy guns, and 
armed with heroic men, frowned Fort McAllister. That 
captured, communication with the fleet were possible. Differ- 
ent troops begged the privilege to assault. Just before sun- 
down of December I3th, a division of blue coats under Maj. 
Gen. Hazen appeared from the thick wood skirting the 
approaches to the fort. From the top of a rice mill across 
the river, Sherman, glass in hand, was watching the move- 
ment. In front of these men whose guns glistened in the 
slanting rays of the setting sun, stood a strong fort armed with 
heavy guns, protected by a deep ditch, by continuous palisades 
and abatis, and by veteran soldiers. 

Sherman looked at the setting sun and feared the approach 
of night. "Signal Hazen to assault at once," he ordered. 
The little signal flag at his side fluttered a little, and was 
answered by Hazen's whole line advancing to the palisades. 
That moment the fort belched forth its artillery. Steadily the 
line advanced, spite of hidden torpedoes exploding under their 
feet, spite of the musketry and shells from the fort, and in a 
few moments entered the cloud of smoke made by the battle. 
For a minute, only the rattle of musketry was heard; all was 
darkness there, and then the cloud-vail lifted, revealing the 
stars and stripes planted on the fort. In fifteen minutes, Fort 
McAllister had been taken by assault. Such quick work had 
hardly been done in the war. That night communication was 
established with the fleet, and Sherman slept in Fort Mc- 
Allister alongside the dying and the dead. The second step 
of the march to the sea was finished, and from the whole 
North went up a prayer of thankfulness. The end of the 
war was now in sight. The resources of the South were 
gone; Lee's lines of supply were cut in two, and the confi- 
dence of the South in her leaders was turning into hate. For 
Sherman to serve South Carolina as he had served Georgia, 


to march his army to the Roanoke, demolishing Charleston 
and Columbia on the way, would be to end the war. In a 
sense, Richmond was already taken by a force 500 miles 
away. Gen. Lee saw what Sherman's movements were 
resulting in. "It was easy to see," he writes in a private 
letter three years later : 

WARM SPRINGS, VA., July 27th, 1868. 
General Wm. S. Smith: 

As regards the movements of Gen. Sherman, it was easy to see that unless 
they were interrupted I should be compelled to abandon the defense of Rich- 
mond, and with a view of arresting his progress, I so weakened my force by 
sending re-enforcements to South and North Carolina that I had not sufficient 
men to man my lines. 

Had they not been broken, I should have abandoned them as soon as Gen. 
Sherman reached the Roanoke. 

[Signed.] R. E. LEE. 

Sherman did reach the Roanoke or its neighborhood, and 
was but eighteen miles away when the evacuation of Rich- 
mond began. 

If the hopes of the South failed when Sherman reached 
Savannah, the spirits of the North were correspondingly 
buoyant. Grant himself, so reticent usually, hastened to lay a 
tribute at the feet of his friend: 

***** ***** 

I never had a doubt of the result when apprehensions for your safety were 
expressed by the president. I assured him that with the army you had, and 
you in command of it, there was no danger, but you would strike bottom on 
salt water some place; that I would not feel the same security in fact, would 
not have intrusted the expedition to any other living commander. I con- 
gratulate you and your army upon the splendid results of your campaign, the 
like of which is not read of in past history. 

Now, more than ever, Sherman and his army felt they were 
striking Lee's army from behind, Hood was no longer a 
factor in the game, and the force between Sherman and the 
Roanoke River was not a force to fear. It was Lee, Sher- 
man was thinking of only. To Halleck, he wrote on the 
24th of December: "I think my campaign of the last month, 
as well as every step I take from this point north, is as much 


a direct attack upon Lee's army as though I were operating 
within the sound of his artillery;" and to Grant, three days 
before Christmas he wrote : "I have now completed my first 
step, and should like to join you via Columbia and Raleigh. 
If you can hold Lee, and if Thomas can continue as he did on 
the 1 8th (referring to his battle of Nashville) I could go on 
and smash South Carolina all to pieces, and break up roads as 
far as the Roanoke." Grant did hold Lee, and Thomas did 
do as well as on the i8th, and Sherman did smash things all ta 
pieces in South Carolina. He went to the Roanoke and Lee 
went from Richmond. 

The war was done, and Sherman's victorous soldiers tramped 
on another 400 miles to Washington. The fighting had com- 
menced on the Tennessee River, the marching ended on Penn- 
sylvania avenue, and whole divisions of the soldiers who 
saluted the president that afternoon of the grand review, had 
marched with their rifles on their shoulders a distance of almost 
3,000 miles. 

Iowa's part in the grand march to the sea, in its adventures, 
in its skirmishes, and in its occasional fighting, had been 
prominent and honorable. The Iowa soldiers there were 
mostly veterans of many marches and of many battles. To 
them, the campaign was one grand holiday. The weather 
was good, rations, by foraging, were abundant, and the stimu- 
lus was theirs of a great excitement a marching to new 
victories, and, in a sense, to new discoveries. The far interior 
of Georgia was like a sealed book to many of them, and they 
were about to open it with their swords. 

Fortunately for all concerned, there was but little hard fight- 
ing on the way. The boldness of the movement paralyzed 
the enemy, and Sherman's columns marched along as they 
chose. The opposition the South seemed capable of making at 
river crossings and other points of vantage was trivial in the eyes 
of Sherman's soldiers. The experiences of all the Iowa regi- 
ments were much the same to-day in the vanguard, tramping 
and skirmishing along to-morrow at the rear, looking after 


the trains and the stragglers, of which there were few, and 
warding off the almost impotent blows of some stray squadron 
of rebel cavalry. 

When Sherman's right wing swung off to Macon and 
fought the little battle of Duncan's farm, some of the Iowa 
soldiers were there as supports to Kilpatrick's cavalry. When 
the troops were tearing up the railroad, Gen. C. R. Woods's 
division, containing, among other troops, the 4th, 6th, pth, 
25th, 26th, 3Oth and 3ist Iowa, was placed as a rear guard. 
On the 22d of November, a rebel division came out of Macon 
and attacked a part of Woods's troops, led by Col. Walcutt. 
A severe little battle ensued and the rebels were beaten. Many 
of the rebel soldiers constituting this attack, were students in 
a Macon college young boys, sons of the aristocratic families 
of Georgia and the South, who had been sent to that quiet 
interior town to be far from the dangers of war. In an un- 
expected moment, war was on them. They were pressed into 
the service, and in the attack on Woods's division many of 
them were slain. 

Brave Gen. Corse, of Iowa, of Chattanooga and Allatoona 
fame, led a division in the marching army, and his boys, among 
them the 2d, 7th and 3pth Iowa, achieved no little distinction 
for their rapidity in destroying the enemy's railroads. Gen. 
Elliott W. Rice also led a brigade in the victoriously march- 
ing army, where the soldiers tramped their fifteen and twenty 
miles a day as lightly as on some promenade. The famous 
Crocker Brigade under Gen. Belknap, was there too, and on 
reaching Savannah was the first to strike and destroy the rail- 
road running to Charleston. Three miles back of Savannah 
the brigade was under a heavy fire of artillery, but by wading 
through a swamp, and advancing on the enemy, Belknap's 
men soon silenced the skirmishers and the batteries that had 
been doing no little harm. One company of the 53d Illinois, 
in the fourth division, lost eleven men in killed and wounded 
by the explosion of a single shell from these same batteries. 

In two or three days the brigade found itself in a position 


protecting a road at the left of the i7th Corps, with a strong 
eleven-gun fort in front of it. Here the i5th Iowa acted as 
advance skirmishers, and, under a severe fire of artillery and 
musketry, the brigade drove the rebels back and beyond a 
pond within three hundred yards of the fort.* Arrangements 

*During the march, and for many long months previous, the writer had been 
a prisoner at Columbia, South Carolina. The gaining of any news as to Sher- 
man's army marching through the interior of the South was most difficult. 
Newspapers were not allowed in camp. The prisoners all knew from rumor, 
however, and from the excited condition of the guards about the prison, that 
"great things" were going on outside. A friendly negro who was allowed 
entrance to the prison camp was finally persuaded to secrete the morning 
newspaper in a loaf of bread which he was permitted to sell to one or two of 
the prisoners. Hungry as my little mess always were, the newspaper was 
more welcomed than the loaf of bread. It was always read to our little coterie 
in secret, and then destroyed. There was no difficulty in gathering from its 
troubled columns that Sherman's army was hitting the rebels to the very 
heart. One chilly night, while tramping up and down the prison pen, there 
suggested themselves to the writer, the words of the lyric poem of Sherman's 
march to the sea. They were adapted to music by a fellow prisoner, and sung 
daily by the prison glee club, along with the "Bonnie Blue Flag," "Yankee 
Doodle," etc ; the singing of Southern songs being imposed as a condition in 
granting permission to sing the others. We didn't mind it, though. Rebel 
songs were better than no songs in such a place. One day an Iowa officer, Lieut. 
Tower, of Ottumwa, who wore a wooden leg in place of the better one lost in 
battle, was exchanged. In the hollow of that artificial limb he bore many 
secret missives north from his comrades in prison, and among the papers was 
the "March to the Sea." In theaters and public places north, the lines attained 
to an unexpected approbation. As the lyric gave its name to the picturesque 
campaign it celebrates, and as it is the production of an Iowa soldier, it seems 
appropriate to reprint it in a book about Iowa men. 


Our camp fires shone bright on the mountains 

That frowned on the river below, 
While we stood by our guns in the morning 

And eagerly watched for the foe 
When a rider came out from the darkness 

That hung over mountain and tree, 
And shouted, "Boys, up and be ready, 

For Sherman will march to the sea." 

Then cheer upon cheer for bold Sherman 
Went up from each valley and glen, 


were made to pass through the pond, and the order was given 
to assault the works on the morrow. The first advance of 
the skirmish line on the 25th, revealed the enemy gone, when 
the fort and its cannon fell into union hands. 

The pth Iowa had broken the last rail at Atlanta connecting 
Sherman's army with the North, and the i6th Iowa was about 
the very first to strike the works of the enemy at Savannah 
by the sea. The 7 tn Iowa, the loth, i5th and 3ist, had all 
been slightly engaged in skirmishes by the way, and when 
Gen. Hazen's division assaulted and took Fort McAllister, the 
loth Iowa held and defended the road over which the enemy 

And the bugles re-echoed the music 

That came from the lips of the men. 
For we knew that the stars in our banner 

More bright in their splendor would be, 
And that blessings from Northland would greet us 

When Sherman marched down to the sea. 

Then forward, boys, forward to battle, 

We marched on our wearisome way, 
And we stormed the wild hills of Resaca 

God bless those who fell on that day. 
Then Kenesaw, dark in its glory, 

Frowned down on the flag of the free, 
But the East and the West bore our standards, 

And Sherman marched on to the sea. 

Still onward we pressed, till our banners 

Swept out from Atlanta's grim walls 
And the blood of the patriot dampened 

The soil where the traitor flag falls ; 
Yet we paused not to weep for the fallen, 

Who slept by each river and tree ; 
But we twined them a wreath of the laurel 

As Sherman marched down to the sea. 

O ! proud was our army that morning 

That stood where the pine darkly towers, 
When Sherman said: "Boys you are weary, 

This day fair Savannah is ours." 
Then sang we a song for our chieftain 

That echoed o'er the river and lea, 
And the stars in our banner shone brighter 

When Sherman marched down to the sea. 


had hoped to get re-enforcements into the fort. All the Iowa 
regiments that had participated in the march, also engaged in 
the short siege of the city, and when Savannah fell, they 
marched on that more arduous campaign with Sherman through 
the Carolinas. 


ROM the Joiva Churchman, which copies from the 
New York Critic, we append the introductory 
part of an article with the above title from the pen 
of Rt. Rev. William Stevens Perry, Episcopal Bishop of 
Iowa, referring to the presidential inaugural ceremonies one 
hundred years ago, and showing the devout spirit in which the 
" Father of his Country," entered upon the duties of the first 

"On the morning of April 3Oth, A. D., 1789, the church 
bells throughout the land summoned the people to prayer, 
in view of the induction into office of the father of his 
country as president of the United States. The simple cere- 
monies attending this noteworthy event took place at the City 
Hall, New York, which then occupied the site on Wall Street 
where the treasury now stands. This building, a stately 
structure of composite architecture, was fitted up for the 
occasion with suitable adornments; and from the gallery look- 
ing out on Wall Street, the oath of office was administered to 
the president in the presence of a vast concourse of people. 
Proceeding to the Senate Chamber, Washington delivered to 
both houses of Congress his inaugural address, a document 
abounding in evidences of a deep religious feeling, such as might 
be expected from the Christian and churchman the father of his 
country was. At the close of the public exercises of the 
inauguration, the president, attended by the members of both 
houses of Congress and the whole .assemblage of spectators, 
proceeded on foot to St. Paul's Chapel, in Broadway, where 


the Te Deum was sung, and the church's prayers were said 
by the Rt. Rev. Samuel Provoost, the first bishop of New 
York, and one of the chaplains of Congress. Thus piously, 
and in humble recognition of an overruling Providence, was 
inaugurated our first president, and the century of the repub- 
lic's executive just completed. 

"In this St. Paul's Chapel Trinity, the mother church still 
being in ruins Washington regularly attended the services of 
the church. In his diary from 1789 to 1791, we find with 
almost unvarying regularly the weekly record: "Went to 
St. Paul's Chapel in the forenoon." In the north aisle, adjoin- 
ing the north wall of the church, was a large square pew, 
called "the President's pew." Over it was a canopy, sup- 
ported by slender shafts. Against the wall, in a handsome 
frame, hung the emblazoned arms of the United States --the 
spread eagle with the shield bearing the stars and stripes. 
Opposite was "the Governor's pew," with its canopy and its 
blazon of the arms of the State of New York. On Sundays 
the President and Lady Washington, as she was universally 
styled, were wont to drive in their coach and four up Fair 
Street to church; and, entering by the north door, to take 
their places in the canopied pew; while the dignified and ele- 
gant Provoost, celebrated for his patriotism no less than his 
scholarship, conducted the services from the reading desk and 
chancel, and then, from the high pulpit with its old-time 
sounding-board above, delivered the chaste and classic sermons 
for which he was celebrated. The venerable Major Popham 
himself a hero of the Revolution who sat in the north aisle 
near the president's pew, has left on record his testimony that 
from time to time the President and Lady Washington re- 
mained to the sacrament, and "that he believed without a doubt 
that they both received the holy communion." When Trinity 
was re-opened, the president and his household attended divine 
service there, and McGuire in his "Religious Opinions and 
Character of Washington" (page 414), cites the direct and 
conclusive testimony of "a lady of undoubted veracity," then 


living "that soon after the close of the Revolutionary war, 
she saw him partake of the consecrated symbols of the body 
and blood of Christ in Trinity Church in the city of New 
York." Prior to the war, and during its continuance when 
opportunity offered, the fact of his reverent communicating 
at the altars of his church is established beyond peradventure." 


EV. CHARLES C. PIERCE, Chaplain U. S. Ar- 
my, writing from Fort Supply, Indian Territory, 
Nov. pth, 1888, to the Philadelphia Ledger, re- 
lates the following affecting occurrence, \vhich doubtless will 
recall to old settlers like horrors which have darkened the 
early history of Iowa. 

"To-day has brought me a very sad experience, and my 
own sympathetic nature has been so largely drawn upon that I 
must tell the story, so that my friends in reading may drop a 
tear and breathe a prayer for these lonely dwellers on the 
plains, whose sorrow is to be the burden of my story. 

Twelve miles from the military post from which I am writ- 
ing a ranch is located, and we are the nearest neighbors of 
those who dwell there. 

On Saturday morning, while the father was here, his little 
child, two and-a half years of age, strayed away from the 
ranch, accompanied by a very small dog with which the child 
was accustomed constantly to play. The mother, busied with 
household cares and the charge of a much younger child, did 
not notice the absence of the little fellow till the morning had 
worn away, and then, missing him and being tilled with alarm, 
she mounted a horse and began to search. Meeting with no 
success, and the father having meanwhile returned, word 
was sent to the post, coupled with a request for reinforcements 
in the search. 

Night was fast approaching, with promise of frost, and the 


country being full of wolves and panthers, with other beasts as 
fierce, every heart was stirred by the thought of a little child 
subjected to such exposure. Twelve Cheyenne Indians em- 
ployed as Government scouts, and familiar with every inch of 
the country, were sent out to spend the time as far into the 
night as possible in the search. Sunday was an anxious day 
for us all, inasmuch as the scouts, whose return was hourly 
expected, did not come at all. No word reached us till the 
close of divine service in the evening, and that gave no relief. 
A night and day and another night well begun, ar;d still the 
little wanderer was roaming the barren country, or, worse 
than that, perhaps torn in pieces by the beasts that infest it. 

Forty cavalrymen immediately mounted their horses and 
started for the ranch, for, though the remaining hours of the 
night were too dark for such a search, the hours they gained 
in travelling permitted them to enter upon their work of mer- 
cy with the first signs of morning. 

Those of us who had children of our own clasped them in 
a firmer embrace than ever, and prayed that the Angel of the 
Covenant might defend the little wanderer from the beasts. 
Monday night came and no news, save that the footprints of 
the child and his faithful little dog had been found and then 
lost again. Fresh wagon ruts had been seen also, and a squad 
of men sent to follow up the trail in the hope that the travel- 
lers passing through the country had seen the child, and, im- 
agining father and mother to have forsaken it, had taken it 

But Tuesday's search was fruitless, and all but the agonized 
parents were ready to give up the task as hopeless. But at 
their solicitation another day was given and another troop of 
cavalry added to the number engaged in the search. It seemed 
impossible that any reward should follow the labor, but in the 
afternoon more footprints were found twelve miles from the 
ranch, and later on, as a cavalryman dashed along, a little dog 
ran out from a ravine, frightened at the noise. It took but a 
moment's search to find the child, its flesh untouched by beasts, 


but bruised with falls and scratched with thorns. The marvel 
is that a baby (for it was nothing more) could have walked 
so far twelve miles in a straight line, but double that in the 
circuitous path it had chosen. But it is a greater marvel that 
it should have been unharmed by the ravenous brutes that 
cover these plains, and that were constantly encountered by 
the men in their search; yes, a greater marvel to one who 
does not think of God. It was alive, and a courier was de- 
spatched with the news to the heart-broken mother. But, 
alas, the little traveller had not been equipped for his nearly 
five days of fasting and a bed upon the frosty ground, and in 
twenty-five minutes the arms of the soldier who had lifted him 
up held only a corpse. It was only a funeral procession that 
met the mother's gaze. 

For two days the parents were left with their dead and then 
the body was brought in for burial. An unused wing of 
the post hospital was set apart for the service and soon it was 
crowded with officers and ladies, soldiers, Indians and cow- 
boys. A more motley company I have never seen, nor, gen- 
erally speaking, one more free from emotion. But as the 
mother looked upon the scarred face of her darling before we 
laid it away, not only were soldiers weeping, but strong In- 
dians and hardened cowboys were sobbing as though their 
hearts would break in the fullness of their sympathy. 

A little mound lies heaped above the body now in the post 
cemetery yonder I can see it from my window as I write 
and the only thought that lessens the bereavement is, that the 
spirit has gone unto God who gave it. 


(HE above is the title of Adjutant S. H. M. Byers's 
new work, from which we have copied into this num- 
ber of THE RECORD, the chapter on "The March 

to the Sea," a glowing description of that romantic campaign. 

This chapter fittingly closes with the song which gave its 


name to the campaign, and which secured for its writer, the 
author of the book under review, a fame and a hearing before 
the world for all time; for had he written nothing else, with 
these thrilling verses alone his name would have floated with 
the English language on the stream of time to the end. One 
who could write this lyric could write nothing tame or stupid, 
whether verse or prose. The history begins with a tributary 
chapter to John Brown, and his connection with Iowa and 
Iowa personages during his sojourn here, just before his raid 
at Harper's Ferry, and then devotes several chapters to the 
war governor, Samuel J. Kirkwood, and his just and success- 
ful administration of the chief executive office of Iowa, amid 
difficulties and discouragements which would have been insur- 
mountable to almost any other man. Entering upon a descrip- 
tion of the heroic acts of Iowa soldiers, this begins with an 
account of the glorious ist Iowa at Wilson's Creek, and pro- 
ceeding in the same inspiring key to which the introductory 
chapter is set, describes every battle, skirmish or event, in which 
Iowa troops took part during the rebellion, which includes a 
very large portion of the military events of the civil war. It 
is the best book as yet produced by any Iowa writer, and the 
reader is constantly impressed with the honest and independent 
effort of its author to do justice to every Iowa soldier and citi- 
zen, of whatever rank or station. Although devoted chiefly to 
an account of Iowa soldiers and their battles, which is illus- 
trated by many portraits and representations of battles, those 
who worked and suffered for the union cause at home are not 
forgotten. The names of all those deserving of mention it 
was of course impossible for Adjutant Byers to obtain, but he 
has embalmed many of the most prominent of them in his 
history. The second part of the work is taken up with a 
condensed history of each separate Iowa regiment, which 
makes it valuable as a work of reliable reference. The book is 
very beautifully printed and bound, and comes from the press of 
W. D. Condit & Co., of Des Moines, who have it on sale, or it may 
be obtained of the author, whose address is Oskaloosa, Iowa. 



|N PERKINS'S "Annals of the West," it is thus 
related how Cincinnati, the metropolis of Ohio, in 
1789, first acquired ascendancy over her older 
rival, North Bend, now famous only as the former residence 
and present burial place of the first President Harrison. 

"Through the influence of the judge, (Symmes,) the de- 
tachment sent by Gen. Harmer to erect a fort between the 
Miami rivers, for the protection of the settlers, landed at North 
Bend. This circumstance induced many of the first emigrants 
to repair to that place, on account of the expected protection 
which the garrison would afford". While the officer com- 
manding the detachment was examining the neighborhood, to 
select the most eligible spot for a garrison, he became 
enamored with a beautiful black-eyed female, who happened 
to be a married woman. The vigilant husband saw his 
danger, and immediately determined to remove his family to 
Cincinnati, where he supposed they would be safe from in- 
trusion. As soon as the gallant officer discovered that the 
object of his admiration had been removed beyond his reach, 
he began to think that the Bend was not an advantageous 
situation for a military work. This opinion he communicated 
to Judge Symmes, who contended very strenuously that it was 
the most suitable spot in the Miami country, and protested 
against the removal. The arguments of the judge, however, 
were not as influential as the sparkling eyes of the fair female, 
who was then at Cincinnati. To preserve the appearance of 
consistency, the officer agreed that he would defer a decision 
till he had explored the ground at and near Cincinnati, and 
that, if he found it to be less eligible than the Bend, he would 
return and erect the garrison at the latter place. The 
visit was quickly made, and resulted in a conviction that the 
Bend was not to be compared with Cincinnati. The troops 
were accordingly removed to that place, and the building of 
Fort Washington was commenced. This movement, appar- 


ently trivial in itself, and certainly produced by a whimsical 
cause, was attended by results of incalculable importance. It 
settled the question at once whether Symmes or Cincinnati 
was to be the great commercial town of the Miami purchase. 
This anecdote was communicated by Judge Symmes and is 
unquestionably authentic. As soon as the troops removed to 
Cincinnati and established the garrison, the settlers at the 
Bend, then more numerous than those at Cincinnati, began to 
remove; and in two or three years the Bend was literally de- 
serted, and the idea of establishing a town at that point was 
entirely abandoned. 

"Thus we see what great results are sometimes produced 
by trivial circumstances. The beauty of a female transferred 
the commercial emporium of Ohio from the place where it 
was commenced to the place where it now is. Had the black- 
eyed beauty remained at the Bend, the garrison would have 
been erected there, population, capital and business would have 
centered there, and our city must have been now of compara- 
tively small importance." 


From Rhode Island Historical Society, 

Life and services of Rowland Gibson Hazard. 

Proceedings of Society, 1888-9. 
From New England Historical and Genealogical Society, 

Register for January. 
From Hon. Henry Sabin, Superintendent Public Instruction, 

Advance Sheets of Biennial Report. 
From Signal Service, 

Reports as Published. 
From Dr. J. C. Ayer & Co., Lowell Mass., 

Their bound volume of Almanacs, 1889. 


From Dr. Wm. Sailer, Bnrlington, Iowa, 

Sermon delivered on the 5oth Anniversary of the Founding 

of the Congregational Church. 
From Ohio Archaeological Society, 

Quarterly Report for December, 1888. 
From Cf C. Leigh, Brooklyn, JMew York, 

A Christmas Reminder Being the names of 8,000 persons 
confined on British prison ship during the War of the 
From Department of Interior, 

Thomas Jefferson and the University of Virginia. 

Industrial Education in the South. 

Proceedings of National Educational Association, 1888. 
From Johns Hopkins University, 

The Establishment of Municipal Government in San Fran- 

Municipal History of New Orleans. 
From Hon. Isaac Smucker, Newark, Ohio, 

Ohio School Report, 1887. 

Centennial History of Licking Co., Ohio. 
From Essex Institute, Salem, Mass., 

Historical Collection. 
From Rev. C. D. Bradlee, Boston, 

Extracts from the Press on Sermons of all Sects. 
From General G. M. Dodge, New York, 

Paper read before the Army of the Tennessee, at Toledo, 
Ohio, September 15, 1888, on Transcontinental Railways. 
From Department of State, Washington, D. C., 

Consular Reports, Nos. 97, 98, 99, 100. 
From Bureau of the Mint, Washington. D. C., 

Product of Gold and Silver in United States, 1887. 

Report of the Director of the Mint, 1888. 
From Comptroller of the Currency, 

His Report, vol. i, 1888. 
From New "Jersey Historical Society, 

Two bound Volumes, and fifteen Pamphlets. 


From Bureau of Statistics, Washington, D. C., 

Report of Imports and Exports. 
From Kansas HistQrical Society, Topeka, 

Sixth Biennial Report. 
From Chief of Engineers, Washington, D. C., 

Annual Report for 1888, in four volumes. 

From the Commissioner of Education, Washington, D. C., 

Report for 1886-7. 

History of Education in North Carolina. 
From General C. W. Darling, Utica, JVew York, 

The Rise of Christian Associations. 
From New Jersey Historical Society, 

The Old Burying Case. 
From Hon. George K. Clark, Boston, 

Genealogy of the descendants of Nathaniel Clark of New- 
berry, Mass. 
From American Geographical Society, Neiv York, 

Bulletin of Society. 
From Department of State, Washington, D. C., 

Trade of Great Britain with the United States. 
From Dr. J. M. Loner, Washington, D. C., 

Washington's Rules of Civility A paper found among the 

early writings of George Washington. 
From General S. V. Benet, 

Report of Chief of Ordnance, 1888. 
. From Historical and Philosophical Society, Cincinnati, Ohio, 

Annual Report, 1888. 
From Yale University, 

Report of the President, 1887-8. 
From United States Fish Commissioner, 

Fishery Industries of the United States, Sec. I. text. 
From Hon. Frank D. Jackson, Des Moines, 

Official Register for 1889. 
From H. F. Lewis, St. Paul, 

Minor Antiquarian Articles. 


From Dr. Samuel A. Green, Boston, 

Suffolk Deeds, Vol. IV. 

Twelve Pamphlets. 
From Library Company, Philadelphia, 

Bulletin for January. 
From Dr. F. Lloyd, 

Official Army Register for 1886. 
From Mercantile Library Association, San Francisco, 

Thirty-sixth Annual Report. 
From Smithsonian Institute, 

Joseph Henry on the Magnetic Telegraph. 
From American Catholic Historical Society, Philadelphia, 

Historical Researches for April. 
From Publishers, Boston, 

Education, as published. 
From Publishers, 

American Antiquarian. 


H. F. MOELLER, formerly a member of the i6th Iowa 
Volunteers, died at What Cheer, Iowa on the 3d of last 

E. G. WHITE, formerly lieutenant colonel of the brave 
22d Iowa Volunteers, died at his home at Audubon, the 27th 
of last March, at the age of 63. His military service began 
when only sixteen years old, as a soldier in the Indian Florida 
war, in 1837, where he served two years; he also served tw r o 
years in the Mexican war as a private. During the civil war 
he enlisted in the military service of his country as a private 
of Company E, 22d Iowa Volunteers, but was immediately 
elected first lieutenant, and in a few months was promoted 
captain. During the siege of Vicksburg, where his regiment 
was distinguished above every other for heroic daring in the 
charge of the 22d of May, as a reward for bravery he was 
raised to the rank of major, and the following year attained 


the rank of lieutenant colonel of his regiment. For bravery 
at the battle of Winchester he was complimented in orders. 
Col. White was a Christian soldier, and was attached to the 
Methodist Episcopal Church. He was twice married, and 
leaves a large family. He was buried by the members of the 
Grand Army of the Republic living at Audubon. 


WE have received from Prof. L. F. Parker a copy of the 
"catalog" of Iowa College for the year 1888-9. It shows the 
number of students graduated at the last commencement 22, 
and the total number in attendance 541, against 390 the 
previous year. The number of professors and teachers is 

THE executor of the estate of the late James B. Hosmer, 
of Hartford, Conn., found in the safe of the deceased a solid 
gold snuff box of the value of five hundred dollars. It had 
been presented by the City of Albany, N. Y., to Commodore 
Macdonough, as a testimonial commemorating his victory on 
Lake Champlain, and afterward came into the possession of 
the Connecticut Historical Society. Many years ago the box 
was turned over to Mr. Hosmer, as president of the society, 
for safe keeping. 

THIEVES recently broke into the rooms of the New Haven 
Historical Society, located in the old State House at New 
Haven, Conn., and made away with the sword of Admiral 
Foote, held by the society as a relic. It was a valuable pre- 
sentation sword, studded with jewels estimated to be worth six 
thousand dollars. 

THE horse Camauche is said to be the only living thing that 
survived the Custer massacre. He is in charge of Capt. H. J. 
Nowlen's troop (I) of the 7th Cavalry, stationed at Fort Riley, 
Kansas. His body presents many scars, the relics of wounds 
received at the Little Big Horn. He receives tender care 
from the soldiers, and no one is allowed to ride him. 


VOL. V. JULY, 1889. No. 3. 


|T having been determined to devote this 'number of 
the HISTORICAL RECORD to the preservation of the 
proceedings of the national centennial celebration 
as observed in Iowa City, April 3Oth, 1889, com- 
memorative of the first inauguration of Washington as presi- 
dent of the United States, a word of explanation is perhaps 
called for. 

It seems proper that an event so important and so univer- 
sally observed, should be testified to historically in a form for 
permanent preservation, and easily accessible for reference at 
the next recurrence of this centennial period. Most cities of 
Iowa, as of all the country, held similar celebrations, but it 
would be impossible to record the observance of more than 
one in our work. That which occurred in Iowa City is 
selected for this purpose, both on account of propriety and 
convenience, as a fair sample of them all, and cannot be 
faulted on the ground of localism. No city is more represen- 
tative of Iowa than the first permanent capital of the territory 
and state, around which twine the historical memories of half 
a century and more. Here is the "old capitol," a monument 
of our pioneer government, the voices of whose orators seem 


to linger in its halls, as the sound of the roaring sea is heard 
in the empty shell. Here are the graves of Lucas, our first 
governor, of Carleton, the admirable judge, of Folsom, the deep 
counselor, stamped with the eccentricity of genius, of Griffith, 
the most illustrious young soldier of Iowa, and if we refer for 
th e nonce to the living, here is the home of Kirkwood, the 
war governor, toward whom every head in Iowa is reverently 
bent. Again, here are the learned and learning of the State 
University, spreading out, in its multiplied departments, on a 
stupendous scale, and sending its nourishing influences to the 
furthermost parts of the commonwealth. And here too is the 
seat of the State Historical Society, whose office it is to collect 
and preserve these materials for future history. 

In the First Presbyterian Church of Iowa City, in the fore- 
noon of April 3Oth, 1889, after the service suggested by Rt: 
Rev. William Stevens Perry, D. D., Episcopal bishop of Iowa, 
as -representing that attended by Washington in St. Paul's 
Chapel, New York City, on the day of his inauguration, the 
pastor of the Congregational Church of Iowa City, Rev. M. 
A. Bullock, delivered the following 


Psalm xcv, 2 Let us come before His presence with thanksgiving, 
and make a joyful noise unto Him with psalms. 

One hundred years ago, a new nation inaugurated its presi- 
dent and set in motion the wheels of administration, which, 
in their main features, still remain and bear grandly forward 
the machinery of government. 

But like the wheels in Ezekiel's vision, they are full of life, 
and their rims are full of eyes, and every part of American 
life is noted, for the spirit of a living government is in the 
wheels, and on the firmament borne up by this living power is 
a movable throne, dear to the popular heart, because it 
expresses its desires and is coextensive with its will. 

One hundred years! A century of national life and 


progress! A long time in individual experience, but a short 
time in the history of nations. England, Russia and other 
European governments point you to several centuries of 
national life and history, and proudly declare that their govern- 
ments have witnessed all the great events in Christian civili- 
zation. China turns the pages of its venerated histories and 
shows vou the annals of millennial periods and proudly says: 
"In the dim twilight of your mythical ages our government 
was old in years, and our emperors ruled over the fairest part 
of the earth." 

What then is a single century ? Why has there been a 
proclamation making this a national holiday ? Why in every 
town of importance throughout this vast republic do the 
citizens of the commonwealth assemble in meetings similar to 
this ? Why does the joth of April, 1889, have a greater 
significance to us than April joth had in 1888? Not simply 
because it completes a century of national life, but because it 
completes that century in accordance with certain fixed 
principles, dear to the American heart, peculiar to the Ameri- 
can people, and indicative of that strength of character and of 
government which has elevated this young nation to a position 
second to none in the history of the world. That is why we 
come before His presence with thanksgiving, and make a 
jovful noise unto Him with psalms. 

We shall not forget in this joyful celebration the man who 
one hundred years ago was inaugurated president of the 
young republic. His character, like the influence of the New 
England fathers, has left its impress upon American life, and 
has helped to shape the destiny of the nation. 

The name of Washington will be handed down from 
generation to generation as the father of his country. The 
century has produced but one other man whose name can be 
yoked with that of Washington, Lincoln, the savior of his 
country. We may say that circumstances made these men 
great; nay, their greatness lay in the fact that they were equal 
to the emergency which circumstances thrust upon them and 


the people. Other men may have had the same inherent 
qualities of greatness, but God called them to be leaders in 
times of special danger and of great moment to the common- 

It is well then that we note briefly the elements of manhood 
which made Washington great, and mark the influence of his 
character in the development of our national life, and then 
look for a moment upon the fruitage of the century. 

It was not alone the skill of Colonel Washington who led 
successfully his men against the Indian warriors, that marked 
him as the coming man of his day, but it was the bulk of his 
manhood. His wisdom increased with his responsibility. His 
energy was commensurate with his wisdom, and his patience 
was all the more marked because of the slanders and oppo- 
sition of those who were jealous of him. Men were not all 
saints in those days; they were not all patriots; they did not 
all sympathize with the men struggling for the rights laid 
down in the Declaration of Independence. Some men were 
only too glad to take advantage of adverse circumstances. 

Washington and his men at Valley Forge, suffering, patient, 
alert, patriotic, appeal no less to the American heart, and 
touch a responsive chord, than when with consummate daring 
- they cross the Delaware and march to the capture of Trenton. 
Such was his balance of character that adverse winds did not 
unnerve him, and the treachery of supposed friends did not 
deter him from duty. Nor did the renowned victory over 
Cornwallis at Yorktovvn inflate him with pride and fill him 
with unholy ambition. Honors came to him because he had 
earned them, and were thrust upon him not because he sought 

It was a glorious victory which he achieved over Corn- 
wallis; it was a greater victory and much more glorious when 
conquering any latent ambition which might lurk within his 
heart, he spurned the kingly crown which the soldiery would 
have placed upon his own brow. In that act reflecting his 
true manhood, his patriotism, his honesty, his character shines 


forth in the clearness of sunlight, and we see the citizen who 
had not forgotten his country, nor the principles for the sup- 
port of which, relying on the protection of Divine Providence 
the people mutually pledged to one another their lives, fortunes 
and sacred honor. If when called to the presidency of the 
United States, he clothed the office with a dignity not always 
maintained in after years, it is because the dignity of his 
deportment has not always been handed down to his successors. 
He was a gentleman of the old school; courteous, formal, yet 
kind in heart, pure in his affections and intensely patriotic. 
He loved the retirement of his own beautiful plantation on the 
banks of the Potomac; and, having led the armies of the 
republic to glorious victory, he would gladly have spent his 
remaining days in honorable retirement as a private citizen. 
But unanimously called to official life, he surrenders the happi- 
ness of home life to the call of his country. But after eight 
years of service, in obedience to his convictions of duty, and 
in consonance with his own desires, he declines re-election to 
an office which might have been held for life, and in that 
declination gave expression to such views of government 
which have made it one of the most remarkable state papers 
in our history. In it he lays down certain fundamental 
principles in accordance with which our nation has had its 
remarkable growth. He saw the danger of a loose confedera- 
tion of states and said to the people : "Remember, especially, 
that for the efficient management of your common interests, 
in a country so extensive as ours, a government of as much 
vigor as is consistent with the perfect security of liberty is 

In our growth in territory we have not forgotten this wise 
admonition. We have worked in that line, and though it took 
a civil war to establish the government permanently on that 
basis, yet it has been done, and in this centennial year we re- 
joice in the complete development of that principle in our 
national life. We, the people, are one nation, not a confedera- 
tion of principalities, and this unity of government is the result 


of that vigor of administration which is begotten of great ideas. 
The end for which a nation is called into being must be great, 
far-reaching, humanitarian, then will its administration be 
vigorous, its development glorious, and its permanency secure. 
We declared in the beginning that it was our conviction 
"that all men are created equal; that they are endowed by 
their creator with certain unalienable rights ; that among these 
are life, liberty and the pursuit of happiness." On this 
memorable day we renew our conviction, and thank God that 
through the vigor of our government those words mean more 
to-day to the American people than ever before in our history. 
And we agree with Washington, that "to the efficacy and 
permanency of our union a government for the whole is indis- 
pensable" and that geographical distinctions are inimical to 
good government. We believe with him, that the true foreign 
policy is to "observe good faith and justice toward all nations ; 
(and to) cultivate peace and harmony with all." We also 
believe with him that "all obstructions to the execution of the 
laws, all combinations and associations, under whatever plaus- 
ible character, with the real design to direct, control, counter- 
act or awe the regular deliberation and action of the constituted 
authorities are destructive of the fundamental ideas of govern- 
ment and of fatal tendencies. Thus did his prescient mind 
forecast some of the problems with which we have wrestled 
and give wise counsel as to the management of the ship of 

Washington was a man of strong religious convictions. 
From these he derived his strength of manhood. He never 
tried to hide these convictions, but like President Harrison he 
showed the people his heart, and opened the door to its inner- 
most shrine. Listen to these words from his farewell address: 
"Whatever may be conceded to the influence of refined edu- 
cation on minds of peculiar structure, reason and experience 
both forbid us to expect that national morality can prevail in 
exclusion of religious principle." It was in this belief that our 
New England forefathers laid the foundation of a Christian 


nation; in this belief that they established Christian colleges 
and churches; and it is in accordance with this conviction that 
the educational system of the government has developed, a 
system whose aim is to furnish opportunities for the best edu- 
cation, and to inculcate likewise sound teachings in morals and 

The experience of the last century has taught us that free- 
dom of speech and of worship is in harmony with strong 
government and religious growth. Intellectual strength and 
conscientious worship are in accord. We have found that 
public education can be Christian without being bigoted or 
sectarian. It needed just such a government as the United 
States to demonstrate that fact to the world and in the fullness 
of time God called this nation into being, and entrusted unto 
it a mission whose fulfillment is only just begun. Why should 
not we come into His presence with thansgiving and make a 
joyful noise unto Him with psalms? Under the fostering care 
of our government it is possible for man, untrammeled by 
bigoted rule, to make the most of himself for Christ and 
humanity. He fears neither the Siberian mines nor the bulls 
of excommunication, but rejoices in that liberty wherewith 
Christ hath made us free and will not again be entangled with 
the yoke of bondage. 

Our religious advantages and our educational system have 
their safeguards in the very genius of our government. 
Knowledge seems to be indigenous to the soil. When a few 
years ago Lord Coleridge visited us, he said that he was 
greatly impressed while in this countrv, not by its size, for it is 
not so large as Africa, nor its wealth, for he had seen that in 
England, nor its great cities, for Europe has greater, but with 
the surprising intelligence of the average citizen, and the wide 
diffusion of knowledge which is everywhere apparent. This is 
the outgrowth of American ideas fostered by American 
government. All must admit that in many respects our 
school system is superior. Means are provided for the edu- 
cation of those whose poverty would otherwise keep them in 


ignorance. Asylums are provided for the deaf, the dumb, the 
blind, and unfortunate. These tokens of applied Christianity 
meet us in every state. Colleges and universities the very 
best invite us to their halls of learning; and our list of learned 
men eminent scholars, jurists, statesmen, authors, poets, 
divines, has shed luster upon the government under whose 
patronage all institutions of learning and benevolence are pro- 
tected. Here as in no other land science and religion hand in 
hand may come before His presence with thanksgiving and 
make a joyful noise unto Him with psalms. 

During the century we have grown not only in power and 
influence but in territory. The sun rises from the Atlantic, 
where it washes our shores. His brightness gleams from 
mountain peak to mountain peak on the rock-ribbed fastnesses 
of the continent, and at eventide he dips under the waters of 
the Pacific which lave American soil. From the great lakes 
to the gulf our rivers run and steamers ply. "Our shore line 
reaches 33,069 miles, and the extent of our navigable rivers is 
more than 40,000 miles." We are indeed most delightfully 
and happily situated. We are far enough removed from 
European nations to be free from any immediate danger w r hich 
may threaten them. Our resources enable us to export largely 
and accumulate wealth. And should we be threatened with 
war by other nations, our location is such, and our territory so 
extensive that we can produce all necessary means for our 
defense and sustenance and still add to the luxuries of life. 
We have gold, silver, lead, copper, iron and tin; coal in 
abundance, forests for ship timber and buildings, and lands 
capable of producing unlimited harvests. The bread which 
we eat, the clothes which we wear, the munitions of war and 
the husbandry of peace; all are ours, the products of our 
own industry. We have a beautiful land; broad, rich prairies, 
elevated table lands, mountains and valleys, and scenery than 
which none other is more beautiful and picturesque. We have 
a climate adapted to all kinds of life. The healthseeker can 
roam from a northern temperate climate to one which is nearly 


tropical. We have over 1,926,000,000 broad acres, a territory 
nearly ten times as large as Great Britain and France com- 
bined. This then is the country the century has brought to 
us; the century governed by the ideas of Washington and the 
New England fathers. Surely the lines have fallen to us in 
pleasant places, yea, we have a goodly heritage. But all our 
vast material prosperity; the continent bound in a network of 
steel, the white sails of commerce in many waters, the 
products of the soil, our growing cities and commercial 
interests, these alone do not constitute the state for whose 
century of growth we thank God to-day. 

"No; men, high-minded men, 
With powers as far above dull brutes endued 

In forests, brake, or den, 
As beasts excel cold rocks and brambles rude. 

Men who their duties know. 
But know their rights, and knowing, dare maintain, 

Prevent the long-aimed blow 
And crush the tyrant while they rend the chain ; 

These constitute the state ; 
And sovereign law, that state's collected will, 

O'er thrones and globes elate 
Sits empress, crowning good, repressing ill." 

Yes law, of which the eloquent Hooker has said, "her seat 
is the bosom of God, her voice the harmony of the world; 
all things in heaven and earth do her homage, the very least 
as feeling her care, the greatest as not exempted from her 
power; both angels and men, and creatures of what condition 
soever, though each in different sort and manner, yet all with 
uniform consent admiring her, the mother of their peace and 
joy." Such law, the will of God, embodied in human institu- 
tions and enactments constitute the state whose high ideal is 
lifted before the eyes of the American people as the prize to- 
ward which they press with vigor on. Such law, like the 
shining stars, drops perpetual light upon the people who live 
under its reign and receive its benediction. Such law 

"Beyond the flaming bounds of place and time 
The living throne, the sapphire blaze " 


binds angels, archangels, the hosts of God shall I say the 
Eternal Throne itself ? for 

"Nothing can be good in him 
Which evil is in me." 

The principles of such law have sought embodiment in 
American life during the past century, and in proportion as 
we have received them, we have made progress, and our 
progress has been marked. I firmly believe that we have a 
higher standard of morality in common life than Washington 
saw in his day; that intelligence is more widely diffused; that 
religion has a stronger hold upon the everlasting gospel, and 
a deeper root in human hearts. The nation's conscience is 
quickened, and moral reforms are making marked progress. 

Never was the nation more anxious to defend and uplift its 
citizens; never has it watched with more jealous care their 
rights. The nation achieved great strength when it cut loose 
the web of slavery. Its strength is increasing with every 
onward step looking toward the emancipation of the people 
from the power of a no less insidious foe. What are the great 
questions before the people ? Temperance, ballot reform, the 
best -public service. Secure them and another century will see 
it and we have a government beyond which the millennial 
period is not so very far removed. The century has borne 
witness to the truth of Solomon's proverb: "Righteousness 
exalteth a nation; but sin is a reproach to any people." Our 
greatest prosperity has been when we were inspired with the 
vigor of righteous life. The days of Grecian prosperity were 
not the days of Draco, when Grecian laws were "written in 
blood," but they were the days of the wise Solon and of the 
statesmen Themistocles and Pericles, who, unconsciously it may 
be, had learned that "He that oppresseth the poor reproacheth 
his maker, but he that honoreth him hath mercy on the poor." 

We have only a century's growth, but it has been a period 
of remarkable development. The poor are protected in their 
rights; woman is exalted and knowledge is within the reach 
of all. In this short period we have created a literature. 


Hawthorne, Irving, Longfellow, Emerson, Whittier, Bancroft 
and others of rising fame bear witness to our intellectual life. 
Science has achieved wonders and her eminent men honor 

Checkered though our national life has been with good and 
evil,*yet its aim has been toward better things. Each decade 
witnesses a higher standard of life, greater wealth, greater 
prosperity, and a more widely diffused intelligence. And to- 
day the republic stands as the protector of art, science, and 
religion, freedom of worship and of speech, and the patron of 
every high and lofty undertaking. Did China have an estab- 
lished government while other nations were in the twilight of 
their mythical periods ? America sprang into being when the 
sun was shining in its strength, and its century of progress has 
witnessed the most wonderful advancement in learning the 
world ever dreamed of. The inventions of the day are 
marvels, yet such is the assimilation of the present day, they 
are received as a "matter of course" the natural outcome of 
nineteenth centurv life. 

The influence of the religious life of America is felt in 
every part of the earth. All nationalities come to our shores. 
All nationalities receive the impress of our religious life; and 
this fact has led us to aspire unto a great undertaking, viz. : 
the conversion of the world to the truth as it is in Christ, our 

% "Ah, -land of liberty and light, the world 

Hath not yet learned thee, what thou art. 
They know not in their hate and pride, 
What virtues with thy children bide. 
How true, how good, thy graceful maids 
Make bright, like flowers, the valley shades; 

What generous men 
Spring, like thine oaks, by hill and glen." 

"What cordial welcomes greet the guest 
By the lone rivers of the West ; 
How faith is kept, and truth revered, 
And man is loved, and God is feared 

In woodland homes, 
And where the ocean border foams." 


Christian truth is gaining great victories. The land of 
Washington and Lincoln is on its onward march to better life 
and more vigorous administration. The great social and 
moral questions of the age are to be settled on American soil. 
They will not be settled through the partisan spirit against 
which Washington warned us, but in accordance with those 
high ideals of government and morality which are so brightly 
reflected from his character. To these ideals attracting to 
higher and holier life we owe all our grandeur in national 
growth. The men who are to rule our future will be men of 
Washington's stamp; men who look above self to their 
country's good; men who are not eager for office, but whom 
office seeks: men who accept office as a sacred trust from the 
Almighty Ruler over all. Such men will be our leaders, and 
will help to usher in that day when through the triumphant 
settlement of the moral and social problems of the age, the 
earth shall be renewed by the gospel of peace, and the spirit 
of God shall brood over all. 

I see in the future a new heaven and new earth wherein 
dwelleth righteousness. I see a new city, bright with the glory 
of the eternal light of the King. I see its jasper walls and 
crystal stream; its trees of life, its Great White Throne. I 
see the saints of God with harps of gold, in raiment white, 
surround that Throne. I see the dazzling glory of the King. 

I HEAR music, heavenly music, soft, melodious, angelic 
harmony: a new song of love unto Him who through His 
own blood, has saved us from sin, and made us kings and 
priests unto our God forevermore. I hear in this renewed 
and glorified kingdom the song of triumph: "Holy, holy, 
holy, is the Lord of hosts: the whole earth is full of His 

The day was duly celebrated at St. Patrick's Church. A 
large congregation being assembled, High Mass of thanks- 
giving commenced at 9 o'clock A. M., after which an appro- 


priate sermon was preached by Rev. Father Smyth. We can 
give but a review of the sermon. Taking as his text the 
words of St. Paul to the Romans: "Let every soul be sub- 
ject to higher powers; for there is no power but from God." 
Chap. XIH, v. i., he spoke substantially as follows : 

The church, my dear brethren, teaches and has always 
taught the duty of obedience to lawfully constituted authority. 
Without obedience we could not have order, and without 
order we could not have civilized society. Beyond this duty 
of obedience and lovalty the church does not go. She gives 
no expression to a preference for any form of government 
that question is outside her province. We are simply com- 
manded to be good, loyal citizens, under whatever form of 
government our lot may be cast. It is, my brethren, our 
privilege and blessing to live in a nation, under a form of 
government where obedience is easy and patriotism a pleasure. 
Here every man enjovs the largest measure of liberty com- 
patible with good order and intelligent jurisprudence; this is 
true liberty. Here every man is free in the exercise of his 
religious convictions, and more than this no man should desire. 
What wonder then that from every true patriotic Christian 
heart, there goes up to-day to the Father of all an act of 
thanksgiving for the benefits we enjoy ? 

Many of us know from experience the evils that afHict a 
misgoverned people. They are countless, but I mention a few 
hunger, death from starvation, the prison cell with its plank 
bed, exile, the scaffold, and the countless horrors of war. 
Ireland's history from the day the invader landed to the 
present moment is a record of tyranny and rapine on trie one 
side and suffering and unsuccessful revolts on the other. While 
I speak some of her best sons, gentlemen true gentlemen, 
who in this land of freedom would easily win honor and posi- 
tion, are confined in dismal cells and the blood is trickling from 
their lacerated fingers; lacerated in the degrading work of 
picking oakum. While I speak midnight is red with the fires 
of the burning homes of the people. We are not so familiar 


with the histories of other nations, but we know at least this 
that in them the people, as distinguished from the ruling 
classes, are despised, ignored, suppressed. To satisfy the 
avarice and ambition of the rulers they were and are to this 
day snatched from their homes and the peaceful pursuits of 
life and forced into military service. Willing or unwilling, let 
the cause of war be just or unjust, march they must up to the 
cannon's mouth and sacrifice their lives to satisfy the humors 
of their lords and masters. Oh; count if you can the evils 
that follow from this state of things; estimate if you will the 
enormous taxes under which these people groan. If standing 
armies and wars are the toys with which nobles play, the 
people, the common people like you and me, are the persons 
who must bear the burden. What wonder that their streets 
and byways are filled with paupers? The furnace filled with 
fire belches forth volumes of smoke, for smoke is the natural 
product of fire, but it is no more so than is pauperism the 
consequence of class government. How different things are 
here. Here we live in peace and if not in prosperity the fault 
is our own. Here if we have heavy taxation it is placed on 
us by our own votes. Here if we have laws that are disagree- 
able we have the power in our own hands to abolish them. 
The ballot in your hand is one of your greatest earthly privi- 
leges ; it is the crown that tells of your freedom ; it is the scepter 
of your power; it is the palladium of your manhood. Oh; when 
I hear of men bartering away this priceless jewel for some 
money consideration, or some miserable intoxicating drinks, I 
am forced to exclaim aloud that some men are born to be 
slaves. A true American citizen should cast his ballot intelli- 
gently, honorably, conscientiously and before God. Mark you, 
not one of the evils that afflict other nations but might be upon 
us now, had the founders of this republic been more selfish or 
less intelligent. True, worthy patriots, aided as I believe 
by the Allwise God, they founded a free nation for free 
men and their children, have handed it down to us unsullied 
and unbroken. 'Tis for this we give thanks to-day. 


One of the grandest principles of our American constitution 
is religious toleration, religious freedom. The two words 
"penal laws" recall to an Irishman's mind years of suffering 
and martyrdom for conscience sake, that are a disgrace to 
civilization. I recall them but that we may appreciate the 
better the liberties we enjoy. Every hillside in Ireland was 
reddened with blood of her martyrs. Not one of her beauti- 
ful streams that did not carry down to the sea the blood of 
her people shed for conscience sake. Religious tumults, 
hatred and ill will among neighbors have afflicted that unfor- 
tunate nation for hundreds of years. Nor is Ireland's case 
exceptional. The history of every European country has its 
dismal chapters of persecution, of religious warfare, of pillage 
and enmity and ill will. And all this is in the name of that 
sweetest gift of God to man religion. I admit that the spirit 
of the age had much to do with these disgraceful scenes; but 
let the historian who wishes to read deeper than skin deep 
examine thoroughly and he will find that the power that set 
this system of evil in motion was the hereditary lawmakers the 
privileged classes, and that the people the common people 
were but their tools, their dupes, their fools. The founders of 
our republic resolved to have nothing to do with religious strife. 
They resolved to emancipate religion, and to-day the world 
applauds their prudence. This system of toleration descends 
from our founders and from our rulers, and pervades the 
hearts and minds of our people; and hence it is that we have 
the beautiful spectacle of people of all denominations living 
in harmony all free to serve God according to their con- 
sciences all satisfied with this happy state of things. From 
time to time a fanatical bigot arises and attempts to disturb the 
religious harmony of the people. The great American people 
let him talk himself hoarse he sits down, he has no hearers, 
no followers, he is ashamed of himself. This is the glorious 
fruit of American religious liberty. 

Now, my dear people, what do we owe to this great nation? 
We owe her love, obedience, loyalty. We are no strangers 


here. Our blood mingled with the blood of other citizens in 
securing American independence and in maintaining it when it 
was secured. We should yield to none of them in loyalty and 
good citizenship. How shall we do this? I will give you the 
shortest rule let us be true to our God let us observe his 
law faithfully and we can not be bad American citizens. 

In the afternoon the following proceedings, on the part of 
the authorities and students of the State University and the 
citizens of Iowa City generally, were held at the Opera House. 


[Prof. J. L. Pickard taking the place of President Schaeffer who was unable 
to be present] 

July 4, 1776 a child was born into the family of nations, by 
no means a welcome intruder. For seven years its life hung 
trembling in the balance. The only lullaby it heard was 
from the fife and drum; its rattle was the rattle of musketry; 
its play things were sabres and cannon balls. Without 
prestige and without means the fair maid won in six years 
more her independence. One hundred years ago to-day, as 
she nears her thirteenth birthday, Columbia steps proudly 
upon the stage, holding to the hand of him whose form was 
often bowed over her cradle in prayer, whose eye watched 
her tottering steps and whose heart beat with affection for the 
child of his love. Columbia stepping to the front, sings : 

"Hail to the chief! the thrilling call 

Is echoing in the April air, 
And martial feet resounding fall 

And flags are floating everywhere." 

Turning then to the thronging multitudes whose eager 
questioning she answers, she says: "As you step from one 
century, whose beginning none of you saw, into a century 
whose ending none present will witness, remember that by the 
valor of your sires I was permitted to witness the beginning, 


by the bravery and sacrifice of your brothers my life has 
been spared to the end. By the devotion of your sons, and 
through the loyalty of their sons even to the latest genera- 
tion will Columbia live till time shall be no more. I 
would have you remember the lessons of many silent graves, 
of forms with sightless eyes, with crippled limbs, with totter- 
ing steps moving together rejoicing in the thought that by 
their valor was my life preserved. From all lands have my 
lovers come, and shoulder to shoulder have they stood a 
living wall between me and danger. 

"With but a single exception did the ships of all nations testify 
their respect as Washington's barge was rowed under their 
sides to the pier in New York. Over this ship floated proudly 
the one flag alone of Spain. But as the barge came abreast 
of her, port holes were opened, salvos of artillery rang from 
her sides, and, as if by magic, she blossomed from mast head 
to deck, and from stem to stern with the colors of all nations. 
This tribute was complete. Thus complete has continued the 
loyalty of all people who have been welcomed to my home. 

"I would have you remember the no less heroic sacrifice of 
the women who gave up at my call, sons, husbands, brothers 
and lovers. 

"In those among you growing old, the sightless, the maimed, 
the infirm, we see repeated the sacrifices made by the heroes 
of a century ago. As their memories are held sweet and tender 
so shall be yours while Columbia lives and that shall be for- 



When the war of the revolution was finally ended, and the 
thoughts of men turned once more to peaceful pursuits the 
weakness of the government under which they had gained 
their liberty began to be realized. Washington was one of 
the first to recognize the need of a stronger government. He 
it was who fully realized the great difficulties under which the 


country had acquired its independence. Now that it was 
acquired, he felt it his duty to do his utmost to preserve its 

With this in mind he appealed to the people, through a 
circular letter addressed to the governors of the several states, 
admonishing them to form a new constitution that should give 
consistency, stability and dignity to the union. Grasping the 
situation in its broadest significance, he pointed out in detail 
the objects to be desired and the dangers to be avoided. This 
letter found its way into every household in the land and 
aroused the country to a sense of the dangers before it. Im- 
pressed by this appeal, the people demanded, through the 
newspapers of the day, a revision of the constitution, not by 
Congress, but by a convention authorized for the purpose. 
This wide-spread demand at last bore fruit in the assembling 
at Annapolis, of a trade convention of the rive central states, 
which, departing from its original design, recommended to 
Congress to call a national convention for the purpose of 
revising the articles of confederation. 

But Congress, jealous of the little power which it possessed, 
was loth to see its own authority grow less, and hesitated to 
accede to the demand. But finally, yielding to the exigencies 
of the times, they recommended to the states to appoint 
delegates to a convention to be held in Philadelphia on the 
I4th of May, 1787. 

The body of men which assembled in answer to this call for 
the unprecedented purpose of reforming the system of gov- 
ernment combined the chief ability, moral and intellectual, of 
the country, and in the great task assigned to them they 
exhibited a wisdom, a courage and a capacity superior even to 
that famous Congress which twelve years before had occupied 
the same hall and pointed the way to independence. Wash- 
ington, the leader of the Virginia delegation, who with 
characteristic promptness had arrived at the appointed time, 
was the unanimous choice for president of the convention. 

The choice proved most fortunate, for the love which 


the people of the country felt for this man, to whom, more 
than any other, they owed their freedom, was almost the 
only tie that bound them. 

In the stormy times that followed during the four months in 
which the convention was in session it required all the judg- 
ment and firmness of Washington to prevent its dissolution 
before it had finished the great task for which it had been 
assembled. Slowly and through endless debate the conven- 
tion worked out its plan of government; such a form of 
government as they finally proposed had hitherto been unknown 
to the science of politics. The structure was a special creation 
brought forward to meet the pressure of a great necessity. 
The question now presented itself, would the people accept it 
as a remedy. From the secret debates of the convention it 
went forth to become the subject of fiercer conflicts in the 
several states. Somewhat reluctantly and by narrow majori- 
ties the constitution was at length adopted under which the 
thirteen states were to become a great nation. 

The first step to be taken under this new form of govern- 
ment was to elect a president. Upon whom could this high 
honor fall more fittingly than upon him whose generalship, 
whose patience, whose self denial had achieved and then pre- 
served the liberty of the nation. 

George Washington was the unanimous choice of the people. 
His final task was to set in motion the wheels of this new and 
untried government. On the I4th of April, 1789, he received 
official notification of his election and immediately started for 
New York. His journey thence was like a triumphant march. 
The people of the country through which he passed honored 
him with escorts and addresses; maidens strewed flowers in 
his path and he passed under arches crowned with laurel. If 
the people loved him before they almost revered him now. 
The measure of American veneration for this greatest of all 
Americans was full. On the 3Oth of April the streets around 
the old Federal Hall in New York were packed with an 
eager throng anxiously aw r aiting the performance of a cere- 


mony entirely new to them. On the balcony of the hall was 
a table covered with crimson velvet, upon which lay a bible on 
a crimson cushion. At the appointed time Washington 
stepped out upon the- balcony. His entrance was the signal 
for a universal shout of joy and welcome. His appearance 
was solemn and dignified. He stood a moment amid the 
shouts of the people then bowed and took the oath adminis- 
tered by Chancellor Livingston. 

At this moment a flag was raised upon the cupola of the 
hall, the discharge of artillery and the ringing of bells followed 
and the assembled multitude again filled the air with shouts. 
Thus simple was the ceremonial which announced the birth of 
a nation, a nation founded on the principles of justice and liberty, 
whose birth marks an epoch in the history of the world, whose 
progress has been the wonder of the age. 


The centennial sun sets to-night upon a nation of grateful 
people. The American government is one hundred years old 
to-day. The series of battles from Lexington Green to 
Yorktown won our independence; but independence 
is only half our glory. The adoption of our government 
and the successful maintenance of our constitution com- 
plete the triumph. To-day we rejoice in the double jubi- 
lee. The history of a century proclaims with certainty 
that what was once an experiment is now destined to be 
imperishable and when we are permitted to celebrate our 
first president's inauguration for the one hundredth time the 
marvel of our constitution bespeaks the patriotism and wisdom 
of them who met the duties of the hour in the old Quaker 
City in 1787. Truly, Washington needs no monument. His 
voice was raised to shape our civil destiny as eagerly as his 
sword was girded to fight for liberty, and our constitution 
stands a fitting memorial of himself and his age. 


On the night of the nth of October, 1492, after the zealous 
explorer had suffered all the pangs of alternating hopes and 
fears, his anxiety was turned to joy. Far in the dim distance 
a light was seen America was discovered. From that 
moment our nation's ultimate political destiny was fixed. I 
know not what rude camp-flame that might have been, but 
that bright light proved a prophetic symbol of America's future. 
Now no European journeys to our shores who does not behold 
the beacon light of our constitution, shedding its rays of 
splendor and equality as the wonder of all times. 

The great constitutional convention of 1787 had before it no 
easy task. Conflicting interests, sectional jealousies, uncer- 
tainty as to the wisest and most practicable form of govern- 
ment swayed, and to some extent controlled even that august 
body of patriots. Numerous plans were proposed, the plan 
of Randolph, the plan of Patterson, the plan of Hamilton. And 
when the jealousy of the states, of each other and of any cen- 
tral power, that embryo from which sprang all our ills and trials 
in our constitutional life from 1787 to the close of the rebellion, 
when this, the potent evil spirit of our first great plan of union, 
bade fair to render nugatory the best counsels of the assembled 
representatives of the states, then it was that the calm and 
wise words of Washington passed like the rod of the enchanter 
over the ocean of discord. Quietly, nobly, firmly, he advised 
the convention in regard to the members which should be 
allotted to the population for the election of representatives, 
and the dignity of his presence and the greatness of his in- 
fluence calmed the intensity and the fierceness of debate. 

One hundred years ago to-day, the father of his country, 
amid the plaudits of the new union swore to observe and pre- 
serve that constitution. For a century, each succeeding presi- 
dent has taken and has honor to America preserved this 
oath. We have had no Mexican revolutions, no Isthmian 
convulsions, no French fickleness, no South American fiascos. 

Yet we have had trials. Our constitution has outlived them. 
To-day it stands, one and inseparable, the most elastic, the 


most rigid, the most advanced constitution of all ages and eras. 
From the days of the resistance of the excise tax in Penn- 
sylvania to the day when Richmond fell beneath the armies of 
the republic, the question of state rights has been the greatest 
and the only one which lay at the root of all convulsions, the 
only seeming question which menaced the integrity of the 

The question of the national control of commerce, the ques- 
tion of the right of nullification, the question of free or slave ter- 
ritories, the question of the right of secession, these great and 
burning daughters of debate which, with intervals of many 
years, hurled into awful combat the mightiest of our senators 
these, each and all of them sprang from the one vital question 
as to the nature of the federal compact, the relative power of 
the states and United States. This, and this only, in its varied 
manifestations has been the source of discord in our unity, and 
this question thanks to the wise decision of arms and patriot- 
ism in 1865, has forever passed into the realm of history. It 
has vanished ; it has left behind only the dim and vague image 
of itself, an image dimmer than the ghosts which wandered in 
the age of Horace along the banks of the half-doubted Styx. 

This then, the only and the one question of our past has 
forever been set to rest. This which for three quarters of a 
century brought to its discussion Webster, Calhoun and Clay; 
this which vanished when Richmond again floated the flag of 
the union from her state house, this question of state rights 
has been forever settled by the civil war. 

But whatever may have been the crises of a century, they 
are hardly stains upon the brilliancy of the republic, advancing 
from three to sixty millions of people, from thirteen states to 
forty-two, from the tree-topped Alleghanies, on, past the 
snowy Sierras to the golden gate of the Pacific. To each 
successor the heirloom handed down by Washington has 
proven a more noble heritage. And from the glorious day 
when the constitutional convention at Philadelphia closed its 
splendid labors, neither the siren of Prosperity nor the red fury 


of Rebellion has been able to mislead the government and 
constitution first guided by the wisdom of Washington. Could 
his precepts be remembered the second century would be 
grander than the first and the glory of the republic born in 
1789, would, rise as an eternal monument to that hero of 
colonial times, as long as the placid waters of the Potomac 
flow past his peaceful grave to the sea. 


It is befitting that the law should come before the gospel. 
For the law was given through Moses; but grace and truth 
came through Jesus Christ. For what the law cannot do in 
that it is weak through the flesh, the gospel can do in that it 
is strong through the Spirit. And, to our delight, law and 
gospel blend in the web of patriotism ; and we are here to-day 
as patriots. 


There are two kinds of men in the world men who are 
moulded by circumstances; men who never do it and yet have 
stacks of reasons for not doing it. They are Nature's nega- 
tives, and History's nobodies. There are men again who 
mould circumstances; men who always do it, and yet never 
stop to tell how it was done. They are Nature's positives, 
and the makers of history. 

To this class belongs George Washington. He had con- 
victions of his own. He had, moreover, courage to incarnate 
his convictions. The love of liberty lived in his heart, 
throbbed in his pulse and nerved him in the strategic strug- 
gles of his life. Bravely he bore the brunt of many battles; 
boldly he breasted the billows of doomful difficulties; calmly 
he came out more than conqueror; and hence the enormous 
enthusiasm through the land. 

*This address was delivered extempore, and by request was afterwards 
written for publication. I have tried to preserve its identity. T. R. E. 


Eulogies on Washington are not confined to this continent. 
They come to us from beyond the seas. Listen to Lord 
Brougham: George Washington, he says, is the greatest man 
that has ever lived in this world, uninspired by divine wisdom 
and unsustained by supernatural virtue. Give ear to Mr. 
Gladstone's tribute: "If all the pedestals of earth," he says, 
"were waiting for occupants and it devolved upon me to 
arrange them, I would place George Washington on the highest 
pedestal of all." To which I say Amen and let all the 
people say Amen here ends my panegyric. 

This centennial celebration forces upon me the barren 
thought that I am 


of the United States. It is a great loss to the country. Why 
am I debarred from this imposing position? What crime have 
I committed against the constitution? The only crime I am 
guilty of is, that I was born among the mountains of Wales. 
And for that I am not responsible. To me the logic .of the 
American-born on this point is lamentably lame. He argues 
that I am less American than he because I am foreign-born. 
From the self-same fact I argue that I am more American. 
He is an American from chance of birth, I am an American 
from national choice. I love Cambria as I love my mother, 
but I love Columbia as I love my wife. I left my mother to 
cleave to my wife; I left Cambria to cling to America. 


I suffered no eviction. I am here by personal election. 
Three considerations had special weight in shaping my choice. 
The material advantages; the educational privileges; and the 
religious liberty enjoyed here. 

In Wales the state church spreads her black wings over the 
consciences of the people, thrusts her unhallowed hands into 
their pockets, and thus lives on tyranny and plunder. Each 
dissenter is coerced to pay tithes to sustain an institution which 
he utterly abhors. Whereas in America every one is free to 


worship according to the dictates of his conscience; church 
and state are separate, and what God hath separated let no 
man join together. Now, lest mv little speech be void by 
generality, I will emphasize 


the loftiest lesson of the day- Righteous law is the element 
of liberty. In law liberty lives, moves and has her being. 
"For where law ends tyranny begins." Hence truancy in 
law is treason against liberty, and conversely loyalty to law is 
proof of patriotism. The patriotism of Washington will bear 
that test even- time. Think not that Washington is dead. 
He is more alive a hundredfold to-day than he was a century 
ago. Could he have drawn such prodigious gatherings then as 
he draws to-day? Impossible. Yes, he lives, and his life 
bounds in our blood, throbs in our pulse, and nerves our 
hearts in the conflict for home and law. 

Allow me to assume that George Washington is a citizen of 
our own youthful state. A noble sentiment emerges from the 
people's heart. The sentiment rises rapidly. Triumphantly 
it passes all the gauntlets the gauntlet of a general vote; the 
gauntlet of debate in legislative halls; the gauntlet of the 
representative vote; the gauntlet of veto power; the gauntlet 
of appeal to the state courts; and, indirectly, the gauntlet of 
appeal to the supreme court of the nation. The sentiment is 
now organized; it is a statute a law, and the law is constitu- 
tional. What is Washington's attitude towards its obedience 
and enforcement, unless the law is morally wrong? How does 
he regard those who secretly and openly violate the law r 
Does he confide in them as patriots ? I believe not. Does he 
respect them as neutrals ? Impossible. Does he view them 
as anarchists ? With much feeling he exclaims "that is a 
dreadful weed, and my heart is dreadfully sad that it has taken 
root in this garden of God. In the disposition to disobey the 
statute, in the lack ' of loyalty to law, I see the embryo of 
anarchy." What is the patriotic thing to do with this embry- 
onic lawlessness ? Calmly, candidly, courageously he replies, 


"crush it; treat it as Moses did the golden calf, grind it to 
powder and scatter its ashes to the four winds." This is a hard 
day for anarchy in America. For it is a day of 


throughout the land. My prayer is that the spirit of liberty 
may become potent enough to convert the board of regents; 
that they may bring forth the fruits worthy of repentance, by 
rescinding the resolution they passed some years ago, and 
thus take the gag from every professor's mouth and remove 
the gyves from every limb; so that our professors may be un- 
fettered men in this land of the free. And by the way, who 
gives authority to any body, or any board to tongue-tie and 
handicap the liberty-loving sons of a country, wherein the 
sovereignty resides in the people ? This query is pertinent 
and potent on such a day as this. "Eternal vigilance is the 
price of liberty." 

In conclusion let us consider in what consists 


It is not in our trial \yy jury. For that form of defense has be- 
come a huge farce among us. Whenever intelligence becomes 
a disqualification to serve, not much can be expected from 
such service. The verdicts of juries would often make real 
comedies were not the interests involved so tragic. For my- 
self I would rather trust my case to one good, sober, just 
judge, than to twelve such peers as are too common in the 
jury box. The safety of our country depends largely on the 
purity of homes. For "happy homes are the strongest forts." 
The nation needs to strengthen its navy to protect its com- 
merce; it needs to strengthen its homes to preserve itself. 
Hence to every dollar we expend to re-enforce our navy we 
should lay out an eagle to enforce the laws which protect our 
homes. The United States, says Dr. H. L. Wayland, refuses 
to admit criminals or paupers from foreign countries; but all 
the while we are sustaining manufactories of criminals and 
paupers among ourselves on every corner where there is a 


saloon. Is not this ''protection of home industry''' run into the 
ground run mad he might have said. 

To conserve our homes we should stiffen every sinew-, nerve 
every fibre, converge every force, and enforce every law that 
looks in that direction. For "happy homes," we repeat, "are 
the nation's strongest forts." 

The palladium of our nation is loyalty to the Lord of hosts. 
On our coins, above the eagle, in unique letters, are stamped, 
"In God we Trust." This great lesson we learned in the civil 
war. Let our trust in God be real, not conventional. Then 
we can exclaim with the patriots of Israel, "God is our refuge 
and strength; a very present help in trouble. Therefore will 
we not fear, though the earth be removed, and though the 
mountains be hurled into the heart of the seas; though the 
waters thereof roar and be troubled; though the mountains 
shake with the swelling thereof. * * * The Lord of 
hosts is with us; the God of Jacob is our refuge." To be 
filled with such faith, in the Father of all, will enable us to 
fearlessly confront the future. With Edwin Arnold we may 
say: "What will come, and must come, shall come well;" and 
with the author of "America" we can sing, "The Century 
Hymn" 1789-1889. 

Strengthened and trained by toil and tears, 
Born of the bold, the brave, the free. 

A nation, with its hundred years, 

Its tribute brings, O Lord, to thee. 

What blessings from thy sovereign hand, 
What trials has the century brought ! 

How has this free and glorious land 

Been loved, defended, led and taught ! 

Our cautious feet, by night, by day, 

Slowly the upward path have trod, 
God was our light, and God our stay, 

In flood and fire, in grief and blood. 

So the brave oak, in calm and storm, 

Spreads its strong roots and boughs abroad, 

Grows grand in grace and stalwart form, 
Honored of men, and loved of God. 


The century ends our hosts in peace 
Hold the broad land from sea to sea, 

And every tongue and every breeze, 

Swells the sweet anthem of the free. 

Still may the banner of thy love 
O'er all our land in glory rest 

Our heaven-appointed jegis prove, 

And make the coming centuries blest. 

[Written by S. F. Smith, D. D., the Author of "America."} 


This nation honors and will continue to honor, as long as 
love of liberty and just government burns in American hearts, 
the man whose memory is inseparably connected with the 
events commemorated to-day. Others, it is true, aided him 
in his work; but he was always their chosen leader in time 
of peace as well as in time of war; hence Washington is 
justly called the father of his country. His work was an 
Herculean one we should not be unmindful of; his work was 
a beneficent one, we are enjoying its benefits; we should prize 
our liberties and never be ashamed or afraid to extol them. 

Like many other colonies and dependencies America lay at 
the feet of a foreign despot, the lash was applied to her, the 
stripes were upon her and her chains galled her sorely. The 
spirit of liberty arose within her and her crouched form arose. 
Erect before the world she stood and declared with all the 
power of her soul that she must and will be free. The un- 
equal contest commences; the friends of humanity the world 
over, with suppressed breath, with eager eyes and throbbing 
heart view its progress. She is weak, she is inexperienced, 
her opponent is strong and the victor of many a well fought 
field; but her cause is just, her heart is pure and God's bene- 
diction is upon her. With desperate energy she rushes on the 
tyrant and flings him into the sea, then modestly she walks 
forth and takes her place among the nations of the earth, the 
youngest, the fairest, the best. 


Liberty achieved, her difficulties were far from being ended. 
The difficult, the dangerous work of building up a nation was 
entered upon. No mind can overestimate the importance of 
this undertaking. On this immense and trackless continent a 
great nation was to be built up -a nation worthy of the men 
and worthy of the aspirations of the men who wrested victory 
from the invader a nation combining in itself strength 
essential strength with the greatest possible amount of per- 
sonal liberty. And how thoroughly they succeeded, this 
nation to-day, the whole liberty-loving world, the hundred 
years of marvelous prosperitv, of true contentment, and I had 
almost said, of unbroken unity, emphatically testify. That 
marvelous system of government within government, of wheel- 
within wheel, which is the admiration of the world was 
designed and set up. The tree of liberty was planted in con- 
genial soil. Like the famous banyan tree of the East it cast 
out its branches to descend to the earth and become the 
parent stems of other trees all bearing plentifully the fruits 
of prosperity, liberty and unquestioned loyalty. Thus com- 
monwealth produced commonwealth, each perfect in its sphere 
all contributing to the strength not the weakness of the 
central power. So to-day she stands amid the nations as she 
has stood for a hundred years a Hercules in strength, a 
Socrates in wisdom and a lamb in gentleness. Peace and 
right ordered liberty being her mottoes, she fears no danger 
from within or without, for she is strong strong in her well 
nigh limitless resources, but stronger still in the love and 
loyalty of her citizens. The struggle of a few years ago, 
paradoxical though it may sound, but added to her great 
strength. A machinist rinding a weakness in some belt that 
binds plunges it in his fire and welds it so firmly that the once 
weak part becomes the strongest. Uncle Sam finding a weak- 
ness in the belt that bound these states together placed it, 
though with great reluctance, in the furnace of war and his 
boys wielded the hammer and sledge so vigorously that, my 
word for it, it won't snap in that place for many a year to come. 


Thus, to-day, when we look back at the years of prosperity 
of this nation, when we glance around the world and estimate 
the standing armies of the nations, when we hear their growl- 
ings at one another, when we count their paupers and observe 
the very earth heaving beneath their feet, and again contem- 
plate the peace, the prosperity, the contentment of our own 
"home of the free and land of the brave" we cheerfully pre- 
dict that this nation, founded by our fathers, is but in the 
morning of her prosperity. 

Should we but view the beneficent effects of our constitu- 
tion within our own shores, our estimate would be imperfect 
indeed. America is truly among the nations "the city seated 
on a high hill," "whose light cannot be hid." Liberal-minded 
statesmen of the world study her as a volume of the purest, 
the best, the most successful political economy; the people 
the masses look to her as the standard-bearer of the rights of 
the people as against the abuses of hereditary lawmakers and 
titled aristocrats, while the oppressed of the nations fly to her 
as a haven of safety where they may find not only rest for 
their feet and shelter for their heads, but a flag, a glorious flag 
to love, to live under, and if need be, to die for. 

I can not trust myself when speaking on this great subject. 
I fear I shall outstep the time allotted. It is hard for one, who 
has spent twenty years of his life under the heel of the same 
tyrant from whose curse the colonists emancipated them- 
selves, to limit himself to fifteen minutes on this occasion. I 
agree with the gentleman who preceded me we adopted 
citizens yield to none in our loyalty to the constitution, we love 
as dearly as any the glorious flag of this republic and from 
the depths of my soul I pray: 

Oh long may it wave, 

O'er the land of the free 
And the home of the brave. 




The recent successive celebrations of various centennials 
have called popular attention to some of the most important 
phases of our history. Perhaps we may now calendar the 
events worthy of such recognition as follows: 

1492. The awakening spirit of enterprise and investigation 
in the old world urged Columbus to the discovery which 
opened a new continent to civilization. 

1620. The stern pilgrims, from England seeking religious 
freedom and the privilege of self-government, landed on 
Plymouth Rock. Earlier colonists had sought the new world, 
but these were the first who came to found a commonwealth. 

1775, April 19. At Lexington the spark was struck which 
kindled in the people of the separate colonies a sense of 
common wrong. 

1776, July 4. A united people asserted their freedom and 
declared their independence, and in support of this declaration 
"with a firm reliance upon the protection of Divine Providence, 
they mutually pledged to each other their lives, their fortunes, 
and their sacred honor." 

1781, Nov. 19. At Yorktown the final blow was struck by 
which this people secured the opportunity to make for them- 
selves a place among the nations of the earth. 

1787, Sept. 17. The constitution was promulgated as a 
frame of government for this people; the most perfect instru- 
ment of government ever prepared in one conscious act. 

1789, April 30. By virtue of the acceptance of this consti- 
tution by the people, and an election thereunder, George 
Washington became first president of the United States, and 
a nation was born. 

It is but natural that on this occasion we should think much 
of the man who stood as the sole personal representative of 
the new government; yet, historically, the event was greater 


than the man. Marking the beginning of our national life, it 
stands as an epoch in the progress of the world. 

To understand the significance of the event we must note 
the causes which led to it, the circumstances which surrounded 
it, and the results which followed. 

Enthusiasm born of popular indignation at wrong and in- 
justice had been a strong bond- of union during the struggle 
for independence ; but it died with success. Statesmanship 
must govern the people whom sentiment had led to freedom. 
Depression and despair seized upon them when they contem- 
plated their affairs. Public and private bankruptcy stared at 
them as sure victims. They had no national respect shown 
them from abroad because they 'had no national power at 
home. A mere shadow of authoritv mocked those who 
looked for a government which should secure tranquility at 
home and respect abroad. Between the colonies still standing 
apart from each other as petty sovereignties, came jealousies 
and contentions. Selfishness poisoned their minds and the 
demagogue played his little but effective part. 

For instance, the colony of Connecticut laid claim to a strip 
of territory now constituting the northern part of Pennsylvania 
and under such claim the enterprising Yankees settled the 
beautiful valley of Wyoming. The envious Quakers, untrue 
to their traditions of peace and good will, sought to drive them 
out. The contest between Yankee and Pennemite was no less 
bitter than if they had been subjects of hostile kings. So 
where the conflicting claims of New Hampshire and New 
York to the region of the Green Mountains left a region open 
to contention among settlers, a state of border warfare seemed 

It is true that provision was made in the articles of con- 
federation for the settlement of such controversies between 
states, but the parties, jealous of any superior power, were 
unwilling to entrust their controversies to such settlement and 
preferred to enforce for themselves the rights which they 


Indeed between the colonies there was little to indicate any 
ties of friendship or unity of interest. The fuel carried from 
Connecticut to New York had to bear a special tax, and the 
truckman with his flatboat taking produce to the same market 
was compelled to enter at the custom house as though he were 
carrying on foreign commerce. In retaliation the men of 
Connecticut combined to bring New York to terms by non- 
intercourse, whilst the New Jersey authorities levied a tax of 
$1,800 per year upon a little lighthouse established by New 
York off Sandy Hook for the security of her commerce. 

Thus there was a plain drift toward anarchy, from union 
and harmony toward dissension and discord, which showed the 
need of a new frame of government. 

As the interests of commerce are more seriously affected 
than those of any other industry by disorder and distrust, so it 
is always a strong power tending toward stability and security. 
Thus the commercial interests were the first to feel the need of 
a new government. But the real power at work was the 
innate desire of the people for law and order. The ability 
and tendency of English-speaking people to found permanent 
free institutions is a historic fact nowhere better exemplified 
than with us. The Greek had a passion for artistic beauty, 
the Roman for conquest and empire; the American has a 
craving and a capacity for self-government. 

These were the motives and forces which led to the forma- 
tion of the constitution. The circumstances surrounding that 
act were none the less calculated to give to the new govern- 
ment an exalted character. The convention which framed the 
document was the most remarkable body of lawgivers which 
ever assembled. Without pomp or pretension, unconscious, 
in their earnest zeal, of the part they were playing in the 
drama of history, yet grandly conscious of the dignity of their 
undertaking, they brought to their work the good judgment 
and common sense which gave to the charter of our national 
government a practical form. It is the highest praise which 
can be bestowed on the constitutional fathers as law-makers to 


say that they originated nothing; but out of the forms and 
doctrines which were already deeply rooted in the life and' 
history of the people they framed a harmonious structure, each 
fragment retaining its original strength and yet so skilfully 
adapted to the others as to give strength to the whole. 

We cannot at this time realize what a struggle it cost, what ' 
compromises, arguments and persuasions were necessary to- 
secure the adoption of the constitution by the states. But at 
last New York forgot her selfishness and Virginia her pride, . 
the constitution was ratified, George Washington was elected- 
president, and on this day one hundred years ago, amid great 
popular rejoicing, he was installed in office, "First in war, - 
first in peace, first in the hearts of his countrymen." 

The biographer justly extols the man, who, after being for 
seven years at the head of an army, and during that time the 
only man in the country having any general authority, could 
voluntarily relinquish his hold upon public affairs and retire to 
private life, to accept office again only when chosen in an 
orderly and constitutional way. The historian marvels rather 
at the strength and wisdom of that people which could chose 
so wise, so calm, so reserved, so unimpassioned a leader. The 
people who can choose such a leader, render their allegiance to ' 
a system rather than a man, and preserve for a century the - 
enthusiasm for a form of government which is usually felt -' 
only for a personal ruler, gathering again at the end of that 
century in assemblages such as this to testify anew the warmth ; 
and constancy of the sentiment which animates them, has 
demonstrated its capacity for self-rule and the permanent 
strength of its institutions. Never was a republic founded 
in which so much was due to the popular will and so little to 
the exercise of personal power. 

Washington stands typical of the event in that he was a 
national man, the only national man of the time. Hamilton 
was of New York, Madison of Virginia, Adams of Massa- 
chusetts, but Washington was of the whole people. He had 
led their united armies, he had presided over their constitu- 


tibhal convention. He -was a "son" of "Virginia but the father 
of his country. 

Thus a national government came into existence, which 
differed radically from the confederation which preceded it, in; 
that it had subjects to govern, in that it had authority to make 
laws for them, and power to protect them, in that it had 
courts to settle their controversies and an executive head to 
enforce order and obedience. 

Framed as the result of a people's necessities and longings, 
shaped to meet the exigencies of the time, would this govern- 
ment live and grow, or would it dwindle and perish ? This was 
the problem for the century. Unless it could adapt itself to 
the changing condition of a progressive people, with increas- 
ing wealth, enlarging territory, and a civilization becoming 
constantly more complex, it must be disrupted and abandoned. 
. The forces which tended to separation were still strong;; 
state pride and self-interest were still potent. Within ten_ 
years after the new government went into operation the states 
of Kentucky and Virginia passed their famous ordinances in 
opposition to the alien and sedition laws in which they asserted 
the right to judge for themselves as to the extent of the powers 
of the federal government, and the validity of its acts. Not 
long after, the Hartford convention, composed of delegates 
from the New England "states assembled to protest against 
the embargo, made similar declarations. When the president 
of the United States called upon the governor of Massachu- 
setts, as he was authorized to do by the constitution, to send 
the state militia into the federal service for the war of 1812, 
the governor assumed the right to pass upon the propriety of 
the president's action and refuse obedience, being supported 
therein by the opinions of the supreme judges of his state. " 
And the climax of this theory of state sovereignty was : 
reached when the state of South Carolina passed the ordinance" 
of nullification, and forbade the enforcement of a law of 'the 
United States within her limits. The answer to this assump- 
tion of state supremacy was the grand toast of President 


Andrew Jackson, "The Federal Union; it must be preserved." 
Under the articles of confederation every step had been 
toward disunion and weakness; under the constitution every 
step was toward union and strength. In every controversy 
touching the question of federal power the national character 
of the government was vindicated. Nationalism prevailed 
over sectionalism. The mathematical axiom that the whole is 
greater than any of its parts became also an axiom of govern- 

The principle of federal supremacy as to national affairs 
was maintained even when invoked in an unholy cause. The 
State of Wisconsin, forgetting her proper sphere in her 
righteous indignation at the atrocities of the fugitive slave 
law, sought to set at defiance the authority of the federal 
officers and courts, and to release by her state power one of 
her own citizens who was under arrest by federal authority. 
But the federal authority was vindicated and the iniquitous 
system of slavery was left to fall by its own hand. 

In the settlement of these questions of national sovereignty 
there has been no power so potent as that of the Supreme 
Court of the United States. So far removed from popular 
influence that it cannot be reached by sudden gusts of passion ; 
so exalted in dignity and independent in organization that it 
can have no object except to do right and declare justice; 
administering the "law of the land," which has been for eight 
centuries, aye, from time immemorial amongst English- 
speaking peoples the safeguard of private rights and the 
guaranty of popular liberties, this court has given to our 
federal government by its course of decisions ' the internal 
solidity which has enabled it to withstand the last and I 
believe forever the last great blow at our union. It needed 
not the clash of arms and a hard-won victory to establish the 
doctrine of national supremacy. The principle had long been 
established. That baptism of fire and tears was needed only 
to make the doctrine a sentiment and fix it deep in the popular 


And thus it became settled in legislative halls, in the courts 
and among the people that whilst local affairs remain within 
the scope of the state governments, as to which their power is 
sovereign, and that all powers which are not- granted to the 
federal government are reserved to the states or the people 
thereof, yet that as to the powers granted the federal govern- 
ment is supreme; that it has the attributes of national 
sovereignty; that its laws and the decisions of its courts with 
reference to its own powers are the law of the land and bind- 
ing upon every citizen thereof; and that whatever duty such 
citizen may owe to the state, this duty he owes to his nation as 
a whole, to obey its law as resting upon the highest human 

This thought I dwell and insist upon, that the doctrine of 
national unity and supremacy has worked itself out as the 
result of the forces which mould and form a popular govern- 
ment; that it has come to us through legitimate and peaceful 
channels; and that the rebellion of 1861 was not the means of 
its establishment, but the last ineffectual struggle against the 
logic of accomplished facts. This doctrine has not been 
peculiarly that of Massachusetts, nor of Virginia, not that of 
the North nor of the South, of the East, nor of the West, but 
the doctrine of unity as against division, harmonv as against 
discord, broad liberalism as against sectional intolerance. In 
the triumph of this doctrine we can see, not the success of 
any faction or of any party, but the grand result of the action 
of deep-working forces which no man can measure, but which 
all must feel, moulding us irresistibly into one people and one 
nation. This doctrine gives us a government to command 
our respect, one country which we may love, one flag to gaze 
at with tear-dimmed, thankful eyes. 

When our minds go back, then, from this our day to that 
event of a century ago, that which holds our contemplation 
longest and awakens the deepest gratitude, is not that the 
population of our country has increased from three to sixty 
millions; not that the narrow strip of inhabited territory 


along the Atlantic has broadened until it reaches from ocean 
.to ocean ; not that our material wealth has over and over again 
doubled and trebled; not that our flag's blue field shows thirty- 
eight instead of thirteen stars, and four others ready to be 
-added to the galaxy. No, there may be numbers without 
strength, broad territory feebly held together, wealth without 
security. But we see with pride that we are a self-governing 
people; that the institutions of our fore-fathers still endure, 
adequate and fit for our changed conditions, and in their 
stability and security we see the assurance of freedom and 
prosperity to ourselves and our children for countless genera- 




JIVERY citizen of Iowa will feel a commendable pride 
in this paper, both as presenting a fair and brilliant 
picture of our Commonwealth and of its public 
men, and also as written by one who, called by 
President Lincoln from Iowa to a high office in the Nation, 
has now discharged the duties of that office for twenty-seven 
years with surpassing ability and constantly growing fame; 
With the fairness that has marked his whole judicial career, 
Justice Miller describes a number of the public men of lowa^ 
and with generous appreciation awards a just tribute of praise^ 
without bias, to each one of them. 

In its compact summary of early Iowa history the article 
falls into some inadvertencies of statement, to which the 
IOWA HISTORICAL RECORD ventures to refer as calling for; 
correction in future editions of this classical contribution to the; 
history and literature of the State. 

i. It is inaccurate to say of "the State of Iowa," that "it 


was organized as a Territory." "The State" was of later 
.creation, has a different life, and is not conterminous with "the 
^Territory of Iowa," \vhich had a much larger area. 

2. Though provision for the admission of Iowa into the 
Union was made by act of Congress of June 12, 1845, yet the 
{people of Iowa ' rejected the boundaries fixed by that act, 
.assent to which boundaries had been made a fundamental 
-condition of the admission of the State into the Union under 
;that act. The next year, August 6, 1846, .Congress repealed 
;so much of that act as related to boundaries, and in lieu thereof 
Accepted the boundaries proposed by the State Constitutional 
Convention of May,, 1846,' and which were ratified and 
.adopted by vote of the people of; the State on the thir.d day of 
'August, 1846. . The act "admitting the State of Iowa into 
the Union" was passed' December 28, 1846. The subject is 
more fully explained in connection with the life of the Hon. 
A. C. Dodge, then Delegate from Iowa Territory to Congress, 
in the third volume of the Record, pp. 402-5, 409, 410. 
. 3. The article follows sundry careless writers in speaking 
of the "Northwestern Territory" as "ceded" by Great Britain 
to the United States. The Treaty of Peace of 1783 states 
the actual facts of the case, that is, it acknowledges on the 
part of Great Britain the United States to be free, sovereign 
and independent, and it acknowledges a joint agreement and 
declaration of both parties as to what were the boundaries of 
the United States; among which boundaries "the middle of 
the Mississippi river" is expressly mentioned. It is no more 
: proper to speak of the "Northwestern Territory" as "ceded" 
>y_ Great Britain to the United States, than to apply thai 
language to Kentucky or Vermont, or any other part of th$ 
then existing a'rea of' the United States. The British posts in 
the Northwestern Territory were captured by the American 
arms, as Burgoyne and Cornwallis were captured at Saratoga 
.and Yorktown, and -the Northwestern Territory was as much 
an 'actual and component and recognized part of the United 
'States in the treaty of 1783 as was New York or Virginia. 


4. Antoine Le Claire was not "born in Iowa," but in what is 
now St. Joseph, Michigan. His mother was the grand- 
daughter of a Pottawattamie chief. Annals of Iowa, Oct. 

5. The actual possession and control of Upper Louisiana 
by Spain dates from 1770 to 1803, during which period Spain 
asserted its government over the region now constituting the 
State of Iowa, as is evidenced by the concession made by the 
Spanish governor, Carondelet, to Julien Dubuque, to mine at 
the place that now bears his name, and by grants of land 
made to Basil Giard, in 1795, in what is now Clayton County, 
and to Louis Tesson Honore, in i799> i n what is now Lee 
County. Both the last named Spanish titles have been con- 
firmed by the United States. They are historical proofs and 
vestiges of Spanish government and jurisdiction over our soil. 

6. The Black Hawk war was in its inception and mainly 
the work of the "Rock River Band" of Sacs and Foxes. 
They were known and characterized as "The British Band," 
having taken the British side in the war of 1812, and con- 
tinuing for many years afterward to make friendly visits to 
the British authorities at Maiden, and to receive presents from 
them. They were all finally removed from the State of 
Illinois in 1831, when they stipulated in a treaty made with 
them by General Gaines, of the U. S. Army, and John Rey- 
nolds, Governor of Illinois, to remain on the west side of the 
Mississippi. In contravention of these stipulations Black 
Hawk with a formidable band, constituting a large portion of 
the Sacs and Foxes, but not the whole of them, crossed the 
Mississippi at the Yellow Banks, now Oquawka, on the 6th 
of April, 1832, not "to assist their brethren in Illinois," but, as 
was generally believed, in the fond hope of inducing other tribes 
of Indians, who had not then sold their lands in Illinois and 
who still remained in that State, namely, the Winnebagoes and 
Pottawattamies, to go with them upon the war path. The re- 
sult of that war, in which all the principal chiefs and warriors 

. of that hostile band were killed or captured, was the treaty of 


September 21, 1832, and a cession to the United States not of 
"the larger part of what is now the State of Iowa," but of 
only between one-fifth and one-sixth of the area of the State 
of Iowa. 

7. The original Territory of Wisconsin was organized in 
1836. The first session of the First Legislative Assembly 
was held at Belmont, now Lafayette County, Wisconsin. The 
second and third sessions of that Assembly were held at 
Burlington, now Des Moines County, Iowa. 

8. There is an over-statement of the gifts made by 
Congress to Iowa for school and university purposes. The 
"thirty-sixth section" of every township was not included 
therein, and the "five per cent, of all sales by the United 
States of the public lands within the State" was by constitu- 
tional provision appropriated not "to aid the University," but 
to the support of common schools. The place of honor 
which the "High Schools" have gained in our educaiional 
system is made a matter of "question," but we think the senti- 
ment of the State tends more and more to regard them with 
favor as germane to the constitutional provision for "the pro- 
motion of intellectual, scientific, moral .and agricultural im- 
provement," and particularly as helpful to the lower grade of 
schools, both stimulating the proficiency of their pupils, and 
providing teachers of suitable qualification for those schools. 
The article falls into a confusion of statement as to "Iowa 
College" at Grinnell, and "Cornell College" at Mt. Vernon. 

9. It is difficult with statistics to keep up with the rapid 
growth of the agricultural and manufacturing industries of 
Iowa. Both are underestimated in this article. Corn, not 
wheat, is our "most important" crop. The hay of Iowa is of 
greater value than the wheat grown in the State. The value 
of the products of manufacture in Iowa by the State census 
of 1885 was more than one-third that of the products of 
agriculture. The actual condition of Iowa more than justifies 
the glowing representation which one of her favorite and 
honored sons has given of the Commonwealth. 



Another writer on the foregoing subject comments as fol- 
lows: The papers of the State are copying the article on 
Iowa in the June Harper by Justice Miller without noting 
some errors in statement: , 

" The first territorial legislature of Wisconsin to which Iowa was attached 
.met in Belmont, Wisconsin; the second in Burlington. 

' The 500,000 acre grant to Iowa was not for university purposes, but was by 
'the legislature given to the Common School Fund. 

.' Iowa has received only the sixteenth section of each- township for school 
purposes, The addition of the thirty-sixth section was authorized in 1848 and 
is applicable only to states admitted since 1848. 

The Agricultural College at Ames is much older than the article states. 
'Nearly twenty-one years may be called its age, as its organization was effected 
in 1868. 

. The Congregationalists will be surprised to learn that they have located 
""Cornell University" at Grinnell. 

The Methodists have an excellent college called "Cornell College," at Mt. 
Vernon, while Congregationalists have another equally good called "Iowa 
College" at Grinnell. 

What foundation is there for the statement that Iowa's state debt is $300,000? 
Officials declare the State out of debt. 

Great men sometimes make mistakes in minor details. 


SPRIGHTLY lady writer in the Army and Navy 
Register thus sketches the salient features of a 1 


United States fort and its approaches in a south} 
western territory. The description, barring . the 
sand, which does not pertain to the more northerly garrison, is 
applicable to the average American military post of the so- 
called "Frontier" of the present day. 

"A wild desire to tell a great many people at once what arj 
awful place this is invites me' to write this letter. There is no 
place too barren, lonely, desolate, to be the home of the Ameri T 
can soldier, of which dogmatic assertion this place is a ghastly 
proof. "In the beginning," these isolated old forts needed 
some kind of a poor raison d'etre, some enterprising would-be 


.post trader, or fur trader, or gold digger, required protection 
from the savage owners of the land, and at great expense tp 
the government a fort was constructed for him, and its first 
-generation of unfortunate army people marched into it. But 
|he worst of it is that long after the poor little raisdn oTetre 
Jias passed away, except the post trader, long after the gold 
digger has dug all the gold, which, perhaps, wasn't there 
-after all, and after the fur trader has stolen all the fur from 
the Indians, killed all the animals and driven the Indians away, 
the fort remains on some desolate plain or in the midst of 
some alkali desert, but garrisoned by faithful soldiers. The 
historical and military necessity which called this particular old 
fort into being was the need of a ' half-way house for the. 
accommodation of citizens crossing the "great American 
desert" on their way to the gold fields of California. The. 
old Santa Fe trail along which these good citizens crept, lies 
just outside our walls, I mean our barbed wire fence, and the 
desert stretches around ;us yellow, sunbaked, sandy, tin-can 
strewn. So here we are now one of the many garrisons who 
have garrisoned this old fort, the daily roll calls still call the 
trim, well-disciplined, well-drilled soldiers from their low: 
adobe quarters, the inspiriting "drill call" still covers the level 
sandy parade ground with companies of well-drilled soldiers 
going through the evolutions of battalion drill, and every 
evening when the rays of the "westering" sun gild the old 
adobe barracks and make them splendid, and beautify even 
the . dead level of the parade ground, the soldiers ."turn out':' 
in. "full dress," and the officers issue from their quarters 
splendid, shining, and dress parade is accomplished by the aid 
6f field music, and the day is gone, and we go in to dine as 
have done our predecessors since the day when the necessities 
of the gold digger brought us here. 

"We reach this whilom hostelry now by means of the Atchi- 
son, Topeka and Santa Fe Railway which runs along on the 
other side of the river from us. We can see the trains, black 
lines, gliding along and hear them, but the river with its quick- 


sands lies between us, and there is no bridge here. Coming to 
this fort, arriving at the little railway station, we have a long 
drive of seven or eight miles across the sandy plain; that is, 
if "we" are ladies or visitors; if "we" happen to be a com- 
pany of soldiers we march on foot or horseback, according to 
the arm of the service. The station is a forlorn little collec- 
tion of houses on the sandy plain, its streets and the adjacent 
plain thickly strewn with empty tin cans glaring in the sun- 
shine. As we start on our drive or march to the post, the plain 
stretches before us, and around us yellow, sandy, sunbaked, 
even in the "luscious summer time" hardly a vestige of green ; 
in summer there is a fringe of green cottonwood trees along 
the river bank, for there is a river, the Arkansas, crawling 
along on our right, which prevents this plain from being 
actually a veritable desert, but save the river and the little 
green fringe, there is nothing but the sand, the bunches of 
cactus and occasionally a tin can winking dismally in the sun; 
that is, there isn't anything else to be seen until the mirage 
begins to play its tricks with the plain and with us and trans- 
forms it into wonderland. Suddenly as we drive along we see 
in front of us a lake of blue water bordered by trees, a vast 
lake with little islands covered with trees, and to the north 
and west smaller lakes which change and vanish as we gaze 
at them in wonder, only the one in front of us remains, and 
we think that must be water. We go over a little swell in 
the prairie, and that lake vanishes, and only the bunches of 
cactus and the sandy plain lie before us. As we drive on 
two immense pillars rise before us in the distance; from the 
the edge of an ocean of blue w r ater it looks like the ruins of 
a wharf, or monuments on a sea wall. We drive along and 
presently the pillars slowly change into two covered wagons 
drawn by tired horses, then we see a grove of queer-looking 
umbrella-shaped trees growing in an immense sweep of water 
and we gaze at one another in astonishment. I turn to my 
companion, an officer who rarely confesses ignorance on any 
subject, and exclaim 'What on earth is that?' and he 


answers promptly, 'I don't know what in the devil that is,' 
which answer reduces me to silent awe, but we drive on until 
the grove of umbrella-shaped trees is evolved into a herd of 
horses. Finally we see a mass of strange-looking objects 
shimmering and changing, and when the mirage ceases its 
tricks we find that this is the fort. We drive through a 
rough gateway and down the line of officers' quarters. The fort 
is the regulation barrack square, is enclosed on the north side 
by the line of officers' quarters, low adobe buildings with dormer 
windows, in the centre of the line stands the commanding 
officer's quarters, on the east and west sides are the barracks, 
low one-story adobe buildings, on the south side is the head- 
quarters or administration building, all these look on the level 
sand}' parade ground. The little yards in front of the officers' 
quarters are thickly sodded with blue grass, and a row of 
cottonwood trees extends around the square, in front of the 
quarters. These are kept alive and green by an irrigating 
ditch, which is flooded from the hydrants. The post is 
supplied with water from the river, and each set of quarters 
has its hydrant and garden hose, and in summer one of our 
simple, innocent amusements is to give the grass its bath and 
drink of clear, cold water. But now the winter has come, 
the grass has retired, the leaves have all fallen, have been 
swept up and carried away by reluctant fatigue parties, and 
everything is gray and brown. And the old fort stands dis- 
mal and alone in the midst of the dull, level, sandy plain, but 
the 'inverted bowl' above us is blue, and over all the dull, 
level, monotony lies the bright, warm, beautiful sunlight every 
day; it rarely rains here and the sun shines all day long 
almost every day. 



Three ships of war had treble when he left the Naples shore, 

And the knightly king pf Naples lent him seven gallej-s more; 

And never since the Argo floated in the middle^sea 

Such noble men and valiant have sailed in company 

As the men who went with Preble to the siege of Tripoli. 

Stewart, Bainbridge, Hull, Decatur, how their names ring out like gold! ^. 

Lawrence, Porter, Trippe, Macdonough, and a score as true and bold. 

Everv star that lights their banner tells the glorv that they won; 

But one common sailor's glory is the splendor of the sun. 

Reuben James was first to follow when Decatur laid aboard 

Of the lofty Turkish galley and in battle broke his sword. 

Then the pirate captain smote him, till his blood was running fast, 

And they grappled, and the} 1 struggled, and thev fell beside the mast. 

Close behind him Reuben battled with a dozen undismayed, 

Till a bullet broke his sword arm, and he dropped the useless blade. 

Then a swinging Turkish sabre clove his left and brought him low, 

Like a gallant bark, dismasted, at the mercy of the foe. 

Little 'mercy knows the corsair; high his blade was raised to slay, 

When a richer prize allured him where Decatur strugging lay. 

*'Help!" the Turkish leader shouted, and his trusty comrade sprung, 

And his scimeter like lightning o'er the Yankee captain swung. 

Reuben James, disabled, armless, saw the sabre flash on high, 
SawDecatur shrink before it, heard the pirate's taunting cry, 
Saw, in. half the time I tell it, how a sailor brave and true 
Still might show a bloody pirate what a dying man can do. 
Quick he struggled, stumbling, sliding in the blood around his feet, 
As the Turk a moment waited to make vengeance doubly sweet. 
Swift the sabre fell, but-swifter bent the sailor's head below,' 
And upon his fenceless forehead Reuben James received the blow! 

So was saved our brave Decatur; so the common sailor died; 

So the love that moves .the lowly lifts the great to fame" and pride. 

'Yet we grudge him not his honors, for whom love like this had birth, 

For God never ranks His sailors by the register of earth! 

James Jeffrey Roche, in the Boston Pilot. 



JOHN BRAEKEL, born near Stuttgart, Germany, Sept. 24th," 
1810, died at his home near Solon, Iowa, Oct. 8th, 1888. He 
came to the United States in 1828, and located in Pennsyl- 
vania, where he married Julia Margaret Metzger. They had 
a family of children of the unusual number of thirteen, eight 
of whom are living. In 1835 Braekel with his family removed 
t6 Iowa, and settled on the farm where he died after a resi- 
dence there of fifty-three years. He acquired and retained ' 
the esteem of his neighbors and the community by an honest 
life of thrifty toil. 

BREVET MAJ. GEN. EDWARD HATCH, Colonel of the pth 
U. S. Cavalry, died April nth, 1889, at Fort Robinson,' 
Nebraska, of injuries received a few weeks previously by the ' 
upsetting of his carriage, at Fort Robinson, of which post he ' 
was in military command at the time of the accident. During' 
the civil war Gen. Hatch was captain, major, lieutenant- 
colonel and colonel of the 2d Iowa Cavalry and Brigadier 
General and brevet major general of volunteers, entering the 
service from his home at Muscatine in the summer of 1 86 r. : 
He bore a very gallant and distinguished part in many battles 1 
and campaigns, and received a wound supposed to be mortal- 
in a cavalry affair in the rear of Memphis in the fall of 1863, - 
but recovered. On the re-organization of the Army after the 
war he was commissioned colonel, the highest rank conferred 
in the regular army upon any volunteer from Iowa, and 
assigned to the command of the pth Cavalrv, one of the two 
colored mounted regiments, which shows the high estimate in 
which his war services were held by Grant and Sherman. 
We hope to be able to give a fuller sketch of Gen. Hatch's 
services and life in a future number. 


PROF. L. F. PARKER, of Iowa College, Grinnell, having 
been appointed by the National Bureau of Education, to write 


the history of education in Iowa, his monograph in printed 
form may soon be looked for by the public. The selection of 
Prof. Parker to perform this task, a very arduous one in the 
short time allotted, was wisely made through the recommen- 
dation, of Prof. Herbert B. Adams, of Johns Hopkins Univer- 
sity, who has general supervision of the subject under the 
Bureau of Education for the whole country. 

THE next October number of the HISTORICAL RECORD 
will be embellished with a portrait of Henry Dodge, gover- 
nor of the original Wisconsin Territory, which included what 
is now Iowa. The portrait will be accompanied by a bio- 
graphical sketch of his life, incidentally embracing much of 
the history of the northwest, composed by that accurate and 
scholarly writer, Rev. William Salter, D. D., of Burlington, 
to whom we have so often before incurred obligations for 
valuable historical papers, which have appeared in these 

SIMPSON AND NEWTON WHITE, brothers, with Amzi 
Doolittle, built and operated the first ferryboat at Burlington, 
in 1833. The former ran the first ferryboat between Fort 
Madison and Appanoose, and also built the first sawmill in 
Iowa, in 1835, arj d it was he who erected the first house in 
Burlington. Mrs. Reed, sister of the Whites, was the first 
white woman ever in Burlington. The Whites and Mrs. 
Reed now live in Oregon, having removed there in 1845. 
Simpson White was a pioneer in what are now three states 
Illinois, Iowa and Oregon. He never lived in a state, how- 
ever, until Oregon was admitted as such, and consequently 
never could vote for a president till he was forty-nine years 
old, when he voted for Lincoln in 1860. These items were 
brought out on the return of the Whites on a visit to their old 
homes in Illinois and Iowa three years ago, and the news- 
paper slip containing them was then kindly sent us by Prof. 
Parvin, and was deposited in the "Editor's drawer," where 
they have lain forgotten until now. 


VOL. V. OCTOBER, 1889. No. 4. 



are the life of history. Great men 
are the chief elements of a nation's power and 
renown. Plutarch's "Lives" furnish the best 
account extant of the old Greeks and Romans. 
He who has mastered the biographies of George Washington, 
Benjamin Franklin, Thomas Jefferson, Andrew Jackson, and 
Abraham Lincoln, knows the chief parts of American history. 
When Thomas Carlyle had completed his "Elucidation of 
Oliver Cromwell" he wrote to Ralph Waldo Emerson: "I 
wish you would take an America hero and give us a historv 
of him." 

The settlement and growth of the territory northwest of 
the Ohio river is one of the marvels of American history; it 
cannot be better told than in the lives of its pioneers. Promi- 
nent among them, a heroic man, was Henry Dodge. Born in 
that territory at Post St. Vincents (Vincennes), October i2th, 
1782, his life covered nearly the whole of the first century 
of its settlement. The Canadian French had been earlier 
upon the ground, but he was the first "American " child born 


in what is now the State of Indiana. He was a leader in 
putting an end to the Black Hawk war. One of the results 
of that war, "partly as indemnity for the expense incurred, 
and partly to secure the future safety and tranquillity of the 
invaded frontier," was a cession to the United States of a 
tract lying along the west bank of the Mississippi, from which 
Black Hawk had gone to wage war in April 1832, and upon 
which the next year the first permanent settlements in what is 
now Iowa were commenced. He was governor of the original 
Territory of Wisconsin, when what is now Iowa was included 
therein. A sketch of his life and public services is appropriate 

Among his papers, which were preserved by his son, 
Augustus C. Dodge, is a package bearing the simple inscrip- 
tion in his handwriting, "Commissions in the Service of My 
Country." There was also included in this package the com- 
mission of his father, Israel Dodge, as sheriff of the District 
of St. Genevieve, signed by William Henry Harrison, gover- 
nor and commander in chief of the Indiana Territory and of 
the District of Louisiana, John Gibson, secretary, October i, 

The commissions of Henry Dodge cover a long period of 
public service. They embrace the signatures of six presi- 
dents of the United States, and of many other distinguished 
men. It is doubtful if there exists another collection of equal 
interest and value in the documentary history of the West, un- 
less it may be in connection with the life of William Henry Har- 
rison, or the life of Lewis Cass, who were illustrious pioneers. 
They^gjt-e .. not born, like the subject of this memoir, in the 
West; but" they filled with honor some of its highest stations. 

The following is a list of commissions in the package re- 
ferred to: 

1. Lieutenant of Militia in the District of St Genevieve; signed by James 
Wilkinson, governor and commander in chief of the Territory of Louisiana; 
Joseph Browne, secretary, May loth, 1806. 

2. Adjutant of the Militia in the District of St. Genevieve; signed by 


James Wilkinson, governor, etc., July i7th, 1806. This commission also bears 
the oath of office sworn to by H. Dodge before Jno. Smith, T., March 2d, 1807. 

3. First Lieutenant of St. Genevieve Troop of Cavalry ; signed by Frederick 
Bates, secretary of the Territory of Louisiana, and exercising as well the 
government thereof as the office of commander in chief of the militia of said 
territory; St. Louis, August I4th, 1807. 

4. Captain of St. Genevieve Trooop of Cavalry; signed by Meriwether 
Lewis, governor and commander in chief of the Territory of Louisiana; F. 
Bates, secretary, July ioth,;i8o9. 

5. Marshal for the Territory of Missouri; notification of appointment by 
President Madison; signed by James Monroe, secretary of state, August loth, 

6. Sheriff of the County of St. Genevieve; signed by William Clark 
governor of the Territory of Missouri; F. Bates, secretary, October ist, 1813. 

7. Brigadier General of the Missouri Territory; to rank as such from the 
1 7th of January, 1814; signed by James Madison, president of the United 
States; J. Armstrong, secretary of war, Washington, April i6th, 1814. 

8. Sheriff of the County of St. Genevieve; signed by Wm. Clark, gover- 
nor of the Territory of Missouri; F. Bates, secretary, September 3Oth, 1815. 

9. Marshal for the ^District of Missouri; notification of appointment by 
President Madison ; signed by John Graham, chief clerk of the department of 
state, February 25th, 1817. 

10. Marshal in and for the Missouri District for four years; signed by James 
Monroe, president; John Quincy Adams, secretary of state, April 25th, 1822. 

11. Major General of the Second Division Missouri Militia; signed by- 
Alexander McNair, governor of the State of Missouri; Wm. G. Pettus, 
secretary of state; St. Charles, May 8, 1822. 

12. Marshal of the United States in and for the District of Missouri for four 
years from April 25th, 1826; signed by J. Q. Adams, president; Henry Clay, 
secretary of state, December 22d, 1825. 

13. Chief Justice of the County Court in and for the County of Iowa for 
four years from December ist, 1829; signed by Lewis Cass, governor of the 
Territory of Michigan ; J. Witherell, secretary; Detroit, October I4th, 1829. 

14. Colonel in the Militia of the Territory of Michigan ; signed by Lewis 
Cass, governor; October I5th, 1829. 

15. Major of the Battalion of Mounted Rangers, to rank from June 21, 1832; 
signed by Andrew Jackson, president; Lewis Cass, secretary of war, June 22d, 

16. Colonel of the Regiment of Dragoons, to rank from the 4th of March, 
1833; signed by Andrew Jackson, president; Lewis Cass, secretary of war; 
May loth, 1834. 

17. Governor of the Territory of Wisconsin for three years from July 3d, 
1836; signed by Andrew Jackson, president; John Forsyth, secretary of state; 
April 30th, 1836. 


1 8. Governor of the Territory of Wisconsin for three years from July jd, 
1839; signed by M. Van Buren, president; John Forsyth, secretary of state; 
March 9th, 1839. 

19. Governor of the Territory of Wisconsin for three years from February 3d, 
1846; signed by James K. Polk, president; James Buchanan, secretary of state; 
February 3d, 1846. 

Henry Dodge was of the fourth or fifth generation from 
Tristram Dodge, one of the original proprietors of Block 
Island, Rhode Island. 1 His mother, born in Carlisle, Pennsyl- 
vania, was a heroic woman, of Scotch-Irish stock. The Hon. 
Felix Grundy, of Tennessee, was intimately acquainted with 
her, and "esteemed her as one of the most rarely-gifted and 
wonderful ladies he had ever met with." " Henry Dodge passed 
his childhood near Louisville, and at Bardstown, Kentucky. 
At the age of fourteen he joined his father in Upper Louisiana, 
then Spanish country, but at different periods returned to 
Kentucky, where at one time he read law in the office of Col. 
Allen, who was killed at the battle of the river Raisin, 
January, 1813. For a sketch of his parents, and for other 
incidents of his early life, the reader is referred to an article 
upon his mother, entitled, "A Heroine of the Revolution," in 
THE RECORD for July, 1886, and to an article upon his son, 
"Augustus C. Dodge," in THE RECORD for January, 1887. 

The public life of Henry Dodge commenced as deputy 
sheriff of the District of St. Genevieve under his father in 
1805, and continued until the expiration of his second term as 
a senator of the United States in 1857, a period of fifty-two 
years. In addition to holding the offices indicated by the 
above enumerated commissions, he was a member of the con-, 
vention that framed the constitution of the State of Missouri 
in 1820; he was chosen, in July, 1831, a member of the legis- 
lative council of the Territory of Michigan to meet at Detroit 
in May, 1832, but on account of the breaking out of the 

1 Tristram Dodge and descendants, by Robert Dodge, New York, 1886, ch. ix. 

2 MS. Letter of Mrs. E. A. R. Linn to A. C. Dodge, May 2d, 1854; Life 
and Public Services of Dr Lewis F. Linn, pp. 11, 16, 17, 344; Benton's Thirty 
Years' V.iew, v. 2, p. 485. 


Black Hawk war he did not attend; he was delegate to 
Congress from the Territory of Wisconsin, 1841-5; and a 
senator of the United States from the State of Wisconsin, 

In the summer of 1805 Aaron Burr visited the West. He 
was at St. Louis in September of that year, and threw out 
vague hints of some splendid enterprise in prospect for the 
Western country. Whether under feint of an attack upon 
Mexico in the interest of the United States he aimed to seat 
himself upon the throne of Montezuma, and extend his 
empire over the valley of the Mississippi, remains a mystery. 
President Jefferson believed that something of that kind was 
in his mind; at the same time he compared him to "a crooked 
gun whose aim or shot you could never be sure of." 

Upon Burr's expedition down the Ohio in the fall of 1806, 
Henry Dodge, , with his friend John Smith, T., a man 
famous for daring adventure, set out to join it. If there was 
to be any fighting, they said, they must take a hand. They 
proceeded to New Madrid, where Burr was expecting to 
meet recruits coming down the Mississippi. Here they were 
apprised of President Jefferson's proclamation declaring the 
enterprise unlawful; whereupon they sold their canoes, bought 
horses, and returned home. They were of Andrew Jackson's 
way of thinking, who said, " I hate the Dons ; I would delight 
to see Mexico reduced; but I would die in the last ditch before 
I would see the Union disunited." On reaching St. Genevieve 
they found themselves indicted for treason by the grand jury 
then in session. Dodge surrendered himself, and gave bail 
for his appearance; but feeling outraged by the action of the 
grand jury he pulled off his coat, rolled up his sleeves, and 
whipt nine of the jurors; and would have w r hipt the rest, if 
they had not run away. He was a tall man, over six feet 
high, straight as an Indian, and possessed great strength. 11 

1 Jefferson's Works, v. 5., pp. 28, 68. 

2 Personal Recollections, by John F. Darby, p. 87. 


He was one of the original trustees of St. Genevieve Aca- 
demy, which was incorporated by act of the governor and 
judges of the Territory of Louisiana, June 2ist, 1808. A 
large stone building was erected upon a hill overlooking the 
town, that commands a fine view of the bluffs above, of the 
prairie below, and of the Mississippi sweeping along in the 
distance. Mann Butler, the historian of Kentucky, was at 
one time a teacher in this academy. It was in a flourishing 
condition in 1854-1862, under the control of Hon. Francis A. 

A few years after the region west of the Mississippi had 
come into the possession of the United States, ardent to foster 
American feeling among the inhabitants, he went up to the 
ruins of Fort Chartres, to obtain a cannon for a celebration of 
the 4th of July at St. Genevieve. In the previous century the 
Fort had been a stronghold of the "Illinois Country;" first, 
under the possession of both sides of the Mississippi by the 
French, 1720-1765; afterwards of the east side by the English, 
1765-1772.' It was now a crumbling ruin. He made up a 
party consisting of his family, Lewis F. Linn, his half brother, 
Otto Schrader, one of the judges of the territory, and a few 
others. Thev embarked upon a sunny morning in June, 1811, 
on a keel boat, manned by negroes, who propelled it with 
poles and sweeps. The voyage was slow and laborious, 
against a strong current, the distance about ten miles. On 
reaching the fort they picked out from the debris a heavy 
cannon, of iron; having no levers or hoisting apparatus, night 
came on before they succeeded in loading it on the boat, when 
they floated back to St. Genevieve, the full moon rising 

1 On a gloomv spring night in 1772 the Mississippi made its last wild leap at 
the old fort, and swept away the southern curtain and bastions. The troops 
vacated the place and built Fort Gage, on the bluffs near Kaskaskia, which 
was headquarters during the remainder of the British occupation. Fort 
Chartres was never reoccupied. Its walls formed a quarry for the people of 
the neighborhood, who carried them off stone by stone. The magazine alone 
remains intact, and lifts its bramble-covered arch amid the modern farm-yard 
into which the place has been converted. Dunnes Indiana, pp. 76, 77. 


brightly over the turbid river. The people of the village 
welcomed them home, and assisted in unloading and mounting 
the cannon, and its thunders reverberated in honor of Ameri- 
can independence. The same cannon served for patriotic 
occasions for thirty years, until it burst on the fourth of July, 
I840. 1 

Not a few desperate characters infested the frontiers in 
those days. His duties as sheriff required energy and de- 
cision. While in that office he hung two notorious murderers 
Peter Johnson, August 3d, 1810, and Charles Heath, March 
pth, 1812 -on Academy Hill. 

On the first day of October, 1811, he and John Scott, after- 
wards delegate to Congress from the Territory of Missouri, 
1817-21, and member of Congress from the State, 182127, 
were seconds in a duel between two prominent citizens of St. 
Genevieve, Dr. Walter Fenwick and Thomas T. Crittenden, 
a brother of the distinguished John Jay Crittenden. The duel 
was fought on a sandbar, Moreau's Island, a few miles below 
the village, and Dr. Fenwick fell mortally wounded. Dr. 
Fenwick had no part in the quarrel which led to the duel, but 
took a brother's place, from whom Crittenden had refused a 

Before war broke out between Great Britain and the United 
States in 1812, British emissaries had excited the savages 
upon the frontiers to hostilities against the American settle- 
ments. General Harrison had repulsed them at Tippecanoe, 
November 7th, 1811; but they rallied to the British side in 
artful combinations under Tecumseh. Among some tribes, 
however, there was a division of sentiment. The Sacs of Rock 
river under "General Black Hawk," as the English called 
him, entered the British service. Some other bands of Sacs 
and Foxes were friendly to the Americans, and their chiefs 
went to St. Louis, and tendered aid to the United States. 
But our Government declined to employ them. Of restless 

5 Hon. Firmin A. Rozier, in Fair Play, St. Genevieve, January iSth, 1885. 


nature, the savages could not remain quiet in a time of war. 
Marauding bands of different tribes, bent on pillage and 
murder, beset the scattered settlements. In September, 1812, 
an assault was made upon Fort Madison, the only fort which 
the United States had erected in what is now Iowa. The 
"Boone's Lick Settlement," consisting of about 150 families, 
in what is now Howard and Cooper counties, Missouri, where 
Daniel Boone had been the earliest adventurer in 1800, and 
where his son Nathan had commenced the manufacture of 
salt in 1807, was in a very exposed situation, and suffered 
frequent depredations. A number of prominent persons in 
the settlement were killed by the savages. 

Upon the call of the governor of the Territory, Henry 
Dodge took the field. He raised a mounted rifle company at 
St. Genevieve, and was made major of the Territorial militia, 
and was subsequently appointed Brigadier General of the 
militia of the Territory by President Madison. By his courage 
and skill, having great knowledge of Indian character, he 
overawed and composed hostile and wavering bands, and 
carried relief and protection to the frontiers. His half brother, 
Lewis F. Linn, who had pursued medical studies with Dr. 
Gault, of Louisville, Ky., accompanied him as surgeon to the 

Parts of several tribes belonging on the east side of the 
Mississippi had been removed at their own request to the 
valley of the Missouri, that they might be out of the reach of 
British influence; but they proved perfidious, and were a 
terror to the settlements. Among them was a band of 
Miamies (Piankeshaws), which General Harrison had sent 
west in order to detach them from the Prophet's band. They 
occupied the region above the mouth of the Osage river. 
General Dodge conducted an expedition to correct and punish 
them in the summer of 1814. It consisted of three com- 
panies of mounted men; one from Cape Girardeau, one from 
St. Louis, one from the Boone's Lick Settlement (Capt. 
Cooper), and sixty-six Shawnees, under Kishkalwa, a Shaw- 


nee chief. In making a rapid movement for the purpose of 
taking the Miamies by surprise, having the Missouri river to 
cross, the whole command dashed into the rushing stream, and 
swam their horses to the opposite shore. They found that 
the affrighted Indians had deserted their village and taken to 
the woods. On being collected together the Indians gave up 
their arms, and begged to be spared their lives. Gen. Dodge 
accepted their surrender, and was making preparations to dis- 
pose of them by sending them out of the country. Mean- 
while the " Boone's Lackers " had become infuriated against 
them from finding in their possession and about their persons 
articles of booty and spoil which they had taken from their 
kindred and neighbors whom they had plundered and mur- 
dered. Word came to the General that there was to be an 
indiscriminate massacre of all the Miamies. He immediately 
rode to the spot where they were collected, and found the 
frightened Indians upon their knees addressing a death-prayer 
to the Manitou, while the "Boone's Lickers" were in the act 
of levelling their guns at them. He quickly spurred his horse 
between the muzzles of the guns and the Indians, and placing 
the point of his sword to Capt. Cooper's bosom, told him and 
his men that they could not shoot except through the dead 
body of their commander. . After some angry looks and hard 
words the Captain demanded his men to desist. 

The Miamies expressed the warmest gratitude to Gen. 
Dodge for saving them from death. They were afterwards 
conducted in safety to St. Louis, and conveyed to their former 
home on the Wabash. Long afterwards in narrating the 
scene to his son Augustus, Gen. Dodge said that he felt more 
pride and gratification at having saved the lives of his Miami 
prisoners than he ever did at any triumph upon the field of 
battle. His magnanimity and firmness of character deeply im- 
pressed the friendly Shawnees and Delawares who were in his 
command. Twenty years after this event, when stationed at 
Fort Leavenworth as colonel of U. S. Dragoons, he was visi- 
ted by various Indian chiefs, among others by Kishkalwa, the 


Shawnee chief, who had been with his troops in 1814. As 
the chief came in he embraced and kissed Col. Dodge, to the 
surprise of his family who were present. Other spectators 
were deeply impressed as they saw the chief's esteem and 
affection for his old commander. More than seventy years 
after the event, a venerable pensioner who had emigrated to 
California referred with pride to his having been "a soldier 
under Henry Dodge in the war of 1812." ' 

In July, 1815, Gen Dodge was stationed with a strong mili- 
tary force at Portage des Sioux, on the west side of the 
Mississippi, a short distance above the mouth of the Missouri, 
to maintain order and to prevent any collision or surprise 
among the chiefs and headmen of the Sacs and Foxes, Potta- 
wattamies, Sioux, and other tribes, who were there assembled 
with Governor William Clark, of Missouri Territory, Gover- 
nor Ninian Edwards, of Illinois Territory, and Auguste Cho- 
teau, of St. Louis, as commissioners of the United States for 
the purpose of negotiating treaties of peace. His name is 
appended as a witness to the treaties made with the Teeton 
and Yancton tribes, July 19, i8i5- 2 

After the war he resumed the business of salt-making which 
his father had commenced at the mouth of Saline river, and 
was dubbed "Salt-boiler." At one time he was interested in a 
large and costly establishment with John Scott and Edward 
Hempstead at Peyroux's Saline. The business was profitable, 
but as transportation from the Ohio valley was cheapened by 
steamboats, which first appeared on the Upper Mississippi in 
July, 1817, prices declined from five dollars a bushel to 75 
cents, and he lost all he had made. He also carried on lead 
mining and smelting at Shibboleth, in what is now Jefferson 
County, Mo. The only money in the country was Spanish 
silver dollars. There was no small coin. "I have frequently 
seen my father," said his son Augustus, "go to a blacksmith 

1 Record, January, 1887, p. 422. 

2 U. S. Statutes at Large, vii, 125, 128. 


shop with a bag of silver dollars, and then cut them up into 
halves, quarters and eighths, for small change. My mother 
made buckskin pockets in his clothes to carry this fractional 

In May, 1820, he was elected by the people of St. Gene- 
vieve County a member of the Convention that assembled the 
following month at St. Louis and adopted a Constitution for 
the State of Missouri. The Territorial legislature of 1818 
had proposed as the northern boundary of the State a line 
drawn due west from the mouth of Rock river. It is interest- 
ing to the people of Iowa, and of Missouri also, after the lapse 
of seventy years, to read the reasons which were then as- 
signed for that proposition, viz: 

The districts of country that are fertile and susceptible of settlement are 
small, and separated from each other at great distances by immense plains and 
barren tracts, which must for ages remain waste and uninhabited. One of the 
objects in view is the formation of an effectual barrier against Indian incur- 
sions by pushing forward a strong settlement at the little river Platte to the 
west, and on the Des Moines to the north. 1 

The Convention, however, was content with the limits ap- 
pointed by Congress in the act to authorize the people of 
Missouri Territory to form a Constitution and State government, 
approved March 6th, 1820, which fixed the northern boundary 
at the mouth of the Des Moines river, and west of that river 
on "the parallel of latitude which passes through the rapids 
of the river Des Moines." Years afterwards, when that 
boundary line became a matter of dispute, he gave his testi- 
mony in his message to the First Legislative Assembly of 
Wisconsin Territory, at its second session held in Burlington, 
Des Moines County, November 7th, 1837, as follows: 

By the act of Congress of 1820 the limits of the State of Missouri were de- 
fined; and it was well understood by the members of the convention who 
formed the constitution of that state that " the rapids of the river Des Moines" 
were the rapids on the Mississippi, near the mouth of that river. 

Ten years later, under date of Dodgeville, December nth, 
l A. State Papers, Miscellaneous, ii, 557. 


1847, he gave the following testimony, which was submitted 
to the Supreme Court of the United States in the case of the 
State of Missouri vs. The State of Iowa : 

I was a member of the convention that formed the constitution of the State 
of Missouri in 1820, and during the session of the convention I never under- 
stood or heard the rapids in the river Des Moines mentioned to the best of my 
recollection; and my recollection is clear in 1820 that the lower Mississippi 
rapids was called "the rapids of the river Des Moines," or "the river Des 
Moines rapids." 

It was a pleasing incident in his capacity as Major General 
of the militia of Missouri, to receive the Marquis de Lafayette, 
and do him military honor upon his visit to St. Louis, the 2pth 
of April, 1825. 

Embarrassed in his fortunes, Mr. Dodge left Missouri, in 
1827, for the Fevre river lead mines. That region was then 
attracting the adventurous and the enterprising. He reached 
Galena at the time of a threatened outbreak of the Winne- 
bago Indians, which had alarmed the settlers. He was called 
upon by Henry and Jean P. B. Gratiot and other prominent 
citizens to take the lead in the defense of the district. Many 
had fled into Galena for safety. "The little place" says an 
eye-witness, "was crowded with families pouring in from the 
mines. The flat between the bluff and the river was covered 
with wagons, families camping in them; block houses were 
erected on the hill, companies forming, drums beating, and 
General Dodge busily engaged in organizing troops and creat- 
ing order and confidence out of terror and confusion." ' 

Gen. Dodge sent Moses Meeker to induce the Fox Indians, 
who then possessed the country where is now the city of 
Dubuque, to take sides against the Winnebagoes, but they de- 
clined any part in the contest. 

The following letter was addressed to Brigadier General 
Atkinson, U. S. Army, who had come up to the scene of dis- 
turbance from St. Louis with a force of 600 infantry and 150 
mounted men: 

1 Mrs. Adele P. Gratiot, Wisconsin His. Collections, x, 270. 


GALENA, August 26th, 1827. 
Gen. H. Atkinson, Prairie du Chien. 

Dear General: Capt. Henry, the chairman of the committee of safety, will 
wait on you at Prairie du Chien before your departure from that place. He is an 
intelligent gentleman, who understands well the situation of the country. The 
letter accompanying Governor Cass's communication to you has excited in 
some measure the people in this part of the country. As the principal part of 
the efficient force is preparing to accompany you on your expedition up the 
Ouisconsin, it might have a good effect to send a small regular force to this part 
of the country, and in our absence they might render protection to this region. I 
feel the importance of your having as many mounted men as the country can 
afford, to aid in punishing those insolent Winnebagoes who are wishing to 
unite, it would seem, in common with all the disaffected Indians on our 
borders. From information received last night, some straggling Indians have 
been seen on our frontiers. 

Your friend and obedient servant, H. DODGE. 

With his mounted volunteers, 130 in number, Gen. Dodge, 
marched to the Wisconsin river, one detachment going to 
Prairie du Chien, the other to English Prairie, now Muscoda. 
They scoured both sides of the river to the Portage, driving 
the Indians before them, taking one prisoner, a lad of fifteen, 
who had become separated from his band, and was surrounded. 
He was son of a chief, Winneshiek, whose name he bore. 
He refused to surrender, but sat on his horse, with cocked 
gun in hand. The soldiers were about to shoot him when 
Gen. Dodge, admiring the intrepidity of the boy, rode up and 
wrenched his gun from him, and saved him from the death he 

Upon reaching the Portage they found that Red Bird and 
his accomplices in murder had been surrendered to Major 
Whistler. Decorah, in presence of General Dodge, disclaimed 
unfriendliness on the part of the Winnebagoes to the United 
States, and disavowed connection with the murders that had 
been committed on the Mississippi. Terms of settlement 
were arranged by Gen. Atkinson, whereupon the volunteers 
were discharged and returned to their homes. 

The disturbance over, Henry Dodge immediately engaged 
in " prospecting " the country for lead mines, and on the 3d of 
November, 1827, established himself near the present village 



of Dodgeville, in what is now Iowa County, Wisconsin. It 
was the happy hunting grounds of the Winnebagoes, a land 
of bubbling brooks and crystal springs, of beautiful oak 
openings, groves of larger timber, and rolling prairies, with a 
broad ridge separating the waters that flow to the Wisconsin 
from those flowing to Rock river. It was in that part of the 
old Northwest Territory (1787), and of the Illinois Territory 
(1809), lying north of the State of Illinois, which had been 
attached to the Territory of Michigan upon the admission of 
the State of Illinois into the Union (1818). Some "diggings" 
had previously been worked by the Indians, who excavated 
down an inclined plane, carrying in wood for fuel, heating the 
rocks, then slacking them with water; charcoal and lime were 
found in the old works, as also buck-horns which had been 
used as tools. He made friendly terms with the Indians of 
the neighborhood, and gave them presents as in the way of 
rent for occupying their lands. He made a home for his 
family, and took precautions for their protection and safety. 
More than a hundred miners soon gathered to the "camp." 
The neighborhood resounded with the stroke of the ax and 
the click of tools. Shafts were sunk in every direction. He 
discovered the only lode in the region that proved to be of 
much value. 

It was not long before complaints were made to the United 
States Indian Agent, at Prairie du Chien, Joseph M. Street, 
that white men had invaded the country of the Winnebagoes. 
He reported the matter to the superintendent of Indian affairs 
at St. Louis (Gen. William Clark), under date of January 
1 5th, 1828, as follows: 

Gen. Dodge with about fifty men, well armed with rifles and prepared for 
any event, is near the English Prairie on a northern branch of Rock river, 
called Piketolika, beyond the lands subject to reservations under the treaty of 
August 24th, 1816. My information is that the Bear, a Winnebago chief, with 
a few followers are at the place, and have sold the privilege to Gen. Dodge. 
Many are flocking to him from Fever river, and he permits them to join upon 
paying certain stipulated portions of the original purchase. The ore is more 
abundant, nearer the surface, and obtained with greater facility than ever 


known in this country. It is said that he has raised about half a million of 
mineral, smelted from 900 to 1000 bars, and is smelting fifty bars a day. With 
two negro men in one place he raises about 2000 pounds per day. What will 
be the effect of these high-handed measures I am at a loss to say. Should the 
tribe disapprove of the bargain of the Bear with Gen. Dodge, mischief might 
ensue. The cupidity of the Indians may also be awakened, and serious diffi- 
culties thrown in the way of any contemplated purchase of this section of the 
country by our Government. Should his removal as a precautionary measure 
be recommended, I have no force adequate to the accomplishment of the 
object, and from a conversation with the commanding officer of the fort here, 1 
a sufficient number could not be prudently detached for the purpose. 

As far as the most active enquiries and acute observation enable me to judge, 
the Winnebagoes are quietly pursuing their winter's hunt. 

On the 26th of January, 1828, the agent wrote that there 
were mutterings of discontent among the Winnebagoes; that 
upon that day a chief (Carumna, the Lame) had said to him: 

We promised not to interrupt the white people at the Fever river mines. 
Then they were digging near the line: now a large camp has gone far into 
our country, and are taking lead where it is easy to be got, and where Indians 
have been making lead many years. We did not expect this, and we want to 
know when this will stop. The hills are covered with them; more are coming, 
and shoving us off our lands to make lead. We want our Father to stop this 
before blood may be shed by bad men. You tell us our Great Father is a 
great chief, and has warriors like the sands on the river side, and that the Win- 
nebagoes ought to be at peace with him and his people; that if they kill his 
white children he will go to war with them, and when they are all killed by 
his great warriors he will take their country. It would be better with the 
Winnebagoes then, than to live and see white men come and take their lands 
while they are living." 

I told him their Great Father lived a long wav off; that he would remove 
those white men when it was told him, if they kept their promise and remained 
at peace. He said: "Well; they would keep their promise." 

The same day the agent sent John Marsh, a sub-agent, to 
notify Gen. Dodge that he must move off instantly, or he 
would be removed by military force. In a communication of 
February yth, 1828, Mr. Marsh reported as follows: 

In obedience to your instructions of the 26th ult., I ascended the Wisconsin 
to the English Prairie, and thence southwardly up the valley of a small river 
which comes in at that place, and arrived at the residence of Gen. Dodge on 
the evening of the fifth day after my departure. Your letter to Gen. Dodge I 
delivered immediately, and I informed him and others who were located in 
that vicinity that I had a communication to read to them from the Indian agent 

l Major John Fowle, 5th U. S. Infantry. 


at Prairie du Chien. The next morning I read your notice to all the principal 
miners. Not being able to discover any indications of an intention to remove 
out of the Indian country, your address was also read and the extracts from 
the treaty therein referred to. 

Gen. Dodge addressed the people, and explained to them his views of the 
subject He insisted principally that there was no definite line of demarcation 
between the lands of the Winnebago Indians and those of the Chippeways, 
Pottawattamies and Ottaways of the Illinois, on which the citizens of the 
United States had a right to dig for lead ore, and that until such line should be 
definitely marked and established it was by no means certain that the place 
where they were was on the lands of the Winnebagoes. 

The remainder of the day was spent in examining the country. Ore is 
found in great abundance near the surface, and in large masses. Few of the 
excavations are more than ten feet deep. The whole country appears to be 
literally full of lead ore, and the labor of obtaining it is trifling. Traces of old 
Indian diggings are found throughout the country for several miles. There 
are also furnaces where the Indians smelted the ore. 

Gen. Dodge resides in a small stockade fort near the principal mine. There 
are about twenty log houses in the immediate vicinity, besides several more 
remote. He has a double furnace in constant operation, and a large quantity 
of lead in bars and in the crude state.. From the best information I have been 
able to obtain there are about one hundred and thirty men engaged in mining 
at this place, and completely armed with rifles and pistols. I was also informed 
that there about fifteen Winnebagoes ten or twelve miles distant who fre- 
quently visit the mines, and who have been presented by Gen. Dodge with 
several hundred dollars worth of provisions and merchandise. When about to 
return, I was desired by Geri. Dodge to inform you that he should leave the 
country as soon as he conveniently could.l 

Immediately upon the receipt of this communication Gen. 
Street called upon the commanding officer at Fort Crawford 
for a detachment :>f one hundred and eighty troops to remove 
the trespassers, who replied that as he had only 147 men in 

1 To other parties Gen. Dodge is reported as saying that he would leave if 
Gen. Street had more guns than he had. The same year Morgan L. Martin 
made an expedition through the mining region, and speaking of it after a lapse 
of fifty-nine years said: "Our first objective point was Dodgeville, where 
Henry Dodge had started a "diggings." We found his cabins surrounded by 
a formidable stockade, and the miners liberally supplied with ammunition. 
The Winnebagoes had threatened to oust the little colony, and were displaying 
an ugly disposition. Dodge entertained us at his cabin, the walls of which 
were well covered with guns. He said that he had a man for every gun, and 
would not leave the country unless the Indians were stronger than he.'' Wis. 
His. Coll. xi. 397. 


his command, and but 130 of them were fit for duty, it would 
be out of his power to comply with the request. Arrange- 
ments were soon in progress by the Government for the pur- 
chase of the lands of the Winnebagoes. Provisional articles 
of agreement were made by Gov. Cass and Pierre Menard, 
commissioners on the part of the United States, with chiefs of 
the Winnebago tribe, at Green Bay, August 25th, 1828. ' In 
prospect of those arrangements Henry Dodge held his ground,, 
and was unmolested. He had built the first smelting furnace 
erected by the whites north of the Illinois state-line. He was 
present at Prairie du Chien, with Henry Gratiot, Antoine 
Le Claire, Zachary Taylor, and other witnesses to the treaty,, 
under which the Winnebagoes sold their lands in the mining 
district to the United States, August ist, 1829. 

From Helena on the Wisconsin river, he shipped lead on 
flat-bottomed boats to New Orleans. Others reshipped on 
steamers at St. Louis; he was the only one who made the 
entire voyage without transfer. The trip took three months 
and a half, and involved peril and hardship. 

In the first settlement of the mining country, those who ob- 
tained permits to mine were not allowed to cultivate the soil, 
so that for several years provisions were scarce, and the ex- 
pense of living was great. When the lands were brought 
into market, he became the purchaser of more than a thousand 
acres, and here w r as his home for nearly forty years. He 
took part in a patriotic celebration of the 4th of July, and 
served as President of the Day, in 1829, at Mineral Point, 
where a discovery of copper had awakened an excitement 
and called many miners to the place. Upon the organi- 
zation of Iowa county, the same year, under an act of the 
Legislative Council of Michigan Territory, setting off that 
part of Crawford county lying south of Wisconsin river, he 
was elected chief justice of the count}-, with Wm. S. Hamil- 
ton and James H. Gentry, associate justices, and held the first 
court in that county. 

The growth of the mining settlements, and their distance 


from the seat of Government at Detroit, the irregular routes 
of travel then pursued making it from 800 to 1000 miles, as 
stated by Gen. Dodge, created a demand for a new territorial 
organization. The business relations of the miners were with 
Illinois and Missouri and the General Government, not with 
the peninsula of Michigan; nor was it to be expected that a 
delegate elected from the peninsula should understand the 
wants of a people so remote and detached as they were. He 
-opened a correspondence upon the subject with the delegate 
to Congress (Austin E. Wing), and laid before him a state- 
ment of the inconveniences and hardships under which the 
people were laboring, and their claims on the National Legis- 
lature for the division of the Territory. Under date of Dodge- 
ville, February loth, 1829, he said: 

Laws should be made to suit the condition of the people over whom they 
are to operate; hence the necessity of a local legislation following a division of 
the Territory. Another strong reason why we should be separated from the 
Territory of Michigan is: We are surrounded by Indians, some friendly, 
others still hostile to the extension of the American empire and to the people 
of this country. A local legislature and a separate government here would 
place the people in a situation to defend themselves, and have the aid of the 
constituted authorities near them. It would be almost impossible to receive 
aid from the peninsula of Michigan. Mounted companies of riflemen would 
be the best arm of defence to afford this country protection. Recent events at 
Rock Island prove' the secret influence that exists over the minds of the 
Indians; 1 and I have no hesitation in saying that so long as that influence 
exists we will have occasional difficulties with the Indians of our borders. 8 

A bill was reported in Congress, January 6th, 1830, to 
establish the Territory of Huron, with boundaries embracing 
what now constitutes the states of Wisconsin, Iowa, Minne- 
sota, a part of the Territory of Dakota, and the upper penin- 
sula of Michigan, but it did not become a law. A somewhat 
similar bill passed the House of Representatives in 1831, but 
not the Senate. 3 

t "The secret influence" came of the communication which the "British band" 
of the Sacs, who were in arms against the United States in the war of 1812, 
still kept up with Canada. Their chiefs were in the habit of visiting Canada, 
and were laden with presents on their return. 

2 His. of Wisconsin, by W. R. 'Smith, i, 430-432. 

3 History of Wisconsin Terri'ory, by Moses M. Strong, p. 187. 


On the nth of July, 1831, Henry Dodge was elected to the 
Fifth Legislative Council of Michigan Territory from the 
counties of Michilmacinac, Brown, Crawford, Chippewa and 
Iowa. His views of public duty at the time were given in a 
letter addressed to the electors. 

JULY 8th, 1831. 

My name being before the public as one of those who have been nominated 
by a meeting of citizens at Green Bay as well as at Mineral Point to represent 
the people of the Seventh Electoral District in the Legislative Council of the 
Territory, I consider it a duty I owe the electors as well as myself to state 
explicitly my views in relation to such measures as have for their object the 
public good, and the course I will pursue if honored with the confidence of my 
fellow citizens. 

The wants and condition of the people west of Lake Michigan in my opinion 
require a speedy division of the Territory and the establishment of a local 
legislature. Laws then can be made suited to the manners, habits, and con- 
dition of the people residing within the limits of the contemplated territory 
The relation we stand to the General Government makes it important to us 
that we should have a direct representation at Washington. Living on the 
United Stands lands and working their lead mines, it becomes a matter of much 
interest to the people of the mining country that the rights of pre-emption 
should be secured to them on the most liberal principles both for the farms 
they occupy as well as their mineral grounds. 

The General Government by its own act has invited the people of the min- 
ing country to immigrate to this country for the express purpose of making 
lead. They are neither squatters nor intruders on the public lands. By their 
enterprise and industry they have fully realized the views of the Government. 
The people of the United States have had an abundant supply of lead made, 
and sold to them cheaper than the manufacturer here could afford to make it. 
The people of the mining country have paid a greater tax, and that directly 
upon the labor of the whole community, than any equal number of citizens of 
the United States, and consequently have stronger claims upon the justice and 
liberality of the Government than any equal number of citrzens who have 
settled on the frontiers. 

Should I be the choice of the electors, on all local subjects the expressed 
wishes of a majority of the people will govern me. I consider the representa- 
tive bound in his individual capacity to do what the people would do in their 
collective capacity, could thev be present. 

Mr. Martin has been recommended to the people of this electoral district for 
the Council. He has the reputation of being a young man of talents and in- 
tegrity. 1 It appears desirable to insure success in our election that we should 

1 Hon. Morgan Lewis Martin, of Green Bay; he died Dec. 10, 1887. To his 
efforts Iowa owes the organization of the original counties of Des Moines and 
Dubuque, under an act of the Legislative Council of Michigan Territory to 


cordially unite with Brown county. Mr. Wing is before the people as a candi- 
date for the Delegacy to Congress. The course he pursued when in Congress, 
in advocating a division of the Territory, was such as the condition of the 
people required. As he truly represented our interests on a former occasion, it 
would seem we might safely trust him again. 

I have been thus explicit that my fellow-citizens may know my views on 
all subjects which I consider of interest to them, not with a view to influence 
them in any way; it is the right of every freeman to judge and act for himself; 
whatever that decision may be as it respects myself, I shall cheerfully acquiesce 

The next winter, in behalf of the people of the mining 
region he prepared a memorial addressed to Hon. Lewis 
Cass, Secretary of War, as follows: 

The undersigned residents of that part of the Territory of Michigan in- 
cluding the lead mine district on the Upper Mississippi respectfully ask leave 
to call your attention to the situation and conditions of the citizens occupying 
the mineral region. 

In conformity to an act of Congress passed in 1807, the president of the 
United States from time to time has appointed agents invested with ample 
powers to lease the United States lead mines. The government of the mines 
having been confided to the War Department, and the rents accruing to the 
United States from working these mines having been regulated by that depart- 
ment, is the reason why your memorialists ask leave to call your attention to 
this subject. 

Your immediate predecessor in office having reduced the rents of the 
United States mines from 10 to 6 per cent, we take it for granted that power 

lay off and organize counties west of the Mississippi river, approved Septem- 
ber 6th, 1834. In a letter to A. C. Dodge, of May 25th, 1883, he recalled "the 
rude log cabin in Dodgeville where Hon. Lucius Lyon and myself were hos- 
pitably entertained, in 1828 by your excellent parents. It seems like a dream. 
I recognize the portly Roman, the saintly wife, the stalwart lads and modest 
daughters, comprising the household, protected in their well-armed fortress 
(block house) from the dangers incident to frontier life; and from that early 
period note the wonderful metamorphosis which time has wrought in the West. 
I recall also the erect figure and proud bearing of your father when he volun- 
teered to guide us on horseback to the recent discoveries of copper ore at 
Mineral Point, and to the pits and shafts in the vicinity of Dodgeville, from 
which his supply of lead ore was hauled to his furnaces, the athletic figures 
of your brother and yourself, youths of some fifteen or eighteen, laboring 
about the smelting works with others engaged around the premises. Nor can 
I forget the appearances of the negro slaves, who clung to your father's family 
even after they were given freedom, as dutiful children dependent for protection 
and daily wants upon a parent." Seini-Centennial of Zoiva, at Burlington, 
pp. 87, 88. 


was properly exercised; and, inasmuch as he held himself at liberty to raise 
the rents by giving three months' notice, we ask your indulgence while we 
briefly state the past and present condition of the mining population. 

The relation in which you stood as the executive of this Territory at the time 
this mining countrv was settled, as well as the appointment you held with Col. 
Menard as joint Commissioners on the part of the United States for treatv with 
the Winnebago and other tribes of Indians, gives you a general knowledge of 
the condition in which the people settled here. It is well known that the 
Government of the United States invited the people to this country through 
their agents at a time when they had no troops on this frontier to afford them 
protection. In 1827, when the Indians commenced hostilities, the inhabitants 
being wholly dependent on themselves for protection abandoned their mining 
operations, and prepared themselves to resist the Winnebago Indians who 
were located in the immediate vicinitv of the mines, and who were actually at 
war. The loss of one season from working the mines, and the expenses in- 
curred by the people during the winter of 1827-8, left them without the means 
of returning whence they had emigrated. In this situation they settled that 
portion of the mining country which they now occupy. In June, 1828, the 
Superintendent of the United States lead mines located that portion of country 
at that time occupied by vour memorialists, and from that period until the ex- 
tinguishment of the Indian title at Prairie du Chien, in 1829, a period of nearly 
fourteen months, and before the Government acquired a right from the Indians 
for the country, the people of the mining country paid upwards of a million 
pounds of rent lead. It is believed that no tax was ever more punctually and 
cheerfully- paid by smelters to the Government. During the administration 
of the present Superintendent two and a half years more tax lead has been 
collected, including arrearages, than the actual rents amounted to for that period. 
Your memorialists state with confidence that they have paid a greater amount 
of taxes, and that a direct tax on the labor of the whole community, than any 
equal number of citizens since the settlement of America; that from 1827 until 
1829 the smelters not only paid ten per cent on all lead manufactured, but 
hauled the rent-lead a distance from forty to sixty miles to the United States 
deposit, at a time w r hen lead was not selling for more than one dollar and fifty 
cents at the United States lead mines. What was the consequence ? The 
entire ruin of many of the manufacturers. The Government of the United 
States received between three and four millions of pounds of rent-lead, and 
the people of the United States an abundant supply of the article of lead upon 
cheaper terms than at any preceding period. The low and depressed price of 
lead was the principal cause, no doubt, that your predecessor reduced the rents 
of the mines,. and as the Government has derived all the advantages that could 
have been anticipated in a aational point of view from the exploration and 
working their mines, and as the manufacturers and miners have not had time 
to realize the advantages resulting from a reaction in the price of lead, your 
memorialists confidently rely on your justice and the liberality of the Govern- 
ment, that they will foster and protect their own manufacturers of lead, to the 
exclusion of those of foreign powers; and as lead is a necessary article in time 
of war, we trust you will carefully examine the subject ii; all its bearings before 


you increase the rent of the lead mines, and that you will urge upon Congress 
the justice and propriety of not changing the present tariff on lead. 

Your memorialists ask leave to call your attention to a subject of great 
interest and vital importance to them. Should the Government pass a law for 
the survey and sale of the United States lead mines of this country upon the 
same principles observed in the sale of their mines in Missouri, we earnestly 
hope you will recommend to the consideration of Congress the justice and 
propriety of granting to each miner who has cotnplied with the regulations 
made for the government of the mines the privilege of working out all dis- 
coveries made on mineral lots or surveys. To sell the mines without making 
this reservation would deprive the most enterprising and industrious part of 
the population of their all. Miners who have had mineral lands in their pos- 
session for years might have them purchased by speculators, and be left with- 
out resource or means, from not having had time to compensate themselves for 
the low prices of mineral, which sold in this mining country for two years from 
five to eight dollars per thousand pounds. 

Your memorialists consider it fortunate for them that you are placed at the 
head of the War Department of the Government, knowing that you are in- 
timately acquainted with all the circumstances attending the settlement of the 
mining country, surrounded as they have been by Indians secretly hostile to- 
the American people as well as under the influence of the English; and the 
friendly regard you evinced for the protection and safety of the citizens of this 
mining region in 1828 is remembered with gratitude. Your memorialists con- 
fidently believe you will render them all the aid in your power consistent with 
the relation you stand to the government. 

To further the objects of this memorial, he also addressed 
letters to a number of members of Congress of like tenor 
with the following: 

Hon. Elias K. Kane, 

United Stafes Senator from Illinois, 
Washington City : 

The interest you have heretofore taken in this remote part of the Territory 
of Michigan, as well as the particular situation of this country, is the reason I 
take the liberty of addressing you at this time. 

The people of the mining country require the fostering protection of the 
General Government. They have not had time since the favorable reaction of 
the price of lead to compensate themselves for their losses. A reduction of the 
present tariff on the importation of foreign lead would completely destroy the 
prospects of the manufacture of lead in this country.. Great as the diversity 
of opinions appears to be on the tariff, it would seem that as lead is a necessary 
and important article in peace and in war the National Legislature should 
examine the subject in all its bearings before they change the tariff on lead. 

The people of this remote region are greatly interested in a division of the 
Territory during this session of Congress. Our relations being entirely with 


the General Government, and the great distance \ve are from the seat of Terri- 
torial Legislature, place the inhabitants here in a most unpleasant situation. We 
have two Councillors elected from five counties. The distance we are from 
Detroit, and having but two representatives out of thirteen which forms the 
Council, makes the representation west of Lake Michigan merely nominal. 
The rapid growth of the peninsula of Michigan, and the interest the people 
have in becoming a state as early as possible, would give us but a feeble 
voice in the Council ; and however talented and zealous the Delegate from 
Michigan may be in representing truly the condition of the people here, 
it is impossible from the distance he resides from us that he can understand 
well the condition of this country. We want a local Legislature here, where 
laws can be enacted suited to the condition of the people. Laws are enacted 
six months before they reach us, and laws enacted for the peninsula of Michi- 
gan do not suit our condition. 

Another strong reason why we should be severed from Michigan is, we are 
surrounded by Indians, some friendly, others secretly unfriendly to the Ameri- 
can people and jealous of the growth of the country. Should they attack us, 
we could derive no advantage from the constituted authorities of Michigan, 
but would have to depend on ourselves for protection. It is true the United 
States have troops on our borders, but we might be taken by surprise, and the 
settlements entirely destroyed before they could give us aid. We want the 
constituted authorities near us, and a proper force of mounted riflemen or gun- 
men, who could be brought together at the shortest notice. This country is 
well adapted to the horse service, and they are able to act promptly and 
efficiently. We are one of the most exposed frontiers of the United States 
and should be entitled to those rights and privileges which have been extended 
to others on the frontier. 

The particular condition of the people of this detached territory of the United 
States must make my apology for the length of this communication. 
I am, dear sir, with sentiments of the greatest regard, 

Sincerely and truly your friend, 


NOTE. Lyman C. Draper, L.L.D., of Madison, Wisconsin, 
has kindly furnished the following additional information as to 
the campaign of General Dodge up the Missouri river in 1814, 
from personal reminiscences given to him by General Dodge 
in 1855: 

There had been considerable mischief done by the Indians at the Boone's 
Lick settlement, where, among others, a man who was a potter by trade had 
been killed; and being the only person of that trade in the region his loss was 
seriously felt. The settlement was too weak to strike any effectual blow in 
turn. General Dodge, then of St. Genevieve, who had been appointed by- 
President Madison the successor of Gen. William Clark in command of the 
militia, when the latter was made Governor of Missouri Territory, waived his 


rank as General, and took the command as Lieut. Colonel of mounted men, 
under orders of Brigadier General Benjamin Howard, U. S. Army, to march 
to the relief of the Boone's Lick settlement, in September, 1814. 

The command consisted of 350 mounted men, under Capt. John W. Thomp- 
son, of St. Louis, Capt. Isaac Van Bibber, of Loutre Lick, Capt. Henry Poston, 
of the Missouri Mining Region, Sarshall Cooper, of the Boone's Lick settle- 
ment, and Capt. Daugherty, of Cape Girardeau. Nathaniel Cook (now, 1855, 
aged and blind, of Potosi, Mo.) and Daniel M. Boone were the Majors; and 
Ben. Cooper, of the Boone's Lick settlement, a veteran of the Indian wars of 
Kentucky, was along; and Gen. Dodge, having some blank com missions with 
him, appointed him a Major, wishing him to serve on account of his experience. 
He was an elder brother of Capt. Sarshall Cooper. David Barton, afterwards 
the celebrated U. S. Senator of Missouri, was a volunteer in Thompson's 
company, refusing any rank, only tendering Gen. Dodge any services he might 
render in the way of aiding him in writing. 

There were also about forty friendly Shawanoes along, under four war 
captains, Na-kour-me, Kish-Kal-le-wa, Pap-pi-qua, Wa-pe-pil-le-se, the two 
latter were fully seventy years old, and had both served in the early Indian 
wars against Kentucky. 

This force crossed the Missouri from the northern to the southern bank at 
the Arrow Rock by swimming the stream. Gen. Dodge selected six of his 
most active men, good swimmers on horseback, for the advance; the others 
followed, flanked by canoes, and in the rear by canoes, as a vanguard above 
and below the main body, stemming the swift current. ' When about half way 
over they struck the strong eddy, which soon wafted them to the southern 
bank in safety. Two hours were consumed in crossing the river with the 
horses, baggage, etc. 

The friendly Shawanoes found and reported the locality of the hostile 
Miamis, who had thrown up a small fort. Dodge's men pushed forward 
several miles up the river, and in the night neared the enemy in what is now 
known as the Miami Bend, in Saline County, and soon surrounded them. 
Ascertaining this fact, the Miamis, knowing it would be folly to resist such 
odds, proposed, through the Shawanoes, to surrender themselves as prisoners. 
Gen. Dodge called a council of his officers, and asked their advice, commenc- 
ing with the Coopers and other Boone's Lick officers. They all advised re- 
ceiving them as prisoners, and that their lives must be sacredly preserved. 
Gen. Dodge told the officers that he should hold them personally responsible 
for their own conduct and that of their men in this particular. 

The Indians now formallv surrendered, 31 warriors, and 122 women and 
children, 153 in all. 

The next morning, while Capt. Cooper and others were scouring around in 
search of hidden property, the Captain found the well known rifle of the poor 
potter slain in the Boone's Lick region ; and in rage he came galloping to Gen. 
Dodge, and demanded the surrender of the Indian who had murdered the 
potter, to make an example of him. Gen. Dodge peremptorily declined, when 
Cooper threatened in behalf of his company, who were dashing up on their 
horses, to kill the whole of the Indians; and hh men as by common consent 


cocked their rifles in shooting attitude. The Indian warriors seeing the 
threatening aspect threw themselves upon their knees, and, crossing their 
breasts rapidly and repeatedly, uttered earnest prayers to the Great Spirit, or 
rather to the sun, then just rising in its morning splendor. Gen. Dodge, 
hearing the clicking of the locks of the rifles of the Boone's Lick men, and 
fearing the consequences, but without ever turning towards them, drew his 
sword, and thrust its point within six inches of Capt. Cooper's breast, dnd, 
reminding him of his pledge to protect the Indians in their surrender, said that 
he would never consent to their being slaughtered in cold blood, and that if 
Cooper's men fired on them Capt. Cooper himself should instantly suffer the 

At this critical moment, Major Daniel M. Boone came dashing up to Gen. 
Dodge's side, and said that he would stand by him to the last; and he taunted 
Cooper with the treachery of the act he proposed. Dodge was firm, never 
taking his eye from Cooper's. Boone presented a determined countenance, as 
brave men always do when actuated by noble purposes. At length Cooper 
yielded, and Dodge ordered him to take his place in the line, and march away. 
He doggedly obeyed, and his men rode by. The Indians now jumped to their 
feet with expressions of joy and gratitude to Dodge and Boone. The 
Shawanoes, too, were much gratified that the Miamis were spared. 

Kish-Ka-le-wa visited Gen. Dodge at Fort Leavenworth. in 1835, and 
recognized his old commander. 

Gen. Dodge looks back upon his conduct in saving these prisoners as one of 
the happiest acts of his life. 





IT was in 1811 or 1812 when England held the right 
of search upon the high seas, that the father of 
the writer chanced to be a passenger on board of 
an American merchant vessel on Lake Erie, on 
which vessel were two deserters from the British army making 
their way to the United States to seek protection under the 
stars and stripes, and become citizens in the land of the free 
and home of the brave. They were cheerful, with hearts 


buoyant with the hope of soon reaching their haven of safety, 
when all of a sudden their star of hope was obscured by a 
cloud of despair, and they soon were brought to realize the 
frailty of human hopes as they espied in the distance a British 
man-of-war making for them. At the rapid rate she was 
traveling she would soon overhaul the American, and instead of 
their landing in the land of the free their lifeless bodies would 
dangle at the yard-arms of His Majesty's man-of-war. And 
as the vessel neared them the chances for escape seemed less 
hopeful. The deserters became frantic with alarm; they 
urged the captain to resist search and they would stand by 
him to death. The captain assured them that would be folly, 
as he would endanger the lives of his crew, likewise his vessel 
and cargo, and that he was not prepared to resist an armed 
man-of-war, but he would do the best he could for them. 
The captain at once took them down into the cabin where my 
father was lying sick upon a bed. The deserters were told 
to lie down upon the floor side by side, which they quickly did, 
and the bed with my sick father was hurriedly laid upon them, 
completely hiding them from sight. This was scarcely ac- 
complished when a shot was fired from the British man-of- 
war across the bow of the American vessel commanding her 
to haul to be searched, which order was obeyed. The crew 
were assembled on deck, and as the man-of-war neared the 
American ship, she threw out her grappling irons and drew 
the ship up within boarding distance. The British officer then 
demanded the number of passengers. The American captain 
informed him that they were all' on deck except a sick man 
in the cabin. The British officer then stepped aboard and 
after closely scrutinizing the passengers and crew on deck pro- 
ceeded to the cabin. Passing down the steps about half way 
he halted and tpok a survey of the apartment, when he in- 
quired of the sick man the nature of his illness, where he was 
from, etc., doubtless to ascertain his dialect and more fully 
satisfy himself, all of which was apparently satisfactory. He 
returned to the deck, where another hasty inspection of all 


aboard took place, which doubly assured the searcher that 
there were no deserters aboard. He returned to his own 
ship, spread sail and to the great relief of all on board the 
American vessel, especially the two bed-ridden Britains, who 
had been vibrating, as it were, between life and death, and 
whose star of hope now began to emerge from the cloud of 
despair that had so nearly obscured it. They could not be 
persuaded to leave their concealment until fully assured that 
their pursuers were at a safe distance, when they shook off 
their bed-rider and came forth like new-born souls. With 
their cup of joy full, and like him who had found his lost 
sheep, they called in their neighbors to rejoice with them. 
They doubtless were more profuse in their demonstrations of 
joy then he who found the lost sheep, regarding their lives of 
more value than many sheep, and as they cast their eyes over 
the rolling billows of the trackless waters in search of their 
pursuers they fully realized the fact that distance lends en- 
chantment to the view. Without further molestation they 
were soon after landed upon American soil with grateful ex- 
pressions of gratitude for their safe deliverance. 

Many years after the invalid, who was the means of their 
concealment, chanced to meet one of them in central Ohio; 
the meeting was a mutual surprise. The English deserter 
still showed as warm and grateful a heart as the day when 
he was rescued from what he regarded certain death. 

Raphael Hardenbrook, the subject of this anecdote, de- 
serves a record among the many brave and heroic men of the 
past who periled their lives, their all, for the liberty that we 
now enjoy and so highly prize. Thousands of names to-day, 
with their thrilling deeds and noble acts, rest in oblivion, all for 
the want of laborers in the historic field to gather rich 
treasures that would embellish volumes of historic interest, 
and open a field for the lover of history in which to roam and 
gather sparkling treasures that would stimulate his own soul 
to nobler deeds. There are yet some that can be rescued 
from the glimmering and hazy past that will add luster to the 


bright wreaths that encircle the names and heroic deeds of our 
noble sires. Raphael Hardenbrook was a friend of my father, 
and frequently visited his house. His genial and social quali- 
ties made him a welcome guest. He was a man of marked 
and impressive manner over the average height compact 
build, bold, decisive and firm a stranger to fear; he was 
suave and affable, and thought by many to resemble in some 
respects the heroic Ethan Allen, and doubtless did in courage, 
if in nothing else. He was a soldier of the war of 1812 with 
Great Britain. It was during this year that he was captured 
by the British and held a prisoner for some weeks. When 
and where he was captured I now do not remember. He 
often referred to it as one of the most prominent epochs in his 
history. He often related many incidents of interest of the 
war, especially of his prison life, one of which I will here 
relate, and which goes to show the fearless and courageous 
character of the man. 

The British officers where he was confined or held as a 
prisoner would frequently order the Yankee prisoner (Harden- 
brook) brought to their quarters for the purpose of question- 
ing him as to the strength and situation of the American forces 
and doubtless for their own amusement in part. On one inter- 
view his captors boasted of their strength, their superior mili- 
tary skill, their noted statesmen, lords and generals, etc., and 
thus tried forcibly to impress the prisoner with the futility of 
the United States attempting to carry on a war with England, 
a power with whom she could not cope. This bombastic 
egotism only thrilled the heroic Hardenbrook with bitter in- 
dignation, which was soon made unmistakably manifest to 
the boastful Britons. They had no sooner ended their 


braggadocio buncombe, than the dauntless Hardenbrook rose 
to his feet, with his flashing eyes fixed upon his captors, and 
stretching his athletic frame to its full height, he brought down 
his clenched fist in an emphatic manner and in a thundering 
tone still more emphatic that startled the whelps of the 
British lion, he said, "well, gentlemen, I want you to under- 


stand that we have on our side Lord God Almighty, Lord 
Jesus Christ and Andrew Jackson, and I'll be d d if we can- 
not whip the whole of you." For this reply he expected to 
receive a severe punishment. But said he, "to my surprise 
they laughed heartily and took it good naturedly, and quizzed 
me no further," and he was regarded as the lion of the camp, 
with additional privileges during the remainder of his cap- 



|T the edge of a great prairie, in the heart of Iowa, 
two country roads crossed at right angles. "Here," 
said my father, "is the place; here I will build my 
home." To be exact, it was in 1841 that my 
father, an excellent mechanic, with a small income and a large 
family, was seized with the fever to go west. The west 
meant Illinois and Iowa in those davs; Detroit, even, was a 
western town; and as for Chicago, it was a barren prairie, 
where the wolves still howled at night. We left our pretty 
little home in Pennsylvania in that spring, steamed down the 
Allegheny to Pittsburgh, and then bv the Ohio and Mississippi 
rivers to Burlington. There had been tremendous rains, and 
the great Father of Waters was not onlv a river it was a sea, 
reaching for many miles beyond its banks, inundating farms, 
highways and villages. At Burlington the stream was seven 
miles \vide, sweeping through woods and over bottom lands, 
while the houses and fences floating off were a picture of 
what must have happened when Xoah entered the ark. One 
night, after we had been living in Burlington for a month, the 
mighty river took another rise, and morning found the ferry- 
boat inside our door-yard. It had come to rescue us. The 

* Reprinted from the Chicago Interior of August Sth, 1889. 


lower story of our house was three feet deep in water, and 
for all I know that next night saw the edifice floating sea- 

The incident determined my father on moving on; he would 
buy some ox teams, leave towns and rivers, and go to the real 
west, the place he had started for. "Yes," said he, after 
much meandering over prairies woodless as the desert, "here 
is the place I started for; here I will build my home." 
Our two covered wagons were parked together and our four 
yokes of oxen and two yokes of cows were let loose to find a 
richer support on the abundant prairie grass. The cross 
roads were five miles from a school house, and, aside from two 
or three homes near us, only a rude western house here and 
there, like a dot on the sea of prairie, was anywhere to be seen. 
My father and I had hauled coarse plank ten miles with our 
oxen, and a house, not ruder than its distant neighbors, soon 
gave us shelter. 

Now commenced the incidents of our western life. How 
cold that first winter was! The snow was deep, and the 
frozen crust would bear a man. It helped to give us our 
meat, however. Droves of deer were abundant, and at times, 
almost starving, they would wander close to the little hay 
stacks. Chased by the dogs (of which my father kept a 
dozen, one for each member of the family), they would 
attempt to escape, flounder over the deep snow, break through 
the frozen crust, and fall an easy prey to dog or gun. The 
finest of venison was to be had for the taking. Prairie 
chickens were even more abundant than the deer, and we 
boys trapped enough to have fed a regiment. We hauled our 
fire-wood five miles on a sled that winter, and the shot-gun 
was as constant a companion on these trips to the woods as 
the ox-whip. Besides feeding the oxen and keeping the fires 
going, nothing could be done. It was too cold, the mercury 
often standing at twenty or thirty degrees below zero. 

The great event each week at our cross roads was the 
coming of the mail boy. He rode twenty-six miles through 


storm or blizzard, every Tuesday, and his coming was the 
sign for every neighbor to gather in at Robert Allen's, get the 
letters and talk over the news. All that was in the time of 
Franklin Pierce ; and it was a bitter pill for democratic Robert 
Allen to sort over and hand out to his Whig neighbors copies 
of the New York Tribune or the Abolitionist Liberator of 
William Lloyd Garrison. The weekly mail had been a new 
thing on the prairie, for the settlers of the year before got an 
occasional letter or newspaper only as some neighbor or emi- 
grant might happen to come from Burlington or Keokuk, sixty 
miles away. Months often passed, and not a letter from friends 
anywhere. The establishing of this little weekly mail, there- 
fore, had been an event equal in importance to the opening 
of a great railroad nowadays. 

It was an odd life we were all living a frontier life ; but not 
the frontier life of to-day. Railroads did not carry all the 
comforts of life and many of its luxuries right up to our door, 
as they now do for the frontier man of Colorado or Arizona. 
The words "out west" had a different meaning those days. 
There was not a mile of railroad in the state af Iowa, rarely 
a wagon road. A telegraph would have been a miracle. 
Even an occasional stage line was the wonder of the more 
thickly settled and more eastern counties. Flour mills were 
fifty to eighty miles away, and it usually required a week's 
traveling and waiting for even a small grist. But our neces- 
sities and hardships possibly made us more self-reliant, possiblv 
more courageous. Our roads were often but tracks over the 
prairies, sometimes only old buffalo trails hedged in by myriads 
of wild flowers, that, stirred by the summer's wind, colored the 
endless waves of tall grass lifting and falling as far as the eye 
could reach. There were no bridges across the sloughs and 
the streams; but, as if by instinct, man and horse knew the 
shallowest places and safest fords. And the boys were as 
self-reliant as the men and almost as capable of exertion. 

Once the mother at our home was taken ill. Doctors were 
distant, and the father was adding to his slender means by 


working in a town forty miles away. " Bring father quick," 
was the cry; and there was nothing to do but for the oldest 
lad to unhitch a horse from the corn plow and gallop over the 
prairies. Night found him at the banks of the Iowa river, then 
a swollen, rapid stream. The ferryman refused to leave his 
bed before daylight. "But mother is dying out on the prairie." 
No matter; the ferryman would not stir. In a moment horse 
and boy plunged into the river and in the darkness swam to 
the other side. The father was found. Before daylight the 
two had again crossed the stream, and noon of that day saw 
them at the sick one's bedside, the boy none the worse for his 
jaunt of eighty miles and his midnight bath. 

These hardships had their compensating features, too, in 
adventure, which all boys love. Going ten or fifteen miles on 
horseback to the nearest corn-mill was no great task for a 
boy, then. Such incidents were not uncommon; and once I 
recall how, when a neighbor lad and myself were poking 
along toward the woods of Crooked Creek with a grist of 
corn, a splendid deer bounded from the woods to the path in 
front of us. He was pursued by the barking hounds, and this 
unexpected meeting frightened him to whirl about and spring 
into the rapid stream. Instantly we boys were after the game. 
One crossed on a tree bending over the stream higher up, and 
with a club drove the deer back to the first bank. Here the 
other lad met him with another club, and another pounding 
over the head. Back and forth from bank to bank swam the 
noble game till, exhausted with clubs and effort, he was 
dragged out on the shore. Had we boys killed an elephant 
in Africa, we would not have been more proud. For ten 
miles we walked and held that great red buck with the 
splendid antlers across our horses' back, and for a month we 
were the heroes of all the cross-roads neighborhood. 

There were no Indians, except tame ones, near us. The 
reservation was a little farther west, but many were the inci- 
dents our neighbors met with who went up to the new lands, 
when the Indians were to be taken off and the free land thrown 


open to settlement. The "New Purchase" the government 
had made from the Indians had its east line some little distance 
below what is now the beautiful town of Oskaloosa. It was 
occupied by the Sac and Fox Indians. It was a lovely land, 
too, with rich prairies covered with millions of flowers, beauti- 
ful woods skirting its narrow streams, and an abundance of 
wild honey and good game. The Indians had driven the 
buffaloes away, but droves of deer remained, and wild 
turkeys, prairie chickens, quails and rabbits were there in 
millions. The noble elk was also seen frequently, and some- 
times the brown bear made the woods dangerous enough 
to smack of adventure. There was no end to the prairie 
wolves, and wild cats as big as dogs haunted the woods 
along the streams. Bees, the pioneers of civilization, were 
there in astounding numbers, and the vast quantities of 
honey secured by the settlers later are almost beyond belief. 
It was collected by tubsful and barrelsful. One of the settlers 
brought in three barrelsful in a single day, and it served all 
the purposes of sugar. This was the goodly land the people 
were to go up to, and possess. 

The Indians were quiet, and were to move off peaceably at 
midnight of May i, 1843. A company of United States 
dragroons watched the frontier, to keep the whites off until 
the hour when they might enter and stake off the land the 
law allowed them to claim for purchase. All sorts of ruses 
were adopted by the whites to be first onto the land and 
to get the choicest locations. Their adventures have afforded 
tales for the firesides of the older states to the present hour 
how, by the light of the moon, that May night, men sprang 
from their hiding places near to the line, and hurriedly drove 
stakes about the farms that were to be; how two friends 
would start measuring off a field, running in opposite direc- 
tions, and firing a gun at each corner; how, before that May 
night, men had hidden about the frontier for weeks, avoiding 
the watchful dragoons, and yet spying out the land; how they 
perched in thick tree tops and longingly looked over the 


border; how, on a time, some of them in their high perches 
quarreled as to the spot of land either could take, climbed 
down to the ground, fought out their fight with their fists, 
and were in the trees again silent as owls when the dragoons 
appeared. Some of those settlers, in this year of grace, 1889, 
still live on the land claims thus made, and sitting by their fire- 
sides, hear the roar of the railway trains passing their door 
yards, and the church bells, and the hum of a busy town over 
the very spot where in the forties they staked their claims off 
among the prairie flowers and the waving grass. 

Once on the "Purchase," and the new. strange life was 
repeated. My father, soon tiring of the tameness and the few 
comforts of our first prairie home, " moved on." We, too, 
were shortly upon the "Purchase," and built our cabin on the 
very spot where but so recently had stood the Indian's wig- 
wam. There was not much trouble about making a farm in 
those early days. We had the virgin soil and what a prolific 
soil it was, and w^hat a sensation it was to turn the great thick 
sod, covered with its rich grass and myriads of flowers, under 
for the first time! On this new mother earth we planted "sod 
corn," the best that ever grew; and the melons, squashes and 
pumpkins grown on that first land eclipsed all later rivals of 
hothouse or county fair. Breaking prairie was a labor, once 
performed, never to be forgotten. The great strong plow, 
with its big sharp coulter; the sturdy oxen, six and seven 
yokes of them in a string, and sometimes a yoke of cows, 
hitched to the seven-foot plow beam, made a team that it was 
a pride to handle. And the great long ox whip, who of that 
day will ever forget it ? The youth who could swing that 
mighty whip, making ten great cracks inquick succession, or 
cut the gad fly from off the leader, was a provisional king of 
the prairie. Woe to the lad who handled that thirty-foot 
whip for the first time. The laugh was sure to be on him, 
for, with the first swing, the stalk would bend, the buckskin 
cracker fly in a knot and the lash encircle his neck like an 


As to snakes, there were plenty of them. The rattlesnake 
is too noble to bite without warning, and a sound of his rattle 
in the grass at our feet would cause us to bound into the air 
as if struck by a cyclone. We never neglected that rattle; 
but if unluckily, the deep-poisoned fangs of the serpent struck 
a man or boy, he was carried to the house, the wound sucked 
of its poison, and washed with good strong whisky a curative 
that was seldom failing in any well-regulated frontier home. 
The poor oxen were bitten oftener than the men, and result- 
ing death was not uncommon. 

Breaking prairie became a business, and young men with 
crack teams went from farm to farm, or section to section, to 
break up the new soil. Not infrequently they undertook the 
breaking of immense tracts far out on the prairie, and miles 
away from habitations. They took their cooking kits with 
them, and their shotguns brought them their breakfasts of 
grouse or quail. 

The farmers' fields, when inclosed at all, were universally 
surrounded by rail fences, and these were in perpetual danger 
of being burned by the raging prairie fires that came every 
autumn. What gorgeous spectacles these autumn prairie 
fires were! Often, in the dusk of the October evenings, the 
farmer and his family would notice red lights in the far-off 
horizon. "Look out for prairie fires to-night," the farmer 
would exclaim, with the same uneasiness with which he would 
give warning of a coming storm. No storm, indeed, was 
dreaded so much, for many and many a farmer on the prairie 
lost all he had when the red fire scourge was galloping over 
the billowy expanse, a mighty and sudden destruction to crops 
and stacks and barns and homes. How often has the writer 
been called out of bed at midnight, to join his neighbors, men, 
women and children, to fight the prairie fires surely making 
in our direction. Hurriedly we would make firebrands and 
burn off narrow strips of prairie between ourselves and the 
coming fiend. Armed with brooms made of hazelbrush, we 
could control these little counter-fires of our own starting, and 


frequently turn the direction of the coming wave. Again, we 
were too late or too weak, and the sea of fire leaped over our 
burned-out strips, jumped the narrow neck of plowed furrows 
that universally were made in front of every prairie farm as a 
protection, and, spite of every endeavor, burned up fences 
and crops. 

Despite the danger, what a spectacle it was! Around us 
the midnight darkness, at our side our homes and worldly 
gear, in front of us a fearful line of fire, miles in length a 
sea of flame, crackling and roaring as it rapidly neared us, its 
hot breath threatening destruction to all we had. I know 
nothing like it, unless it could be a high sea surf, its breast on 
fire, rushing and roaring landwards and suddenly stopping at 
the beach. The prairie chicken and quails, frightened from 
their grassy nests, would fly from the coming flames in droves. 
Sometimes the counter-fires set by the farmers would change 
the direction of the coming storm, and it would roar past us 
like a railroad train. Sometimes these same counter-fires 
caused the flaming grass to burn in immense circles, capturing 
in their fiery arms herds of deer that had huddled closer 
and closer as the circle lessened, finally burning them to death. 
What a splendid zest to life these excitements gave us, in 
spite of the dangers ! Nowhere in life have I had such 
romance, excitement, fierce joy and adventure as in fighting 
the midnight prairie fires from my father's farm. Even to-day 
I would travel a hundred miles to witness a prairie fire, to see 
a sea of flame and experience the wild excitement of those 
times long gone. 

It was a unique life we led in the frontier days. Our houses 
were built of logs, rarely of plank, and, though small, they 
were big enough for a hospitality worthy of palaces. It was 
no uncommon experience to see a dozen strangers stretched 
out for the night on the floor of my father's cabin. If too 
many happened along to get in, they slept in their wagons 
and took their meals at the table free of charge. Many of 
the cabins along the roadside became inns, whether from 


choice or by the force of circumstances. The charges, when 
charges were made, were very small. Twelve cents for a 
dinner, and what a dinner! The best of corn bread, with 
milk and butter, wild honey, wheat coffee, crab apple butter, 
wild turkey, quails, venison, and, with it all, a dessert of right 
good cheer. The big fire-places in the cabins were built of 
sod, and by their ample hearths I have heard, from wandering 
pilgrims, tales truer than the "Tales of a Wayside Inn." It 
was at such firesides in the early day that the itinerant lawyer, 
the great Lincoln, lovingly lingered, catching from his own 
stones the inspiration that rendered him immortal. 

Of school houses we had almost none. One, however, I 
recall, because it was the first almost in the "New Purchase." 
It. was a log edifice, with a great sod chimney and open fire- 
place: a puncheon floor and puncheon seats for the bovs and 
girls. The windows were made by leaving a log out, the full 
length of the house, and covering the space with oiled paper 
instead of window glass. Our teacher, the daughter of a 
farmer, "boarded round," and received about a dollar a term 
for each pupil. No two of our school books, except our 
testaments, were alike, and what we boys failed to learn in the 
old log school house we tried to make up nights as we lay 
stretched on the floor in front of the old fire-place at the 
house. It was up-hill business, though, for my father's hospi- 
tality to passing strangers left little room on our cabin floor. 
Often these passing guests were persuaded to take a farm near 
our own, and so, new neighbors came around, new dots 
sprang up on the prairie, and in ten years, the cross-roads had 
become a village with a church-spire and a mill. 

There had not been much going to church in the early days. 
Here and there the neighbors would gather at some farm 
house, read the Bible and pray, or at times an itinerant 
preacher would stop over, hold a service, and baptize the 
children. Oxen were often used for the Sundav excursions 


to the improvised church, and even at funerals, when some 
neighbor was laid away in the lonesome grove that served as 


the burial place in lieu of cemetery. A cavalcade of men on 
horseback and wagons drawn by oxen was no uncommon 
sight. Horses were rapidly bred, and the farmers' girls were 
as daring riders as the boys. It was, in fact, a reproach to be 
a poor horseman, or a bad shot with the rifle. At the many 
"turkey shootings," the "quiltings," the "house-raisings," and 
the "wood-choppings," the hero of the hour was sure to be 
the most daring rider. Other opportunities for coming to- 
gether were the country weddings and the infairs, where fun 
and good eating made merry the young folks' lives. 

The times have changed and the face of the big prairie has 
changed. Hundreds of artificial groves relieve the landscape, 
and the many towns, with spire and steeple, electric lights and 
puffing engines, little remind one of what the West looked like 
in the "forties." 









ARCELLUS M. CROCKER was a native of 
Indiana, born in February, 1830, came to Iowa 
with his father's family in 1844 and settled in the 
then frontier village of Fairfield, Jefferson county. 
In the first year of the history of Iowa as a state, young 
Crocker was appointed a cadet at West Point and was prob- 
ably the first representative of the young state in that institu- 
tion. He remained a student there for t\vo years; was called 


home by the death of his father and compelled to remain 
there in order to take up the burden and battle of life laid 
down by his natural protector. He at once became the guar- 
dian of and breadwinner for his mother and sisters. Early in 
life he became a lawyer, and at the age of 25, in the year 
1854, ne settled in Des Moines; from that time until his death 
in 1865, he was a prominent figure in the affairs of the state. 
In accord with the practige of the times he rode the district 
with the judge of the court, and was sometimes seen far up 
in northern Iowa with the celebrites of those days, such as 
Col. Elwood, D. O. Finch, "Timber Wood," Enoch W. East- 
man and others. Young Crocker was recognized as among 
the first lawyers. When the war broke out, Crocker re- 
sponded to the president's call by raising the first military 
company in Iowa which was incorporated in the Second Iowa 
Infantry, of which he was the first major. In September, 
1 86 1, he was promoted lieutenant colonel, and on October 
2oth was commissioned a colonel and given command of the 
Thirteenth Regiment. From that day to his death the history 
of Iowa in the war without Crocker, would be like the play 
of "Hamlet" with Hamlet left out. It may fairly be said 
that Crocker, as well as his famous brigade, is an Iowa pro- 
duction. Indiana gave him birth; Iowa nurtured, educated 
and trained him. It is of the Iowa of thirty years ago, the 
Iowa from which came the men of these regiments, that I 
desire to- hold up to you for comparison with the Iowa of to- 
day, in order that the younger men may appreciate the gran- 
deur of the history of the state. 

In 1860 the population of Iowa was 674,913; of these 
354,493 were males and 320,420 were females. In 1863, 
about the middle of the war period, the population had in- 
creased to 701,093, but in these three years the number of 
males had increased but 514, while the number of females had 
increased 25,666, making thetotals 355,007 males. and 346,086 
females. January i, 1861, the number of men subject to mili- 
tary duty in Iowa was 116,034. In 1863 the number had 
fallen to 91,147. During the war 78,059 men were enlisted 
for service and bore arms in defense of the Union, being 
almost sixty-eight per cent of the number subject to military 
duty in 1861. To-day there are in Iowa upwards of two 
millions of people. Should this state be called upon for 
troops, and should she respond as in 1861/1862 and 1863, 


what an army she would send forth. It would mean a quarter 
of a million soldiers. 

One of the best sentiments ever penned is from old Gover- 
nor Eastman, one of Iowa's pioneers and noblest men. He 
said of Iowa : "The affections of her people, like the rivers of 
her borders, flow to an inseparable Union." Grand Iowa! 
situated midway of the continent in the valley of its two 
greatest rivers; one washing its eastern, the other its v. eslern 
border. It contains 55,056 square miles of the best land of 
the earth. Surely there is no other area of equal extent that 
is so good for the home of man. Within fifty years it has 
been transformed from a wilderness to one of the greatest 
states in the Union. Fifty years ago the site of the Capitol 
building of your state, that magnificent monument of your 
thrift, industry and honesty, was an Indian camp, the home of 
the barbarian who has passed away. What a grand advance, 
all made in the space of an ordinary life! 'The affections of 
this people for the Union of our fathers was attested by the 
giving of so large a per cent of them to the service of the 
country; and Iowa stands to-day without a peer or rival in the 
annals of this nation, for heroic, faithful service to it. We have 
come to your beautiful city on the western border of this state 
to meet in reunion the men of Iowa's most famous military 
organization, "Crocker's Brigade." What a hold that name 
has on us ! what a flood of memories come rushing on the 
mind as we stand face to face with those who stood shoulder 
to shoulder with us in those days, now long ago; in those 
days of youth when life was one bright and buoyant hope of 
the future; days, months and years have run into a quarter of 
a century; now we live in memory of the past. We meet 
that we may take each other by the hand and again feel that 
electric thrill that stirs the blood and rouses emotions, only felt 
when tried and true comrades meet. 

Crocker's Brigade! I have said Iowa's most illustrious 
military organization I might have said more, as the army 
of the nation has not produced your equal in length of united 
service. I do not propose to recount your exploits; they 
are embalmed in the pages of history; let those who doubt, 
scan diligently those pages; they wall search in vain for a 
brigade which has written its name in more shining letters on 
the roll of honor than you; search where you will and you 
cannot find the four regiments that through more months 


stood united as one, were wielded as one, which has placed 
more names on the roster of immortal heroes, which stood 
more firm, more determined, and more united in its defense of 
national union. The war of the revolution created the Union. 
The war of the rebellion preserved it and made it perpetual. 
It was the fulfillment, the realization of the hope, which has 
steadily glowed in the bosom of patriots of all ages. The 
fire that burned in the eloquence of Demosthenes, that 
warmed the blood of the Gracchi against the tyrants of 
Rome; which in unhappy Poland emitted its last feeble spark, 
when Kossuth was an exile and Kosciusko a martyr; which 
was smothered in Ireland when Emmet fell from the scaffold: 
which was kindled by Washington in a new land, and has at 
length found an altar amidst its worshippers where it shall burn 
forever upon the free soil of America; nowhere more potent 
in its sway than in Iowa, the home of the free school, the 
modern home of all benefits that educated temperate industry 
will bring. Iowa as a state was but fifteen years of age in 
1861. " In that period she had systemized her internal affairs, 
founded her institutions of charity and learning, had laid the 
foundation of all that she is to-day. But fifteen years upon 
the plain of history, until she was called upon to aid the nation 
in a struggle for life. The call was made to this young state 
to buckle on the armor of war to meet rebellious force not 
unlike an irruption of nature. Volcanic irruptions in nature 
produce great peaks, mountains and hills; thus the plain is 
broken, the valley formed and the landscape made beautiful. 
Men go forward in the daily and common walks of life and 
they are as the common plain; revolutions come, the plain is 
broken, great men are found equal to the great emergency. 
The history of the nation is enriched by the record of its 
strong men and good women, a biography of the men who 
stepped to the front, who filled the breach in the ramparts, 
and either in the forum or on the field upheld its cause. Thus 
history goes on repeating itself because man, the maker of it, 
is much the same yesterday, to-dav, and forever. 

A little more than a hundred years ago, along the Atlantic 
coast the sires of this generation were living as colonists of 
Great Britain as on a plain; they lived without prominent 
features or great character. The rights of man demanded a 
change in the system of government, a revolution; then were 
found those equal to the emergency, and the men who formu- 


lated and signed the declaration of their rights became the 
prominent characters of the struggle which followed. They 
called to their aid a plain and unassuming Virginia planter, who 
in qualities of statesmanship, as a leader of men, either on. the 
field of battle or in the halls of government, was the equal of 
any man of his time; in honesty and fidelity to the trust im- 
posed upon him, he stood the peer. He led his people to 
victory, he secured unity, peace and stable government. He 
surrendered almost imperial power to those who gave it. 
Washington abhorred war in all its forms, yet for love of 
country and of home, he was willing to sacrifice himself and 
all that was dear to him in life to promote the well being of 
his fellow men. The plain of existence was broken for the 
colonies. It was as if an irruption of volcanic nature had 
taken place; men for every emergency had been found. 
Great and prominent characters in history had been produced 
and the name of George Washington was immortal. He was 
the central figure of the history of the country, the mighty 
peak in nature. The nation he and his compeers had created, 
under the guidance of God, was the one to which the op- 
pressed and down-trodden of all the world turned their long- 
ing eyes. 

If you travel to the East you will find that nature at some 
remote period of the past has heaped up a chain of mountains 
at from one to three hundred miles from the Atlantic coast. 
Let those peaks and mountains represent the prominent 
characters and soldier element of the revolution. Nature and 
history stand side by side. For three-quarters of a century 
the nation passed on, grew, flourished in the arts of peace, 
extended its borders, increased its area and its products, ad- 
vanced in literature, the sciences and in manufacture, and 
became the granary and storehouse of the world. Its fleets 
were upon every sea, and its ships were in every port. It 
humbled Great Britain and conquered Mexico, but these were 
mere episodes, mere ripples on the surface of the plain of 
history which we were yet to make. 

The slave-holders' revolt the revolution of 1861 was an 
event in the affairs of the nation and of the world, against 
which there is no comparison in the history of men; and none 
in nature save that irruption which cast up the great mountain 
chain of the West. For every peak and mountain of that 
vast chain I can find you a prominent figure in the history of 


the rebellion. In years gone by many people traversed the 
plains which extend from your door to the westward. They 
journeyed toward the golden shores of the Pacific; they 
traveled in the primitive way, with trains of oxen. The road 
was long and tedious. Many weary nights the sun sunk beyond 
the horizon of the billowy plain; many mornings they saw 
him rise behind them to usher in another long day of toil; the 
road was beset by savage foes by night and by day; the 
weary days ran into months, when some bright morning as 
they passed over a gentle and undulating hill in the vast 
prairie, there burst upon their vision their first view of the 
mountains. They seemed to stand there, a great incompre- 
hensible mass like a low tying bank of clouds along the hori- 
zon, dark and threatening. The weary pilgrims pause and 
gaze at the grand spectacle, and then slowly journey on. 
They approach nearer and nearer, the outlines become more 
distinct, the blended mass assumes form, foot-hills come into 
full view covered with grass and trees; mighty peaks further 
on become distinct, and finally stand out clearly defined in 
their awful grandeur. The line above which nature ceases to 
clothe with verdure is now seen, above which is the region of 
perpetual snow. They have traversed the level plain of the 
history of the country covering the three-fourths of a century 
from 1785 to 1860. They are in the midst of the mighty 
events of the rebellion. They pause to view the mighty pro- 
cession of prominent figures and characters that those events 
brought to the surface and into historical renown. First they 
bow their heads in silent admiration of the beauty of those 
undulating and billowy foot-hills stretching away into the 
distance north and south and far out into the plain in countless 
thousands. These mounds to them represent the unnumbered 
thousands of smaller mounds scattered all over the land under 
each of which lies a hero, denoting a life sacrificed upon the altar 
of country, a hero that returned not to receive the rewards of 
a brave man. Our band of pilgrims enters the passes, goes 
up and through the great canyons and gorges; around and 
above them for thousands of feet the chasm in this wall 
of rock extends. Wearily and watchfully, they wend their 
way onward toward the pass, the only place offering an 
opportunity to go through and beyond this great wall made 
by the upheaval of nature. At length they have reached the 
goal and stand in the opening or pass between the peaks. 


They halt and turn to gaze upon the grand scene presented 
to their view. They stand in Fremont's pass of the main 
chain of mountains or continental divide. Mountains and 
peaks are around and about them in every direction, and in 
every form of rugged grandeur as far as human vision can 
extend. They are in the midst of the most magnificent scenes 
of nature. They are in the midst of the most magnificent 
characters of the war of rebellion. That great chain of 
mountains extending from the northern limits of this country 
to its southern, represents the men, who in the freshness of 
early manhood, who, abhorring war, with its terrors, with all 
its resounding glory, dared all its perils for the love of home 
and country. 

First are the men who bore the musket. Upon their 
shoulders was the weight and burden of saving their country; 
upon their heads the weight of responsibilities. It was they 
who marched by night and by day, by daylight or in darkness, 
in sunshine or in rain; it was they who sought the foes of 
their country on every field, in the valley or on the hilltop, 
and halted not until the victory was theirs. It mattered not 
whether they were properly clothed or fed, they heeded 
naught but the desires and the commands of their leaders. 
They bore the brunt of battle; to them should be given the 
substantial rewards of a prosperous country, to them the 
praise. The peaks that tower above the range here and fhere 
along its varied extent, represent the great leaders who were 
made prominent by the strong arm and fearless hearts of the 
men in line. Numerous as those grand peaks are, I could 
give you a name in history for each and all of them, but time 
forbids. I can only call bv name a few who are dear to every 
loyal heart. This war made many Iowa men prominent in 
military and civil life. Great character was produced equal 
to the great needs of the hour. The plain of Iowa's history 
was broken. The upheaval raised monuments as high for 
Iowa's sons as any along this great range. Far off to the 
south I point you to a group of noble peaks, not separate 
from or much different from many others, yet distinct, fairly 
outlined and individual in majestic characteristics of their own. 
I fancy this noble group the counterpart in nature of the great 
leaders of this brigade. In the center, a little higher and 
grander than others, we place Crocker surrounded by Hall, 
Hedrick and Chambers. A galaxy of heroes whose deeds 


have enriched history, whose lives have ennobled man, whose 
memory shall live and be kept fresh and green as long -as 
those peaks shall stand. Here in the midst of these great 
peaks, I notice one more symmetrical and graceful in its con- 
tour and lines, the very trees that grace its sides are taller, 
more lithe and beautiful; I recognize it as a monument to one 
who was young and brave, and beautiful: for one moment 
erect and glowing in the whirl of battle, the next falling for- 
ward toward the foe dead, but triumphant. For one moment 
that brave, inspiring form was visible to this whole nation, rapt 
and calm in the midst of his army; the next in the midst of 
the enemy's sharpshooters, his bugle voice of victory stilled 
forever in death. It can be a monument to but one our own 
gallant McPherson. On the left here is a mountain rising 
higher than its fellows; it is dark-browed and threatening in 
its aspect, yet covered to its crown with green trees and ver- 
dure, as if laurel crowned by nature. It is surrounded by 
smaller peaks, mountains and mounds as if all surrounding 
nature was. seeking to uphold and applaud its strength and 
beauty. It can represent but one character that gallant, 
brave and dashing chief of volunteers, the glorious and incom- 
parable Logan, who always led in battle and never ceased his 
work for the volunteer army until his eyes were closed in 
death. Well may that emblem of nature that represents him 
be laurel-crowned. Away on the right I point you to a 
mountain, not of the tallest, but broad and grand; it stands 
alone, as if self-reliant and independent; its base is broad, its 
surface even and unruffled. Storms break about it; lightning 
and thunder crash about its head: yet all unmoved or un- 
changed each dawning day finds it the same; nature's 
synonym for one \vho was near and dear to the men of this 
brigade, to the entire army, and all the people of this nation, 
one loved and respected around the world. How like it is to 
our exalted leader, Gen. Grant, that matchless soldier who 
never lost a battle, or failed to win a campaign; that man who 
could be grand without being gloomy, who was silent but not 
sullen, who was great without ostentatious pride. Who can 
forget that brave, time-honored face, with its grave silent 
strength, its broad sagacity and honesty ? Who can forget 
that manly fight on Mt. McGregor, where he held the silent 
messenger aside with one hand and toiled with the other, that 
posterity might know the story of his life; that he might at 


last leave his wife and children above want ? Who can forget 
that'noble face as it appeared mastered by the emotions of his 
heart as it melted into manly tears when he realized the depth 
and strength of the love in which he was at last held by his 
people ? But stop, there is one peak in sight that rivets atten- 
tion; we stand gazing to the West, head uncovered and awed 
into silence; we are in the presence of and gazing upon one 
larger and grander than all others ; one whose base is broader, 
formed of the eternal granite, whose sides are more regular 
and symmetrical, whose head towers above all its fellows, 
crowned with a crown which is a badge of peace upon whose 
broad breast, and facing toward the rising sun it bears that 
symbol of the Christian world, that hope of mankind, the 
cross of Jesus. There it is plain and unmistakable, made by 
the hand of Nature's God of snow, pure and vernal. It is the 
Mountain of the Holy Cross. There it has stood since man 
first came to view it, where it will stand through all time, to 
cheer the weary .and oppressed. High and above all human 
strife and contention, in the pure air of heaven; above the 
malignity and malice of men, it warns all the children of earth 
to commune with the Saviour whose symbol it is. 

"It will never grow old while the sea-breath is drawn 
From the lips of the billows at evening and dawn, 
While Heaven's pure finger transfigures the dews, 
And with garlands of frost-work its beauty renews; 
It was there when the blocks of the pyramid pile 
Were drifting in sand on the plains of the Nile, 
And it shall still point homeward, a token of trust, 
When pyramids crumble in dimness and dust. 

It shall lean o'er the world like a banner of peace 

Till discord and war between brothers shall cease, 

Till the red sea of Time shall be cleansed of its gore, 

And the years like white pebbles be washed to the shore : 

As long as the incense from ocean shall rise 

To where its bright woof on the warp of the skies, 

As long as the clouds into crystal shall part, 

That cross shall gleam high on the continent's heart." 

A work of nature, yet how like a character brought to the 
surface by a revolution among men. How like the immortal 
Lincoln; in stature he towered above his fellows. His feet 
were planted on those principles of right which formed the 
base of all his actions and made him as firm thereon as the 
everlasting granite. Abraham Lincoln, more than any other 
man who ever breathed, carried into his public life, and vital- 


ized in his public conduct the principles of Christianity. A 
great public man said in 1864: "I believe in the great 
Jehovah, and next to him believe in and trust Abraham 
Lincoln." That sentiment was and is the sentiment of the 
American people. No man has wielded a greater power; 
great and absolute power as it was, it was unaccompanied by 
a single act of cruelty, inhumanity or injustice, but - was 
tempered with pity, acts of mercy and tenderness. As we 
descend again upon the plain and are again among the shifting 
scenes of every -day life, we look back in the distance to the 
grandeur of the towering masses we have left, and the feeling 
comes strong into the mind that these mountain peaks are to 
endure; planted upon their base of everlasting granite, they 
shall stand as monuments for all ages overtopping the scenes 
of man's habitation. They are beyond the power of man to 
destroy. A new- civilization may change the face of the earth, 
but these eternal landmarks shall escape the havoc of time, 
when the flood and darkness comes; to them shall be moored 
the ark of safety which shall carry and preserve amid all 
change and destruction the spirit of liberty, equality and justice. 


HENRY H. SCOTT, one of the oldest residents of Burling- 
ton, died there August 3ist, aged seventy years. He was of 
Irish birth and the leading Irish- American in southeast Iowa. 
He was a successful merchant, and had amassed a fortune. 

THOMAS G. WILSON, of Eldora, died July i3th, 1889, 
at the age of eighty years. He had been identified with the 
interests of Eldora and Hardin county for more than thirty 
years. He was probably the oldest member of the Indepen- 
dent Order of Odd Fellows in America, having been made a 
member in England. 

COL. JOHN NELSON DEWEY, born in Lebanon, New Hamp- 
shire, February 3d, 1814, a resident of Polk county since 
1855, died at his home in Des Moines, September pth, 1889. 


He was a civil engineer, and in that capacity made the sur- 
veys of a number of railroads in the East and in Illinois before 
coming to Iowa. In Des Moines he served that city in the 
municipal government as alderman and as city engineer. In 
1861 he was appointed by Gov. Kirkwood a member of the 
state committee to audit war claims, and by his prudence and 
vigilance, the Governor says, saved the state many a dollar. 


meeting July 4th last. An address was made by Gen. W. H. 
Gibson, in which speaking of the war of 1812, he warmly 
defended Gen. Hull's surrender at Detroit, in 1813, as the 
well considered act of a brave and prudent general, who 
looked to the future as well as the immediate results of the 
surrender. A committee was appointed with a view to se- 
curing an appropriation from Congress for the erection of a 
suitable monument at Put-in-Bay to commemorate the battle 
of Lake Erie. 

THE HON. P. M. CASADY of Des Moines was a member 
of the legislature which gave names to most of the counties 
of Iowa, and was chairman of the committee having charge 
of this matter in one of the houses. To his excellent judgment 
Iowa is indebted for a county nomenclature little marred by 
inappropriate titles. Names distinguished in American history, 
and in science, and among the aborigines, were chosen with 
excellent taste. The name of Buncombe (changed afterwards 
to Lyon, in memory of the hero of. Wilson's Creek) was 
given to preserve the name of a distinguished Revolutionary 
officer of North Carolina, and should be restored by its 
bestowal on the next new county organized, when it becomes 
necessary to erect new ones by partition of some of those 
with too much territory. 



VOL. VI. JANUARY, 1890. No. i. 


Gone are the living, but the dead remain 
And not neglected, for a hand unseen, 

Scattering its beauty like a summer rain, 
Still keeps their graves and memory green. 


IE have not been "shown the former things that we 
may consider them" but the "latter end" of the 
good brother whose career we are to sketch has 
been fully revealed to us, and they show what 
manner of man he was, and all speak to his praise. 

He was truly a representative type of our western men and 
a pioneer among pioneers, living through many changes of 
peoples and state governments to a good old age, almost 
patriarchal, and dying far from his boyhood home an octo- 
genarian of the old school. Born in Kentucky in the year 
1807, he left his native State and removed to Illinois when in 
his twentieth year. Of his life during these two decades we 
have been unable to learn anything nothing of his parentage, 
of his early education or boyish life is known. The first we 
hear of him is that he is at Nauvoo long before the Mormons 
made the old river town of Commerce famous by its change 
of name and purpose in the transition to a seat of worship in 


the new and strange Temple erected by Jo. Smith, the founder 
of the sect known as "Latter day Saints" or Mormons. There 
ill the summer of 1830 his services were sought as a School 
Teacher by the colony on the other side of the great river 
headed by Dr. Isaac Galland, whose cabin on the "Half-Breed 
Tract" on the site where Nashville on the "Lower or Des 
Moines Rapids" of the Mississippi is now ensconced beneath 
the bluffs that overlook the river. He must have been a 
sprightly lad and educated beyond his fellows of that old vil- 
lage, else Dr. Galland, who was an educated gentleman in 
literature as well as his profession, would not have invited him 
to his home and given him in charge his son and daughters. 
That son, Capt. G. W. Galland, an attorney, is living at this 
date (May, 1889) near where once stood the log cabin which 
became the first School House in Iowa. But he was so young 
then that, while we knew him well and have often met him, 
he can give us no items of those pedagogic days. The same 
is true of Capt. Jas. W. Campbell, of Ft. Madison, who how- 
ever recalls the young teacher and his "schooling" under his 
sway. He taught Iowa's First School, October-December, 
1830, and read medicine with Dr. Galland, his patron, and later 
qualified himself for practice in the healing art. This he 
soon after changed for mercantile pursuits, and fifteen years 
later we met him at Burlington, in 1845, one year after the 
organization of the Grand Lodge of Iowa. 


Des Moines Lodge at Burlington had been created by Let- 
ters of Dispensation bearing date November 2ist, 1840, issued 
by Joseph Foster, Dep. G. M., chartered as No. 41 by the 
Grand Lodge of Missouri, under the Grand Mastership of 
Hon. Priestly H. McBride, who signed the charters of the 
"Four Old Lodges" of Iowa. Under the new r Grand Lodge 
of Iowa, of January 8th, 1844, this old (the oldest) Lodge of 
Iowa became No. i, and in it Berryman Jennings, now a man 
in the early prime of life, and of a long and useful career in 


money and business, was initiated August i8th, 1845. Oliver 
Cock, first Grand Master, presiding as W. M., conferred the 
degrees. Both Grand Masters are deceased, and only Evan 
Evans, more than an octogenarian, of the members of that 
Lodge of 1840 survives within its fold. But Col. Wm. 
Thompson, of Bismarck, and the writer yet live to recall those 
earlier years. Hon. John G. Foote, who was W. M. .the year 
Bro. Jennings was made a mason, yet holds membership in 
that old Lodge, as he does the esteem of his <fello\v citizens of 
the State. Bro. Jennings was raised November 8th, 1845, 
and is reported as Sen. Steward in the returns of January, 

He dimitted, May ist, 1847 and joined the Iowa Emigrant 
Train for Oregon, traveling the plains with Messrs. White 
and Carver, the founders of Burlington, (1833) over the route 
now followed by the Union Pacific and its Oregon extension 
through' Idaho to the Oregon, now Columbia river. He had 
married, but when, \vhere or whom, "deponent saith not," as 
he does not know: however, the wife had borne him a son 
who was orphaned by the death of the mother, who died on 
that journey, in what is now Idaho, and near Boise City. 
Arriving in Oregon, he located at Oregon City on the Wil- 
lamette River, some twelve miles up from Portland, where 
with some intermission he lived and died. There he again 
married in 1851, Mrs. Pope, who with seven children survives 

Prior to this event, however, upon the breaking out of 
the "gold fever" in California, Bro. Jennings sought that 
"Eldorado," as we find him, April i7th, 1850, Senior Deacon, 
then November, 1850, S. W., and W. M. in March, 1851, of 
New Jersey Lodge, U. D., and Jennings' Lodge, No. 4, named 
in its charter, located at Sacramento. Bro. Jennings repre- 
sented his Lodge in the Convention of November, 1850, 
which organized the Grand Lodge of California. The returns 
of 1852 show that he had "dimitted," date not given. 

The Grand Lodge of Oregon was constituted August i6th, 


1851, and Bro. Jennings -presided over the Convention though 
the records do not show that he was a delegate to it. He was 
elected first Grand Master and re-elected in 1852 and 1853, 
though this latter year he declined an installation and was 
succeeded in April. 

Bro. John C. Ainsworth, with whom Bro. Jennings was 
long associated in business, and an Iowa Mason, having been 
Master of Eagle Lodge, No. 12, Keokuk, Iowa, was elected 
Grand Master, later M. W. Grand Master. The returns to 
the Grand Lodge of Oregon for June, 1852, show Bro. Jen- 
nings to have been a member of Multnomah Lodge, No. i, 
at Oregon City and its first Master, in which he held member- 
ship, I believe, till his death which occurred December 22d, 

Mr. Jennings had been exalted a R. A. M. in Iowa Chapter, 
No. i, Burlington, October I2th, 1846. He was Knighted in 
Sacramento Encampment (Commandery) No. 2, California, 
May 25th, 1855. 

During a long and eventful life, Bro. Jennings proved a 
devoted Mason, and whether as member or chief officer, 
exerted himself to promote the welfare of the Order and his 


In Oregon he practiced medicine for a few years and then 
again engaged in business; this time he 'invested largely in 
navigation and built the first steamboat in Oregon, the Scott 
Whitcomb, which plied between Oregon City and Portland, 
its rival, and destined to dwarf the former and older town. 
The Captain proving incompetent, Colonel, for so is Bro. 
Jennings now "named in bond," summoned his old Iowa friend 
Capt. John C. Ainsworth, from California, (who had been 
Captain of a steamer in earlier years on the Upper Mississippi) 
to whom he gave the command. Later they built a new 
boat to navigate the Columbia and subsequently enter the 
ocean trade to San Francisco. This enterprise proved lucra- 


tive, and Capt. Ainsvvorth is now a millionaire residing in 
Oakland, California, where at his hospitable home we met 
him in 1883. Bro. Jennings later became unfortunate in busi- 
ness and died poor. 

He represented his County in the Legislature of Oregon 
and was appointed Register of the land office for the district 
of Oregon. 

Among the pioneer citizens of the great Northwest on the 
Pacific Coast no name is more honored than that of Berry- ' 
man Jennings, who was not only thoroughly devoted to the 
Institution which had honored him less than he had honored 
it, but in all the business relations of life as a citizen and public 
officer, he won the praise of his fellow men, which was mani- 
fested at death as through life. 


Bro. Jennings had been an invalid for some years. The 
Grand Lodge at each Annual Communication visited him in 
body and by committee, and at one of those early interviews 
presented him with a fine gold headed cane to support his 
declining footsteps and also voted him relief to ward off the 
sorrows of old age. 

A Past Grand Master conducted the Masonic services, and 
Dr. Geo. H. Atkinson the devotional services of the church in 
which Bro. Jennings had long been a member. The pall- 
bearers were the most honored citizens of that great com- 
mercial capital on' the western coast, and now the remains 
of our early friend repose in the Masonic Cemetery near 
Riverview, overlooking the river on whose banks he had so 
long dwelled and whose waters he had opened to the com- 
merce of the world. 


Here, in that which makes the man, we will let those who 
knew him best bear testimony. 

In all his acts he was purely unselfish, and had more regard 
for the welfare of his fellow-man and the prosperity of the 


community in general than to acquire personal wealth or 
attain personal honors. His family relations were most 
happy and a large offspring of sons and daughters with his 
aged widow testify in their acts and letters the love they bore 

The pioneers of that distant region bear witness that his 
home was known far and near for the dispensation of a most 
generous hospitality when in health and blessed with the 
means of extending courtesies to all. No enterprise having in 
view the public good that did not command his respect and 
receive his aid, and thousands to-day enjoy the fruits of his 
labors for the common welfare of the people. "He never 
betrayed a trust nor proved false to a promise or friend.'''' We 
italicise these words and invite the careful attention to the 
sentiment of those, and there are many in these latter days, 
upon whom the vows of the institution set so lightly as to 
"jeopardize," says our Grand Master, "the future welfare 
of our beloved institution." 

He lived an honest man, and "loved honesty in man" in 
matters of mind as well as money, and was ever ready to aid 
by his counsel and in money all who needed his aid while his 
means lasted. 

And at the ripe old age of 81 years and 6 months he 
departed in peace, closing a long career as husband, father 
and friend. In going he has left behind that greatest of 
precious jewels, an honored and honest name no greater 
inheritance could his family, fellow-citizens and the Masons of 
Oregon and Iowa have inherited from Berryman Jennings. 

No history of Iowa or Oregon would be complete which 
omitted to make "honorable mention" of the life and services 
of this Pioneer of two' States. His identification with the 
early educational history of Iowa, even before her territorial 
days, gives him a prominence as the first "School Teacher of 
Iowa," procured by no one of his many successors in later 

The portrait heading this article presents him as he looked 


39 T 

when near four score years of age, and when the labors and 
cares of a iong and laborious life sat heavily upon him. 

He passed from earth in peace with all the world, Decem- 
ber 22d, 1888, and with the words of the Poet spoken of 
another we close this tribute to the memory of a friend of the 
long ago. 

' Sweet is the thought of him, though he is gone, 

Rays from the sepulchre, why should we mourn? 
Gentle the words he said brightening the path we tread, 
Blest is the hallowed dead, whv should we mourn?" 

T. S. PARVIN. ' 



|HE Black Hawk War was the immediate occasion 
of the opening of Iow r a to civilization in 1833. Had 
Black Hawk been content to have staid in peace 
upon his lands west of the Mississippi, he would 
not have been disturbed there, at least for a number of years; 
probably not during his life-time. It was his invasion of Illinois 
that cost him Iowa, as often in grasping another's men lose 
their own. That war also hastened the settlement of Northern 
Illinois, which it was intended to prevent, and also the settle-* 
ment of what is now Southern Wisconsin, as it led immedi- 
ately to treaties with the Winnebagoes and Pottawattamies, 
under which those tribes agreed to leave the lands they had 

1 The portrait of H. Dodge in THE RECORD for Oct. 1889, is from a paint- 
ing by George Catlin, 1834, photographed by Monfort & Hill, Burlington. 

2 Of the many accounts of the Black Hawk war, the most clear and relia- 
ble are by John A. Wakefield and Albert Sidney Johnston. The copy of the 
History of the Black Hawk War by Wakefield in the Library of the State His- 
torical Society of Wisconsin was presented by the author to James G. Edwards, 
the founder of the Burlington Ha-':k-Eye. Chapter III of the Lifeof General 
Johnston contains valuable portions of the journals lie kept at this time. 


long possessed lying between Lake Michigan and the Missis- 
sippi river. The fact that some of those Indians had sympa- 
thized with Black Hawk, and had fought under him, intensified 
the demand that those tribes should be removed. It is thus a 
historic fact that the founding of the states of Wisconsin and 
Iowa, and of the city of Chicago, would have been delayed 
an uncertain number of years, but for the Black Hawk war. 

Conspicuous among those who were most efficient in secur- 
ing these results was Henry Dodge. He was entitled to the 
honor assigned him in his life time, as a "captain of aggressive 
Civilization." It is the object of this paper to give a narrative 
of his part in that war. 

In April, 1832, information reached the mines that Black 
Hawk had crossed the Mississippi into the State of Illinois, in 
violation of stipulations made with him by Gen. Gaines on the 
3Oth of June, 1831, and that he was upon the warpath. There 
were fears and rumors that the Winnebagoes of Rock River 
and the Pottawattamies of the country about the head waters 
of Illinois River and about Chicago, would join him. Henry 
Dodge at once called the miners together at Mineral Point. 
They deemed it prudent to send a messenger to Rock River, 
for the purpose of ascertaining the situation, and to learn the 
strength and purposes of Black Hawk. Daniel Morgan 
Parkinson, who came to the mines in 1827, and was one of 
the first settlers at Mineral Point, was chosen, for the service. 
*He took dispatches from Henry Dodge to Henry Gratiot, the 
U. S. sub-Indian Agent for the Winnebagoes, and to John 
Dixon, who was a friend of the Sacs and Foxes, at Dixon's 
Ferry. On this errand Mr. Parkinson learned that Black 
Hawk came to the Prophet's village on the 28th of April 
with his warriors in battle array, and marched to Mr. Gratiot's 
lodge, where the neutral flag was flying, and took it down 
and hoisted the British colors, and treated Mr. Gratiot as a 
prisoner, until he was ransomed by his clerk, George Cub- 
bage, 1 or Black Haw r k was propitiated, with ten plugs of 

i George Cubbage taught school at Dubuque in the winter of 1833-4; was 


tobacco; and that in reply to a "talk" sent by Gen. Atkinson, 
advising the hostile chiefs, to recross the Mississippi, to settle 
down in peace, and plant their corn, and warning them if they 
refused that his troops would sweep over them like tire over 
th.e prairies, Black Hawk sent word that their hearts were bad, 
that they would not return, that Gen. Atkinson would rind the 
grass green and not easily burnt, and that they would fight, 
if he sent his warriors among them. Black Hawk's force 
was estimated at about five hundred, subsequently increased 
by Winnebago and other Indians to about eight hundred 

Meanwhile, Gen. Atkinson, on the 25th of April, had 
directed Colonel Dodge, as commanding the militia of Iowa 
County, Michigan Territory, to raise as many meunted men 
as could be obtained in that County. The first company was 
mustered into service on the 2d day of May, William Schuyler 
Hamilton, Captain, who had been with Henry Dodge in the 
Winnebago disturbance of 1827. While other companies were 
being organized, the following letter was sent to the Governor 
of Illinois, w'ho was then at Dixon's Ferry with a thousand 
volunteers from that State: 

MINERAL POINT, May 8, 1832. 
His Excellency John Reynolds: 

DEAR SIR. The exposed situation of the settlements of the mining district 
to the attack of the Indian enemy makes it a matter of deep and vital interest 
to us that we should be apprised of the movements of the mounted men under 
your Excellency's immediate command. Black Hawk and his band, it is stated 
by the last advices we have had on this subject, was to locate himself about 
twenty miles above Dixon's Ferry, on Rock river. Should the mounted men 
under your command make an attack on that party, we would be in great dan- 
ger here; for should vou defeat Black Hawk, the retreat would be on our set- 
tlements. There are now collected within twenty miles above our settlements 
about two hundred Winnebagoes, and should the Sauks be forced into the Win- 
nebago country, many of the wavering of that nation would unite \yith the 

door-keeper at the first session of the First Legislative Assembly of Wisconsin 
Ter., at Belmont, and Adjutant General of theTer. ; one of the Commissioners 
"for laying off the towns of Fort Madison, Burlington, Belleview, Dubuque, 
etc.," under acts of Congress, July id, 1836, March 3d, 1837; and an early 
settler in Jackson Countv, Iowa. 


hostile Sauks. I have no doubt it is part of the policy of this banditti to unite 
themselves as well with the Pottawattamies as Winnebagoes. It is absolutely 
important to the safety of this country that the people here should be apprised 
of the intended movements of your army. Could you detach a part of your 
command across the Rock river, you would afford our settlements immediate 
protection, and we would promptly unite with vou, with such a mounted force 
as we could bring into the field. Judge Gentry, Colonel Moore and James P. 
Cox. Esq., will wait on your Excellency and receive your orders. 

I am, sir, with respect and esteem, your obedient servant. H. DODGE, 

Commanding Michigan Militia. 

The Illinois troops were not in a situation to act upon the 
suggestion of Col. Dodge. They were soon demoralized by 
Stillman's defeat, May I4th, upon which Governor Reynolds 
the same night made a call for two thousand men, and sent an 
express to inform Col. Dodge Of the disaster, and of the immi- 
nent dange'r to which the mining settlements were exposed. 
Meanwhile, Col. Dodge had gone himself on a scouting expe- 
dition, with a party of twenty-seven men, including his sons> 
Henry L., and Augustus C., to learn the movements of the 
enemy, and had approached near to the scene of the disaster, 
of which he was apprised the day following. Hastening back 
to the mining settlements, he hurried forward the organization 
of mounted companies, and the erection of stockade forts for 
home protection against skulking bands of savages. Eight 
additional companies were mustered into service before the 
2Oth day of. May. Many of the volunteers furnished their 
own horses. In other cases the horses were purchased or 
impressed. The people of nearly all the settlements, in the 
language of the time, "forted." Fort Union, at his home, was 
Col. Dodge's headquarters, His wife, when advised to repair 
to Galena for safety, refused, saying, "My husband and sons 
are between me and the Indians; I am safe so long as they 
live." No Spartan mother displayed greater courage. She 
could read her Bible and say her prayers and lie down and 
sleep until morning, though her youthful daughters could 
sleep, only to dream of Indians, and of their mother being 
scalped and murdered by the savages. Speaking from his 
own recollections fifty-one years afterwards, A. C. Dodge 


said: "Fathers were frequently called to defend their own 
thresholds, and mothers and sisters moulded bullets, and car- 
ried water, rilling barrels in order to have a supply during the 
anticipated siege. My mother and sisters have done both. 
The cows were milked, and God was worshiped under the 
surveillance of armed men !" ' Fort Defiance was at the farm 
of D. M. Parkinson, five miles southeast of Mineral Point; 
Fort Hamilton, at Hamilton's Lead Diggings, now Wiota; 
Mound Fort, at the Blue Mounds. 

To keep the neighboring Winnebagoes from joining Black 
Hawk was a matter of first concern. For this purpose Col. 
Dodge and his familiar and trusted friend, Henry Gratiot, the 
sub-agent of the Winnebagoes, with fifty mounted volunteers 
from Iowa County, commanded by Captains James H. Gentry 
and John H. Rountree, proceeded to one of their principal 
villages, near the headquarters of the Four Lakes, seven 
miles northwest of the present capital of Wisconsin, and held 
a Talk with them on the 25th of May. Col. Dodge said: 

My Friends. Mr. Gratiot, your father, and mvself have met to have a talk 
with you. 

Having identified us both as your friends in making a sale of your country 
to the United States, 2 you will not suspect us for deceiving you. 

The Sacs have shed the blood of our people. The Winnebago Prophet and, 
as we are told, one hundred of your people have united with Black Hawk and 
his party. Our people are anxious to know in what relation you stand to us, 
whether as friends or enemies. 

Your residence being near our settlements, it is necessary and proper that 
we should explicitly understand from you the chiefs and warriors whether or 
not you intend to aid, harbor or conceal the Sacs in your country. To do so 
will be considered as a declaration of war on your part. 

Your great American Father is the friend of the Red Skins. He wishes to 
make you happy. Your chiefs who have visited Washington know him well. 
He is mild in peace, but terrible in war. He will ask of no people what is not 
right, and he will submit to nothing wrong. His power is great; he commands 
all the warriors of the American people. If you strike us you strike him ; and 
to make war on us, you will have your country taken from you, your annuity 

1 Semi-Centennial of Iowa, p. 72. 

2 H. Dodge and H. Gratiot were present at the treaty, Aug. i, 1829, by 
whicl. the Winnebago Nation agreed to relinquish the mining country lying 
between the Rock and Wisconsin rivers to the U. S. 


money will be forfeited, and the lives of your people must be lost. We speak 
the words of the truth. We hope they will sink deep in your hearts. 

The Sacs have killed eleven of our people, and wounded three. Our people 
have killed eleven of the Sacs; it was but a small detachment of our army 
engaged with the Sacs; when the main body of our army appeared, the Sacs 
ran. The Sacs have given you bad counsel. They tell you lies, and no truth. 
Stop your ears to their words. They know death and destruction follows 
them. They want you to unite with them, wishing to place you in the same 
situation with themselves. 

We have told you the consequences of uniting with our enemies. We hope, 
however, the bright chain of friendship will still continue, that we may travel the 
same road in friendship under a clear sky. We have always been your friends. 
We have said you would be honest and true to vour treaties. Do not let your 
actions deceive us. So long as you are true and faithful, we will extend the 
hand of friendship to you and your children; if unfaithful, you must expect to 
share the fate of the Sacs. 

The Winnebago chiefs gave assurances of friendship and 
fidelity, and promised to remain at peace. Col. Dodge re- 
turned to his headquarters. A few days afterward, May 3Oth, 
learning by an express from Gen. Atkinson that Rachel and 
Sylvia Hall had been carried into captivity from near Ottawa, 
Illinois, on the 2ist of May, when their parents were scalped, 
he took prompt measures to procure their release. A band 
of Winnebagoes under White Crow were stimulated by the 
offer of two thousand dollars made bv Gen. Atkinson, to go 
after them. They found them in a Sac camp, and obtained 
their release, and brought them to the Fort at Blue Mound on 
the 3d of June. The same day, half-an-hour after their arri- 
val, Col. Dodge, who had been warned of an apprehended 
Indian attack, came upon the ground with a mounted force. 
He gave White Crow and his band warm greetings, and pro- 
cured for them a large beef steer, of which they made a feast. 
He prepared comfortable quarters for them at night in miners' 
cabins, and congratulated himself upon the good disposition 
they seemed to manifest, while not free from suspicion of their 
duplicity. In the course of the night he was awakened by J. 
P. Bion Gratiot, brother of Henry Gratiot, who rushed into 
his cabin, and bade him rouse up and prepare for action. He 
said that the Indians had left the quarters given them, had 


gone into the brush, that White Crow was stirring them up to 
hostility, speaking in insulting terms of Col. Dodge as "no 
great shakes of a fighter," saying that Black Hawk would 
make mince meat of him, as he had of Major Stillman, that 
the whites could not fight, that they were a soft-shelled breed, 
that they would not stand before the yell of the Red man, but 
would run upon the approach of danger, and stick their heads 
in the brush like turkeys or quails, that when the spear was 
applied to them they would squawk like ducks ; and he imita- 
ted in Indian style the spearing and scalping at Stillman's 
defeat, and said that all the whites who marched against the 
Indians would be served the same way. White Crow told 
Gratiot that he was friendly to him, and advised him to quit 
Col. Dodge, and go home, and stay there. Furthermore, 
said Gratiot, the Indians have been grinding their knives, 
tomahawks and spears. 

Col. Dodge heard these reports without saying a word; 
but no one, says an eye-witness, 1 could mistake the raging 
storm within his breast. He jumped to his feet, as his 
informant ended, and, although ordinarily cool and collected, 
he indulged upon the occasion in some severity and invective. 
"Do not be alarmed," he said;" I will see that no harm befalls 
you; in case of an attack, I will stand by you until the last 
. drop of blood is spilt. I will show the White Crow that we 
are not of the soft-shelled breed, that we can stand the spear 
without sqawking, that we will not run and stick our heads 
in the bush." He then called the officer of the guard and his 
interpreter, and, taking with them six of the guard, went to 
where the Indians were, and took White Crow and five others 
of his band into custody, marched them to a cabin, and 
ordered them to lie down and remain there until morning; he 
himself laid down by them, having first placed a strong guard 
around the cabin, and a double guard around the whole 
encampment. The next day the whole band, despite the com- 
plaint that their feet were sore from their long travel in bring- 

i Peter Parkinson, Jr., son of D. M. Parkinson. Wis. His. Coll. X. 184-212. 


ing in the Hall girls, were marched to Morrison's Grove, 
fifteen miles west of the Blue Mounds, where Col. Dodge held 
a "Talk" with them in the presence of the agent, June 5th, 
and told them of his apprehensions that they were in sym- 
pathy with Black Hawk, as many of their young men were in 
his ranks, and that he must hold them as enemies, unless they 
gave positive assurance that they would remain neutral. White 
Crow answered that, although a few of their young men 
whose warlike temper could not be controlled were with 
Black Hawk, the Winnebagoes generally were friendly to the 
whites. Col. Dodge determined to be on the safe side, and 
stipulated to hold three of the Winnebagoes, Whirling Thunder, 
Spotted Arm, and Little Priest, as hostages for the good faith 
of the nation, and they were retained in -the fort at Gratiot's 
Grove until the end of the month. It is the testimony of those 
who were upon the ground that this action averted an attack 
of the whole force of Winnebagoes who were waiting near 
the Four Lakes, if a favorable opportunity offered, to make a 
strike for Black Hawk; "but the timely movement of Col. 
Dodge foiled them." The Hall sisters were sent by way of 
Galena and St. Louis to their friends. 

On the 6th of June a mounted company from Galena, com- 
manded by Capt. J. W. Stephenson, joined Col. Dodge's forces 
at Gratiot's Grove. .The isolation of the mining district from 
the rest of the country threw the people of that district upon 
themselves for protection, and made concerted action on the 
part of those in the State of Illinois and of those in Michigan 
Territory a necessity. There were some differences as to 
proper means for defence, and some jealousies arose, but a 
feeling of confidence in the leadership of Col. Dodge obtained 
throughout the region. While at Gratiot's Grove, he pre- 
pared the following address to the Volunteers now number- 
ing about 200 mounted men, which he delivered to them the 
next day, upon the march to Rock River, at Kirker's Place, 
where they camped, on the old "Sucker trail," that ran along a 
branch of Apple River, in what is now Rush Township, Jo 
Davies County, Illinois: 


VOLUNTEERS: We have met to take the field. The tomahawk and scalp- 
ing knife are drawn over the heads of the weak and defenceless inhabitants of 
our country. Although the most exposed people in the United States and 
Territories, living as we do, surrounded by savages, not a drop of the blood of 
the people of this part of the Territory of Michigan has been shed. 1 Let us 
unite, my brethren- in arms. Let harmony, union, and concert exist; be vigi- 
lant, silent and cool. Discipline and obedience to orders will make small bodies 
of men formidable and invincible; without order and subordination, the largest 
bodies of armed men are no better than armed mobs. We have everything 
dear to freemen at stake, the protection of oui frontiers, and the lives of our 
people. Although we have entire confidence in the Government of our 
choice, knowing that ours is a Government of the people, where the equal 
rights of all are protected, and that the power of our countrymen can crush 
this savage foe, vet it will take time for the Government to direct a force suf- 
ficient to give security and peace to the frontier people. 

I have, Gentlemen, as well as yourselves, entire confidence both in the 
President of the United States and the present distinguished individual 8 at the 
head of the War Department ; our Indian relations are better understood by 
them than by any two citizens who could be selected to fill their stations. 
They have often met our savage enemies on the field of battle where thev 
have conquered them, as well as in council. Thev understand the artifice, 
cunning and stratagem for which our enemies are distinguished. They know 
our wants, and will applv the remedy, In General Atkinson, in whose pro- 
tection this frontier is placed, I have entire confidence. You will recollect the 
responsibility he assumed for the people of this country in 1827. by ascending 
the Wisconsin with six 'hundred infantry and one hundred and fifty mounted 
men, to demand the murderers of our people. Many of us had the honor 
of serving under him on that occasion. He has my entire confidence both as 
a man of talents in his profession, a soldier and a gentleman. If our Govern- 
ment will let him retain the command, he will give us a lasting peace that will 
insure us tranquillity for years. He knows the resources as well as the 
character of the Indians we have to contend with; let the Government furnish 
him the means, and our troubles will be of short duration. 

What, mv fellow soldiers, is the character of the foe we have to contend 
with? They are a faithless banditti of savages who have violated all treaties. 
They have left the country and the nation of which they form a part. The 
policy of these mauraders and robbers of our people appears to be, to 
enlist the disaffected and restless of other nations, which will give them 
strength and resources to murder our people and burn their property. They 
are the enemies of all people, both the whites and Indians. Their thirst of 
blood is not to be satisfied. They are willing to bring ruin and destruction on 
other Indians, in order to glut their vengeance on us. The humane policy of 

1 The same day Col. Dodge was preparing this address, James Aubrey was 
killed by a skulking band of Indians, at the Blue Mounds, June 6th. Smith's 
His. of Wis., III. 209. 

2 Lewis Cass. 


the Government will not apply to these deluded people. Like the pirates of 
the sea, their hand is against every man; and the hand of every man should 
be against them. The future growth and prosperity of our country is to be 
decided for years by the policy that is now lo be pursued by the Government 
in relation to the Indians. 

Our existence as a people is at stake; and gentlemen, great as the resources 
of our Government are, the security of the lives of our people depends upon 
our vigilance, caution and bravery. The assistance of our Government may 
be too late for us. Let us not await the arrival of our enemies at our doors, but 
advance upon them, fight them, watch them, and hold them in check. Let us 
avoid surprise and ambuscades. Let every volunteer lie with his arms in his 
hands, ready for action, so that when each arises to his feet the line of battle 
will be formed. .If attacked in the night, we will charge the enemy at a quick 
pace and even front. The eyes of the people are upon us : let us endeavor by 
our actions to retain the confidence and support of our countrymen. 

Col. Dodge with his command proceeded on his march, 
passing over the ground of several recent Indian murders, 
near the present town of Polo, Illinois. They buried the dead, 
so far as their remains could be found: among others, those 
of Felix St. Vrain. 1 At this point Capt. Stephenson with his 
men returned to Galena. The next evening they encamped 
at Hickory Point, where five of their horses were stolen that 
night by the Indians. After reaching the camp of the U. S. 
regular troops at Dixon's Ferry, where Gen. Hugh Brady, 
who had just come from Detroit, was in command, Col. Dodge 
with twenty-five men escorted Gen. Brady to the rapids of 
the Illinois River (now Ottawa), where Gen. Atkinson was 
receiving new levies of Illinois volunteers. Here plans of the 

i Mr. St. Vrain was the trustworthy and meritorious U. S. Agent for the 
confederate tribe of Sacs and Foxes, including Black Hawk's band. He was 
distinguished for intelligence, integrity, and for the deep interest he had mani- 
fested in the welfare of all the Indians confided to his charge. He spoke their 
language, and they, according to their custom, had formally adopted him not 
only as a friend, but a brother. Notwithstanding all this, 'when the parties 
confronted each other on the 22d of May, St. Vrain, in the act of extending the 
hand of friendship, and addressing words of imploration to the Chief " Little 
Bear," not to spare his life, but to desist from war against the whites, was shot 
down with his associates by those whom he had fed and sheltered, and with 
whom he was as intimate as a brother. The bodies of himself and companions 
were mangled in the most shocking manner. Mr. St. Vrain was a brother- 
in-law of ex-Senator George W. Jones, of this State. A. C. Dodge. Semi- 
Centennial of Iowa, p. 73. 


campaign were considered. It being impossible for the U. S. 
Commissary to supply Col. Dodge's command with sub- 
sistence, and forage, Gen. Atkinson directed Col. Dodge, by 
letter of June nth, 1832, to procure them. Having received 
his orders, Col. Dodge returned to Dixon's Ferry, reaching 
there about midnight, and early the following morning, June 
1 3th, put his command in motion for Gratiot's Grove, where, 
after two days march they arrived worn and fatigued. For 
eight days they had been constantly on the march; the horses 
with no subsistence but grass. The men were remanded to 
their respective forts for a few days, to recruit their horses. 
Col. Dodge delivered a "Ta"lk" from Gen. Atkinson to the 
Winnebago hostages, and sent them with a confidential man, 
Emile, 1 a French trader, on an expedition to ascertain, if pos- 
sible, where the Sacs were encamped. He addressed the 
following letter to a merchant at Galena with reference to 
supplies for his troops, and for families in the mining district 
who had been driven from their homes, and who were now 
destitute and unable to provide for themselves in the suspen- 
sion of all labor and business : 

GRATIOT'S GROVE, June i4th, 1832. 

DEAR SIR: I was at the headquarters of Gen. Atkinson, at the mouth of 
the Fox River of the Illinois, on the nth inst. He is actively engaged in mak- 
ing preparations to march against the hostile Indians. He will bring into the 
field about 3,000 men. I will copy for jour information that part of my order 
as respects the supplies of provisions for the use of the troops under my com- 
mand: "Your detached situation renders it impossible for me to furnish sub- 
sistence for your troops; you will therefore procure supplies upon the best 
terms practicable, and in the issue not exceed the U. S. allowance, and at the 
same time be careful to have the accounts kept accurately." 

I have copied that part of Gen. Atkinson's order in which you are interested. 

Although it would seem from his order that the rations furnished those not 
under arms would not be paid for, the Government of the United States will 
certainly pay for rations furnished the inhabitants, the protection of whose 

i Mentioned in the Treaty with the Winnebagoes, at Prairie du Chien, 
August ist, 1829, as "Oliver Amelle:" U. S. Statutes at Large, VII, 324; 
written " Emmell," by Col. Dodge in his letter of July i4th, 1833,10 Gen. 
Atkinson ; he built the first house, a trading house, where is now the Capital 
of Wisconsin. Wis. His. Coll., X. 69. 


lives makes it necessary for them to fort themselves, to avoid the tomahawk 
and scalping knife. The people of the country have been invited here by the 
agents of the Government to settle in this country, to work the lead mines. 
They are neither intruders nor squatters on the public lands. The Govern- 
ment has by the industry and enterprise of the people of the mining country 
derived all the advantages which they could have anticipated in the working 
and exploration of their mines. The Government has no regular troops here 
to afford protection to our exposed settlements, and I have no hesitation in 
saj'ing that the rations furnished women and children will be paid for by a 
special appropriation to be made by Congress. 

The only difference with you, as I confidently believe, will be that the 
amount due you for furnishing the troops under my immediate command will 
be paid for promptly by the War Department, and for the residue a special 
law will have to be passed. 

This is a subject of great importance tothe inhabitants who have been driven 
from their homes by the savages. Unless the}' can be furnished on the credit 
of the Government, starvation must ensue, as many of them are unable to 
leave this country, and they are also unable to furnish themselves. I will 
thank you to write me on this subject as early as possible. 

I am, with much respect, your obedleht servant, 

Col. Commanding the Militia of Iowa County, M. T. 


The same day he proceeded to his home at Fort Union. 
Murderous bands were infesting the country. Ere he entered 
his house he was informed of the killing of Aubrey at the 
Blue Mounds. Fear and terror prevailed. At midnight word 
came that seven men had been surprised that day six miles 
southeast of Ft. Hamilton, on the Pecatonica, while at work in 
a corn-field, of whom five were killed, and two had escaped. 
He despatched an express to Capt. Gentry at the Platte 
Mounds, to march to the place and bury the dead, and find 
out the number and movements of the enemy. The news 
reached Ft. Defiance earlier, and Lt. Bracken with ten men 
marched from that, post the same night to Ft. Hamilton, and 
the next day collected the remains of the dead, and buried 
them. At a council that evening, Capt. Gentry and his men 
having arrived, it was agreed that if Col. Dodge did not arrive 
by 8 o'clock next morning, those present would take the trail, 
and pursue the Indians. Meanwhile, Col. Dodge had first 
gone to the Blue Mounds to leave orders and see the situ- 


ation there, and had then scoured the country to within ten 
miles of Ft. Hamilton, where he camped for the night at 
Fret well's Diggings. 

The next morning, June i6th, about a mile from the Fort, 
Col. Dodge left the main road, which passed round a field, 
and took a by-path, to shorten the distance. Coming into the 
main road again he met a German (Henry Apple) on a good 
horse, which Capt. Gentry had wanted to impress into the 
service; but Apple said that if he might go to his cabin for his 
blankets he would join the expedition. After a few inquiries 
Col. Dodge passed on, and Apple went along upon the main 
road. At the time eleven Indians were lying on that road in 
ambush, within 150 yards. Before reaching the Fort, Col. 
Dodge heard three guns fired, and at first supposed it was 
Capt. Gentry's men shooting at a target. In an instant 
Apple's horse came galloping back, without rider, the saddle 
bloody, a bullet-hole through the top of his neck and ear. 

It afterward appeared that the Indians had first waylaid the 
by-path, but at this time had moved over to the main road. 
Had Col. Dodge kept that road, or had he arrived half an 
hour earlier upon the by-path, he would have fallen into the 
ambuscade, instead of Apple. 

At the Fort all was wild excitement. Many were for rush- 
ing pell-mell after the Indians. Instantly Col. Dodge with 
stentorian voice ordered the men to "saddle up." He said: 
"Fellow-soldiers We shall immediately follow the Indians, 
and overtake them if possible. We know not their number. 
If any of you cannot charge them sword in hand, fall back 
now, as I want none with me but those on whom I can rely in 
any emergency." None fell back. Twenty-nine mounted 
men joined Col. Dodge in the pursuit. They passed the 
scalped and mangled body of Apple, butchered in a shocking 
manner. Says Col. Dodge in his report to Gen. Atkinson, 
written two days afterward from Ft. Union : 

The Indians had not more than thirty minutes start. The v retreated through 

/ o 

a thicket of undergrowth, almost impassable for horsemen; thev scattered to 


prevent our trailing them. Finding we had open prairie around the thicket, I 
despatched part of my men to look for the trail of the Indians in the open 
ground. In running our horses about two miles, we saw them about half a mile 
ahead, trotting along at their ease ; they were making for the low ground, where it 
would be difficult for us to pursue them on horseback. Two of the small 
streams had such steep banks as to oblige us to dismount, and jump our horses 
down the banks, and force our way over the best way we could. This delay 
again gave the Indians the start, but my horses being good, and men eager in 
the pursuit, I gained on them rapidly. They were directing their course to a 
bend of the Pecatonica, covered with a deep swamp, which they reached before 
I could cross that stream, owing to the steepness of the banks, and the depth 
of the water. After crossing the Pecatonica, in the open ground I dismounted 
my command, linked my horses, left four men in charge of them, and sent 
four men in different directions to watch the movements of the Indians, if 
they should attempt to swim the Pecatonica; the men were placed on high 
points that would give a view of the enemy, should they attempt to retreat. I 
formed my men on foot at open order, and at trailed arms, and we proceeded 
through the swamps to some timber and undergrowth, where I expected to 
find the enemy. When I found their trail, I knew they were close at hand; 
they had got close to the edge of the lake, where the bank was about six feet 
high, which was a complete breastwork for them. They commenced the fire, 
when three of my men fell, two -dangerously wounded, one severely but not 
dangerously. I instantly ordered a charge on them made by eighteen men, 
which was promptly obeyed. The Indians being under the bank, our guns 
were brought within ten or fifteen feet of them before we could fire on them. 
Their party consisted of thirteen men. Eleven were killed on the spot, and 
the remaining two were killed in crossing the lake, so that they were left with- 
out one to carry the news to their friends. 

The volunteers under my command behaved with great gallantry. It would 
be impossible for me to discriminate among them ; at the word " charge," the 
men rushed forward, and literally shot the Indians to pieces. We were, In- 
dians and whites, on a piece of ground not to exceed sixty feet square. 

A part of the scalps were given to the Sioux and Menomonies as well as the 
Winnebagoes. Col. Hamilton had arrived with these Indians about one hour 
after our defeating the hostile Sacs. The friendly Indians appeared delighted 
with the scalps. They went to the ground where the Indians were killed, and 
cut them literally to pieces. 

The Indian commander was a big, burly brave, often run- 
ning back during the charge to encourage his men, and ha- 
ranguing them in battle. In the thick of the fight he came 
toward Col. Dodge with his gun on his shoulder, halted at a 
few paces, drew the trigger, and was disappointed in his gun 
not going off. The same instant Col. Dodge brought his rifle 
in position, pulled the trigger, but from dampness of the pow- 



A The point at which we dismounted and left our 

horses with a guard. 

-"Line of march in our advance upon the ambuscade. 
B Our position at the time we received the fire of the 

enemy, and from which we made the charge. 
CC Indian position under a natural embankment on 

the bank of the pond. 
D D Line of march in the pursuit. 



der it did not go off. Meantime the brave approached, knife 
in hand; when only a few feet away, Col. Dodge shot him 
down with his pistol. 

The scene of the battle, Horse Shoe Bend, was about two 
miles and a half from Fort Hamilton, on section eleven in 
what is now Wiota township. After various discomfitures on 
the part of different bodies of troops that had taken the field, 
this was the first victory over the hostile Sacs. " It was con- 
sidered the most brilliant affair of the war, and was entirely 
in keeping With the General's former character," says an offi- 
cer 'of the regular army, 1 who received the details of the affair 
from an eye-witness a few days subsequently. " This little 
action," said Governor Ford," 2 will equal any for courage, 
brilliancy and success in the whole history of Indian wars.'* 
It brought a sense of relief to the mining settlements, and 
revived confidence along the frontier. The troops returned 
to Fort Hamilton, conveying the wounded partly by litter, 
partly by wagon. 

The next morning a "talk" was had with the friendly In- 
dians. The following extracts from MS. letters, preserved 
in the Library of the State Historical Society of Wisconsin, 
explain the appearance of these Indians upon the scene : 


PRAIRIE DU CHIEN, Feb. i, 1832. 

The Menomonees and Sioux are preparing for a retaliatory war this spring. 3 
The Sacs and Foxes, I learn, expect retaliation, and will be in preparation to 
meet them. Therefore a bloody contest may be expected. 

DIXON'S FERRY, ROCK RIVER, May 26, 1832. \ 
I have to request that you will send to me at this place with as little delay 

1 E. Buckner, in Michigan Pioneer Coll., xii, 424-436. 

2 His. of Illinois, p. 128. 

3 A party of twenty-eight Menomonees had been stolen upon and murdered 
by a band of Sacs and Foxes near Prairie du Chien a few months before. It was 
for the purpose of demanding the surrender of the murderers, and in the 
interest of peace between those tribes, that Gen. Atkinson was on his way up 
the Mississippi from Jefferson Barracks at the very time Black Hawk crossed 
over into Illinois. 


as possible as. many Menomonee and Sioux Indians as can be collected within 
a striking distance of Prairie du Chien. I want to employ them in conjunc- 
tion with the troops against the Sac and Fox Indians, who are now some 40 or 
50 miles above us in a state of war against the whites. I understand the Me- 
nomonees to the number of 30x5 warriors, who were a few days ago with vou, are 
anxious to take part with us. Do encourage them to do so, and piomise them 
rations, blankets, pay, etc. I have written Capt. Loomis to furnish them some 
arms, if they can be spared, and ammunition. 

Col. Hamilton, who has volunteered his services to lead the Indians to this 
place, will hand you this letter, and, if the Menomonees and Sioux can be 
prevailed upon to come, will perform the duty. I have to desire that Mr. 
Marsh may be sent with Col. H. and the Indians, and an interpreter of the 
Menomonee language. 


PRAIRIE DU CHIEX, May 30, 1832. 

You will proceed with John Marsh to the nearest Sioux villages, and render 
him such aid as may be necessary in obtaining as many of the Indians as you 
may be enabled, to come down with you, and proceed under the command of 
Mr. Marsh to join Gen. Atkinson. Use every means of persuasion to expedite 
the object, and hasten your return, as much depends on expedition. 


PRAIRIE DU CHIEX, June 5, 1832. 

In obedience to your order I set out immediately from this place in company 
with Mr. Marsh in a canoe, and eight hands, to visit the nearest village of the 
Sioux Indians. 

From recent indications among the Winnebagoes of the Upper Mississippi 
of a disposition to engage in hostilities against the Sacs and Foxes, Mr. Marsh 
and myself concluded to call at their village upon the river of Prairie a la 
Crosse, and invite as many of them as should choose to do so, to join us upon 
our return. We arrived at the Winnebago village on the evening of the next 
day after our departure, and on that night had a talk with the chiefs and braves 
upon the subject. Winoashikan was opposed to the measure, and did not want 
to have anything to do with the business. He said that the Sacs had this 
season twice presented the red wampum to the Winnebagoes at tiie Portage, 
and that they as often washed it white, and handed it back to them, that he 
did not like that red thing, he was afraid of it. Wandykhatakan took up the 
wampum, and said that he with all the young men of the village would go, 
that thev were anxious to engage in the expedition, and would be ready to 
accompany us upon our return. 

The next day we arrived at Prairie aux Ailes, and found the Sioux extremely 
anxious to go against the Sacs and Foxes. They were intending to make a 
descent against them in a few days, if they had not been sent for. Although 
thev engaged in their preparations with great alacritv, we found it necessary 
to wait until Mondav morning to give them time to have everything readv for 
the expedition. 


We set out on our return at 9 A. M., accompanied by the whole effective 
force of the band, and at Prairie a la Crosse were joined by about twenty 
warriors of the Winnebagoes, who told us that the remainder of their village 
would follow the next day. We reached this place to-day with about 100 war- 
riors. I think from the disposition manifested by the Winnebagoes their num- 
ber will be augmented to fifty or sixty, before the expedition leaves Prairie du 
Chien, making a force of Sioux and Winnebagoes of 13001- 140 warriors. The 
Indians appear well affected toward the whites, are in high spirits and seem 
anxious for an opportunity to engage the Sacs and Foxes. 

I made the Indians the promises authorized by Gen. Atkinson' s letter for sub- 
sistence, pay, etc., and told them that their families would be supplied with pro- 
visions during their absence from home. The most of the families of the 
warriors have accompanied them thus far, to take a supply of provisions home 
with them, when the expedition shall have left this place. Mr. Marsh has 
displayed great zeal and energy in effecting the object of our visit, and his 
exertions had a happy effect in bringing out the greatest possible force from 
the Bands called upon. 

The Indian allies, however, proved to be of no service, but 
betrayed a cowardly spirit. Some of them said that they 
were willing to fight the Sacs, but they wanted to return first, 
and make better preparation. They consumed an enormous 
quantity of beef, and there was a scarcity of subsistence. It 
was deemed best on the whole to send them back up the Mis- 
sissippi. In his report to Gen. Atkinson, quoted above, Col. 
Dodge added: 

I was extremely anxious to retain them. They would have acted as spies, 
and would have kept the enemy in a state of check, while we were recruiting 
our horses for the expedition. Whether the Indians will return or not, I am 
at a loss to say. The Winnebagoes make solemn promises; I hope they will 
not deceive us. We are doing everything in our power to conciliate them. 
Decorra says that the whole of the Rock River Indians (Winnebagoes) are 
over the Wisconsin; that they have left the Sacs entire possession of the 
country ; that they (the Sacs) are now high up the Rock river, where there is 
but little for them to live on, and they must perish for want. This I can not 
believe. I have been told there is fish in great abundance, upon which alone 
they can no doubt subsist. 

From his home at Ft. Union he was called to Galena, to 
look after the supplies for destitute families, for which he had 
to make himself personally responsible. At Galena he was 
honored with the presentation of a flag from the ladies, with 
the sentiment, " The Daughters of the Lead-Mines to our 
Father War-Chief." Soon afterwards, a double-barrelled 


gun was forwarded to him by citizens of Prairie du Chien, in 
testimony of their respect for his valor, with the following 

letter : 

PRAIRIE DU CHIEN, 2d July, 1832. 

Dear General: I had hoped upon my return from Kentucky and the East 
to have had the pleasure of seeing you before this time, but, as that has been 
denied me, I have been much gratified to hear of the patriotic efforts which 
you have been making for the defence of our common country. Your sacri- 
fices, zeal, energy, and success in defending our exposed frontier, almost with- 
out means, will not be forgotten by the Government, and will live in the 
grateful recollections of your fellow-citizens. 

The people of this place have not viewed without deep interest the scene. 
Although they have not done much to aid in the defence of their more exposed 
countrymen, they have looked with intense anxiety to the result of every 
movement, and numbers would have left their homes, had it been thought 
consistent with the safety of this place, and attached themselves to your stand- 
ard. But you know the character of the mass of our population, and the little 
that is to be expected from them in offensive operations. And even in defence, 
they are not likely to act efficiently or in concert until a few shall be killed by 
the enemy. Besides, they have been in a state of almost constant alarm since 
my return, for fear of an attack upon this place, which has forbidden all idea 
of volunteering for the defence of any other part of the country. 

I had it in contemplation, although crippled in one of my thighs, and not 
having perfect health for eight months, to return with Capt. Estes, and offer 
my feeble aid in effecting the punishment which those ruthless savages de- 
serve. But I was informed two days since, that the first mail from below 
would most likely bring me an order for my removal to St. Peters. The agent 
has left that place on furlough, and the sub-agent has resigned, leaving no one 
to manage the business of the Department. I am therefore holding myself in 
readiness for a change of location. I am not vain enough, however, to suppose 
that this can be of anv material consequence to you or the country, and I trust 
that the time is not far distant when the services of none of our citizens will be 
required in the field, and all who survive the conflict will be enabled to return 
to their families and homes. 

I am pleased to learn that there is now a sufficient force in the field to act 
decisively against the hostile savages, and I hope that no terms will be made 
with them until they are punished in so signal a manner as to quell forever 
their disposition to war against our country. You and the brave men under 
vour command have given an earnest of what you will do when you shall be 
properly supported, and I doubt not when the day of meeting shall come that 
you will give a-good account of those who shall come to your hands. 

I regret that the Indians collected here and forwarded to the army have 
proven so useless. The Siouxs, I belie* r e, are cowards, and the feelings of the 
Winnebagoes are as much against us as for us, probably more so; yet their in- 
terest and their fears will keep them at least neutral. I have no apprehension 
that thev will act as a body against us, unless our army should be defeated, 


which must be out of the range of all probability. The Menominees would be 
serviceable, if there were enough of them. They are a brave, docile and faith- 
ful people, but the number which could be raised this side of Green Bay is too 
small to be of much importance. 

I from the first doubted the expediency of calling in the aid of the friendly 
tribes, and so expressed myself before I left this place to collect the Indians, 
though in obedience to orders I set out with Mr. Marsh at a minute's warning 
to assemble and bring them to this place, and I have no hesitation in saying 
that we performed the duty as promptly as it could have been done. I have 
always* considered Indians to be the most troublesome and expensive of all 
allies, at the same time that their services can be least relied upon. The result 
of this expedition is an additional evidence to support the opinion. 

I hope the next Express will bring us the intelligence of some brilliant 
achievement decisive of the controversy. Could you gain so much time, it 
would give me great pleasure to hear from you, but I know the incessant 
fatigue you must undergo, and the constant employment of your'time required 
by your active exertions. Whenever you can, please write me, and believe me,, 
most truly, Your friend and obedient servant, 


PRAIRIE DU CHIEN, 3d July, 1832. 
Gen. Henry Dodge, Fort Union: 

The undersigned citizens of Prairie du Chien have witnessed with feelings of 
high respect and admiration the patriotic exertions which you have made for 
the defense of our frontier against the cruelties of savage warfare. Fully 
appreciating the bold and energetic course you have pursued, we send by the 
hands of Capt. James B. Estes a double-barrelled gun, which we hope you will 
accept as a small testimony of the high estimation in which we hold your 
character as an officer and a citizen. 

Your obedient servants, 





Upon returning from Galena, Col. Dodge made an expedi- 
tion the 24th of June to the Blue Mounds, where two men had 
recently fallen into an ambush. Edward B. Beouchard related 
this incident of himself: , 

On the 4th of June, when Capt. James Aubrey was killed, I started to get 
his body, and asked Lt. Force to go with me; but he refused. <md I told him 
if he got killed, and was only six feet off, I would not go for his body. When 
Force and Green were killed on the 2oU~i, and I went and got Green's remains, 
and brought them to the Fort, they asked me if I could hold spite against a 
dead man. I replied that I would do what I said, whether a man was dead or 
alive; and Lt. Force's body laid where it fell for four days. 


Col. Dodge and his troops found Lt. Force's body, which 
had been cruelly mutilated, and buried it. They reconnoitred 
the country to the head of Sugar river, but discovered no 

On the 28th of Tune the whole armv of Gen. Atkinson was 

*/ J 

set in pursuit of Black Hawk. It consisted of 400 regular 
infantry and about 2600 mounted volunteers; many of the 
volunteers had been disabled by sickness and exposure. The 
army moved up the Rock river country in three divisions: 
Gen. Atkinson with Gen. Henry's brigade formed the right 
wing; Gen. Alexander's command formed the center, Gen. 
Posey's brigade, with Col. Dodge's battalion, formed the left 
wing. They were to meet at Lake Koshkonong. 

Col. Dodge rendezvoused his forces, in all about 200 men, at 
Fort Hamilton, where he was joined by Posey's brigade. 
Gen. Atkinson had tendered the command of this brigade to Col. 
Dodge ; but Col. Dodge declined it in an address to the brigade 
unless elected by the officers and men. Major John Dement, 
of the Spy battalion, ist brigade Illinois volunteers, personally 
a stranger to Col. Dodge at the time, was earnest in advoca- 
ting his election. " He will lead us to victory," he said, "and 
retrieve for us the honors we have lost at Stillman's Run and 
at Kellogg's Grove." The election resulted in Posey's favor, 
by one company. " In our march," says Hon. George W. 
Jones, who was aid to Col. Dodge, " men and officers of 
Posey's brigade told me that they voted against Col. Dodge, 
and for their old neighbor and friend, because they were 
assured Col Dodge would put them in the front, in places of 
danger; an honor I told them Col. Dodge would not deprive 
his command of." At this time a feeling of resentment on 
the part of Col. Dodge towards Capt. W. S. Hamilton for 
disobedience of orders with reference to the friendly Indians 
was aggravated: Hon. G. W. Jones says: 

The day of the election, as we rode past Fort Hamilton, Col. Dodge was 
hailed by Capt. Hamilton. The Colonel, at my thrice repeated request, 
stopped his horse (Big Black), and, as Hamilton approached, sprang oft", and 
presented Hamilton with the butt ends of his two pistols, and entreated him to 


take choice, that the qestion might be settled there and then which was to be 
commander. Hamilton at once threw up both hands, and sitting down on the 
hill-side declined to fight. I urged the Colonel to remount, which he did, and 
we rode on to the encampment of Gen. Posej. 1 

Col. Dodge's battalion marched with the left wing of the 
army, July 1-4, by way of the Pecatonica battle-field and Sugar 
River Diggings near to the first of the Four Lakes, where 
they were joined by White Crow's band; thence through 
almost impassable swamps to the mouth of Whitewater, July 
6th, where Black Hawk was reported to be. At this point an 
express from Gen. Atkinson ordered them to his camp on 
Bark River. Col. Dodge chafed under this order as thwart- 
ing his plans. After reaching Gen. Atkinson's encampment, the 
region was reconnoitred by scouts in a fruitless search for 
Black Hawk. Many believed that he had taken to the swamps 
beyond the reach of the army, and that no more danger was 
to be apprehended from him. Gen. Atkinson built block- 
houses where the village of Ft. Atkinson now stands. Gov- 
ernor Reynolds and a number of Illinois officers did not believe 
there would be any fighting, and left the field on the pth, to 
return home. 

The army was now short of provisions from losses in 
swimming rivers, by the miring of horses in creeks and 
swamps, and from waste by the volunteers. The regulars 
took better care of their rations, and were not in want. In 
this juncture, Gen. Atkinson ordered Alexander's and Henry's 
brigades and Dodge's battalion, to march to Ft. Winnebago, 
a distance of 40 miles, for supplies, with verbal instructions to 
pursue the trail of the enemy, if it was met with in going or 
returning. At Fort Winnebago, Col. Dodge secured the 
co-operation of Pierre Pauquette, a half-breed, whom he had 

i Hamilton was one of my father's captains both in the war of 27 and '32. 
Although they had some unpleasant personal difficulties, ephemei'al in their 
nature, my brother, sisters and myself were on excellent terms with him. He 
was one of the most interesting and clever of- Wisconsin pioneers, and in many 
respects a most remarkable and meritorious man. A. C Dodge to Cyrus 
Woodman, July j, 1883. 


known as an interpreter, and a dozen Winnebagoes. Getting 
new information as to the whereabouts of the enemy, that they 
had moved further up Rock River, Col. Dodge called a 
council of his officers with those of the other two commands, 
and proposed to return by a circuit in that direction. 1 Gen. 
Henry coincided, but Gen. Alexander advocated a return by 
the route they had come, as pursuant to their orders. The 
result was that Gen. Alexander returned directly with the 
supplies and the worn-down horses, while Gen. Henry and 
Col. Dodge diverged on their march some thirty miles to the 

Col. Dodge's effective force was now reduced to one 
hundred and fifty men; Gen. Henry's to about four hundred 
and fifty. At the Rapids of Rock River (now Heustisford) 
they found a few emaciated Winnebagoes, who reported that 
the Sacs had moved up to Cranberry Lake (now Horicon 
Lake, Dodge Co.) Encamping for the night, July i8th, they 
set a double guard, and sent Adjutants Merriam and Wood- 
bridge, with Little Thunder, a Winnebago chief, as guide, to 
carry dispatches to Gen. Atkinson. But after going eight or 
ten miles the dispatch fell upon a fresh trail of the enemy 
bearing westward, and returned to camp with the information. 
It was at once determined to pursue this trail in the morning, 
and advices to that effect were sent to Gen. Atkinson. 

Much of the pursuit was over swamps and morasses, and 
through tangled thickets; in the midst of which the soldiers 
were drenched with heavy rains. Towards evening of the 
second day of the pursuit, July 20, the scouts discovered a large 
body of Indians near the Third Lake, who fled into the adjacent 
woods; a band of them were stretched along Catfish Creek, 

i I was there, and my father, D. M. Parkinson, was there, and commanded 
a Company. He was a compeer of Col. Dodge and Gen. Henry, and a warm 
personal friend of both, and was admitted to their councils upon this and all 
other occasions; so was Capt. Gentry, to whose Company I then belonged. 
My father' informed me at the time that Col. Dodge was the suggester and 
prime mover in this matter, Gen. Henry assenting to and approving of the 
course at once. Peter Parkinson, Jr. 


in what is now the eastern part of the city of Madison; they 
all decamped in the night. Pursuit was resumed early the 
next morning, the troops passing over the ground now occu- 
pied by the city of Madison. After a march of about thirty 
miles, in which the scouts kept up a running fire, the main 
body of the enemy were overtaken upon the bluffs of the 
Wisconsin, between 3 and 4 o'clock in the afternoon. Col. 
Dodge and Major Wm. L. D. Ewing with their commands 
were in the advance. They dismounted, and at the edge of 
the bluff were met by a rally of the enemy, attacking Capt. 
Dixon's spy company which was then in the front. Here the 
Indians were repulsed. Gen. Henry soon came up, and 
deployed his forces; Col. Collins' regiment taking position on 
the left, Col. Jones' regiment in the center, leaving Col. Dodge 
on the right. In this order they charged the enemy, and 
drove him from position to position. In the midst of a heavy 
rain the enemy were pursued into the river bottom, when 
night closed upon the scene. 

In the morning it was found. that the enemy had all crossed 
the Wisconsin River. Despatches were sent to Gen. Atkin- 
son. Capt., Estes was dispatched to Prairie du Chien with 
the following letter to the commandant at Ft. Crawford, Capt. 
Loomis : 

CAMP WISCONSIN, July 22, 1832. 

We met the enemy yesterday near the Wisconsin river, and opposite the old 
Sac village, after a close pursuit for near one hundred miles. Our loss was 
one man killed and eight wounded. From the scalps taken by the Winneba- 
goes, as well as those taken by the whites, and the Indians carried from the 
field of battle, we must have killed forty of them. The number of wounded 
is not known; we can only judge from the number killed that many were 
wounded. From their crippled situation I think we must overtake them, unless 
they descend the Wisconsin by water. If you could place a field-piece imme- 
diately on the Wisconsin that would command the river, you might prevent 
their escape by water. 

Gen. Atkinson will arrive at the Blue Mounds on the 24th with the regulars 
and a brigade of mounted men. I will cross the Wisconsin to-morrow. Should 
the enemy retreat by land, he will probably attempt crossing some twenty 
miles above Prairie du Chien ; in that event the mounted men would want 
some boats for the transportation of their arms, ammunition and provisions. 



A Rear guard. 

B Horses with guard. 

CCC Height occupied by Gen. 
Dodge's command, and from 
which the Indians were re- 

DD Col Jones' Regiment. 

E E Col. Collins' Regiment. 

F F F Heights occupied by the Indians from wh 
they were driven in the charge. 

G Mound occupied by the Indian commander. 

HH Firm sandy ground and ridges. 

J Indian camp. 

Indian Trails. 



If you could procure for us some Mackinaw boats in that event, as well as 
some provision supplies, it would greatly facilitate our views. Excuse great 
haste. Your obedient servant, 

Col. Commanding Michigan Mounted Volunteers. 

Col. Dodge did not cross the Wisconsin on the 23d, as was 
originally intended, but marched to the Blue Mounds, looking 
after supplies, and awaiting the arrival of Gen. Atkinson. The 
effective force of the whole army now numbered about 1200 
men. The Indians having been traced several miles down the 
river, the troops rendezvoused at Helena. At this point 
some pine log buildings were pulled down, and made into 
small rafts, on which slowly and with difficulty the whole 
army crossed the river on the 27th and 28th. On the next 
day they struck the trail of the Indians, and for four days they 
pursued them over a rough and hilly country to the Missis- 
sippi, near the Bad Axe, and came up with them on the 
morning of August 2d. 

The order of battle was arranged under the personal super- 
vision of Gen. Atkinson. Col. podge's squadron, whose 
scouts had been constantly in the advance, and the U. S. In- 
fantry under Col. Zachary Taylor, were placed in the front; 
the Illinois brigades followed, Posey and Alexander on the 
right, Henry on the left. In this order the army marched 
down the bluff into the thickets and timber of the river bot- 
tom, plunged through a bayou, and in a few minutes met the 
yells of the enemy, and closed with them. No quarters were 
asked; none were taken prisoners but squaws and children. 
The troops of the different commands vied with each other in 
gaining positions of bravery and danger. The action con- 
tinued for three hours, the Indians being driven from tree to 
tree and from one hiding-place to another, until they were 
utterly routed and dispersed, with a loss on their part of 150 
killed. At the last it was more a massacre than a battle. 
Many were shot down in the river; others fell into the hands 
of their hereditary enemies, the Sioux. 

Gen. Atkinson reported a loss among his troops of twenty- 


four killed and wounded, of whom six were in Dodge's bat- 
talion, a larger relative proportion than under any other 
command. In the progress of the fight positions were changed. 
Col. Taylor with the U. S. Infantry and Col. Dodge with his 
squadron in following the rear guard of the enemy were 
thrown upon the extreme right, while Gen. Henry gained the 
front with his brigade. " Both brave officers," says Wakefield, 
an Illinois historian, who was in the engagement, " they would 
have gloried in being in the front, but this was intended by 
the God of battles for our beloved Henry." The following 
order was issued the day after the battle : 


Order No. 65. 

The victory achieved by the volunteers and regular troops over the enemy 
yesterday on this ground affords the Commanding General an opportunitv of 
expressing his approbation of their brave conduct. The whole of the troops 
participated in the honor of the combat; some of the corps, however, were 
more fortunate than others in being thrown from their position in order of 
battle more immediately in conflict with the enemy; these were Henrv's 
Brigade, Dodge's Battalion, the Regular Troops, Leech's Regiment of Posey's 
Brigade, and the Spv Battalion of Alexander's Brigade, 

In order that individual merit and the conduct of the Corps may be properlv 
represented to the Department of War and the General commanding the 
Northwestern Army, the Commanding General of this division directs that 
commanding officers of brigades and independent corps make to him written 
reports of the conduct and operation of their respective Commands in the 


ALB. S. JOHNSTON, A. D.-C. and A. Adt. Gen'l. 

In his jealousy for the fame of Gen. Henry, Governor 
Thomas Ford, in his History of Illinois, ch. V, disparaged 
both Gen. Atkinson and Col. Dodge. The truth is, that thev 
all were brave men, intent upon their duty, while as intimated 
in the above order, the fortune of war, and their own earnest 
spirit as well, gave Dodge and Henry foremost positions which 
they sustained with honor. There was a perfect understand- 
ing and a harmony of action between those officers from the 
beginning. Henry was the younger. His father had fought 


under Dodge in the war of 1812. Appreciating his experience 
and prowess as an old soldier and an Indian-tighter, Henry 
confided in Dodge's skill and judgment, and deferred to Jiim 
in council and in the field. He was immediately appointed a 
Captain in the U. S. Rangers under Dodge, with the rank of 
first Captain in that battalion, but his health failing he left the 
service, and went to New Orleans for a milder climate, and 
died in that city, March 4th, 1834. Henn r County, Iowa, \vas 
named for him. 

After the battle, when Gen. Atkinson met Col. Dodge at 
Prairie du Chien, he threw his arms around him, and said to 
him, "Dodge, you have saved me; you have dragged me on 
to victory." President Jackson had been impatient with the 
slowness of military movements, and had sent word to Gen. 
Atkinson that he must bring the war to an end or he would 
remove him. 

Early in the battle of Bad Axe, Black Hawk and the 
Prophet fled, and attempted flight to Canada. After the 
battle, Col. Dodge called Waukon-Decorra to him, and told 
him that their Great Father at Washington wanted the big 
warriors taken. Parties were sent in search of them, and 
they were captured and delivered up to the Indian agent at 
Prairie du Chien on the 27th of August. Black Hawk said 
that he would have whipt the whites, and gone where he 
pleased in the mining country, had it not been for "Hairy 
Face" (Col. Dodge). 

In the course of a discussion in the U. S. Senate the follow- 
ing winter upon the public lands, the Hon. Alexander Buck- 
ner, of Missouri, associated the name of Henry Dodge with 
that of George Rogers Clark among "the gallant sons of the 
west." He said, January I2th, 1883: 

Look at the movements of the troops last summer. What common claim 
has any but the West to the fame of the heroic Dodge, of whom it may be 
said that he was born, trained, and seasoned in all the hardships, all Hie priva- 
tions and dangers of the West, and is justlv entitled to a share in all her 


The Hon. Samuel McRoberts, Senator from Illinois, gave a 
similar testimony in the Senate on the 25th of June, 1841. 

That war (of 1832) came from a race of men who do not precede hostilities 
by wordy negotiations, make no formal declarations of the purpose, give no 
other notice than the war-whoop and the sound of the rifle, who seldom give 
quarter, and who count their victories hy the number of scalps they have 
taken. The gallant men of the Territory came to the rescue. Gen. Dodge 
organized a small but intrepid corps, who took the field, and, as far as possible, 
staid the plague, until the volunteers from Illinois and a few companies of the 
army could be brought to their relief. During this period the enemy waylaid 
all the roads, and murdered many of the inhabitants. One incident will illus- 
trate the character of Gen. Dodge and his followers. The enemy came to the 
Pecatonica, and murdered some of the citizens. Dodge and his party pursued 
them. The enemy, finding they could not make their escape, posted them- 
selves for battle. Now* here was a situation to test the courage and devotion 
of any man to his country. The enemy were armed with the rifle, tomahawk, 
and spear, which they had been accustomed to use all their lives. They had a 
decided advantage in position, and were enabled to have their usual advantage, 
the first fire. To dislodge them a charge must be made in the most exposed of 
all possible situations, and, from the number and desperation of the enemy, at 
a great sacrifice of human life. In such a situation what is the course of 
Dodge and his brave associates? They never hesitate. Thev resolve to dis- 
lodge the enemy, or perish in the attempt. They dismount from their horses, 
and, headed by their commander, charged the enemv on foot. Thev received 
the enemy's fire almost at the muzzle of their guns. A desperate conflict 
ensued. After each party had delivered its fire, it became a personal encoun- 
ter between the combatants. The storv is soon told. The enemv all fell. Not 
a man of them was left to tell the tale. I met Dodge and the survivors of his 
party a few days afterward, and some of them still carried upon their persons 
the evidence of the conflict. A leading Whig journal of Illinois (the Quincv 
Whig) says: "As one of the brave defenders of Wisconsin in times that tried 
the courage of the best men, Dodge stands deservedlv among the foremost. 
His name, his fame, his public acts, are interwoven with the Territory." 

The Hon. Wm. Medili, member of Congress from Ohio, 
and afterwards Governor of that State, referring to those 
times in a speech in the House of Representatives, April 25th, 
1842, said: 

When the Western frontiers were invaded by the savage hordes of the wil- 
derness, and the progress of civilization retarded for a time by the tomahawk 
and scalping-knife, who was it that exposed his life and endured extraordinary 
hardships in defending the home and the fireside of the emigrant? Who was 
it that met in mortal combat, and arrested the career of the murderous but 
brave and intrepid Black Hawk? Who commanded the volunteers at the 
memorable battle of Wisconsin Heights, where sustained on either side bv one 


of his own youthful but gallant sons he occupied the post of danger, and van- 
quished a superior force with the loss of a single man? Who led on the 
charge at Bad Axe, and shed such lustre upon the valor of his countrymen at 
Pecatonica, where not a single man of the enemy survived to relate the inci- 
dents of the conflict? The name of General Dodge is identified with the 
history and glory of the West, and will ever be held in grateful remembrance 
bv a people whom his chivalry and valor have defended from cruelty and 

The Hon. John Reynolds, Governor of Illinois in 1832, who 
was with the troops of that State in the Black Hawk War, 
and afterwards member of Congress from that State, related 
in the House of Representatives, on the pth day of July, 
1842, the same incidents mentioned by Senator McRoberts; 
he says of Henry Dodge: 

His character and standing is well-known in the West and throughout the 
country. I have been intimately acquainted with his career for more than 
forty years. He was born in the West, and has by the force of native intellect 
and energy of character sustained himself through various difficulties and 
trials incident to the settlement of a new country. He has by merit raised 
himself to a pinnacle of fame, which not frequently falls to the lot of any man 
to attain. He sustained well in the Black Hawk War the high standing he 
had previously acquired as a military man. 

NOTE. We are indebted to the Hon. George W. Jones, 
under date of Nov. 25th, 1889, for the following additional 
particulars of events referred to in this article : 

Mr. St. Vrain was murdered by a war part}' some thirty miles east of Galena, 
when on his way, under Gen. Atkinson's orders, to Rock Island from Dixon, 
via Galena, with six other men, one of whom, my worthy and honored friend, 
Frederick Stahl, is now living at Galena. 

My friend, Hon. Thomas McKnight, then the U. S. Agent of fhe Lead 
Mines at Galena, afterwards Receiver of Public Monies at Dubuque, sent a 
message to me at my then residence and fort at Sinsinawa Mound, that my 
brother-in-law had either been killed or taken prisoner by the Indians. I im- 
tnediatelv mounted my horse, in my buckskin hunting shirt, Kentuckv jeans 
pantaloons, and put out for the rescue of my brother-in-law and his compan- 
ions, having my double-barrelled gun, well loaded with buck-shot, a holster of 
pistols, and two in my belt, with a bowie-knife. 

I reached Galena several hours after the Cavalry Company of Capt. Steph- 
enson had left for the scene of murder or captivity. Contrary to the entreaty 
of my friends, Capt. James May, in particular, Mr. McKnight, Major Charles 
S. Hempstead, and others, I followed on alone, and overtook the troop of 
horse some 25 or 30 miles east of Galena, where I also found Col. Dodge with his 


mining regiment. In the course of the day the mutilated body of Mr. St. 
Vrain was found by myself; Col. Dodge and I were the onlv persons there 
who had known him.. His head, feet, and hands had been cut off. and with his 
heart and the most of the flesh of his body had been taken off by the Indians 
as trophies of war, and as food, he being a pretty fat man. We were directed 
to his corpse by the turkey buzzards which we sasv flying and circling around 
at a considerable distance. I knew him from the color of his black hair, some 
of which was strewn around as the Indians scalped him, his blue dress coat, 
swallow-tailed, through the large collar of which, then the style, the bullet 
which had broken his neck had passed. His pocket-book and papers and the 
silver and gold money were untouched in his pockets. His head, heart, feet 
and hands were taken to the headquarters of the Indians, then near Lake Kosh- 
konong, and used in their war dances; one brave having his head swung 
between his knees, two others a hand each, and two the feet, to brandish. The 
heart was cut into small pieces, and given to the voting boys to swallow, he to 
be declared the bravest who could gulp down the largest piece. 

Mr. St. Vrain rode a splendid horse, and could easily have made a good 
escape, but he tried hard to hold his horse in and turn him around, but the 
veiling and warwhoops and screaming of the pursuing Indians on horseback, 
some forty of them, so frightened his horse and the horses of his companions 
as to make them unmanageable. The most of these particulars I got from 
Madame Mayotte, 1 a French interpretess, whom I saw when Col. Dodge res- 
cued the Hall young ladies. 

A few days after that meeting with Col. Dodge and his command, he sent 
his valiant son, Henry L., and his adjutant, W. W. Woodbridge, to my resi- 
dence and fort at Sinsinawa Mound, to request me to become his aid-de-camp, 
he having been ordered bv the Commander-in-Chief, Gen. Atkinson, to take 
command of Gen. Posey's brigade of Illinois Volunteers, then encamped near 
Hamilton's fort. Capt. H. L. Dodge and Adjutant Woodbridge reached my 
house in the night, after a hard day's ride from Dodgeville. The next morn- 
ing at davlight I gladly went oft" with them, accoutred as before, to accept 
the highest and most responsible office I had ever expected to fill, and under 
him whom I had loved from my childhood. Col. Dodge was waiting for me 
to accompany him to take command of some 1,500 volunteers from Southern 
Illinois. He was in his buckskin, sassafras tanned, hunting shirt, and Ken- 
tucky jeans pants, just like my own. As soon as I entered his log cabin resi- 
dence, having but one window, and no plank but a dirt floor, he welcomed me 
heartily, and said: " I have sent for you to my aid-de-camp, because 
I have unbounded confidence in your friendship, bravery and honor, as I had 
in your learned and brave father, your brothers, and your brothers-in-law, Hon. 
John and Judge Andrew Scott, all of whom served under me in the war with 
Great Britain and their Indian allies, in and on the frontiers of Missouri Terri- 
tory, in the war of 1812. Your venturing alone through the wilderness in 
search of Mr. St. Vrain and party, was a hazardous undertaking; but it grati- 
fied me." 

i A half breed, very popular with her tribe, the Winnebagoes. Mrs. Adele 
P. Gratiot's Narrative, in Wis. Coll., x. 267, 269. 


On our arrival at the encampment, Col. Dodge refused to assume command 
unless the volunteers would elect him as their commander, over their own 
General; although Col. Davenport, of the U. S. Army, was present, under 
orders from Gen. Atkinson to make the transfer or substitution in the com- 
mand. All of the volunteers were entire strangers to Col. Dodge. At his 
request they were drawn up into a hollow square, when he addressed them, 
and was followed by Gen. Posey, who appealed to his old neighbors not to 
desert and disgrace him. His entreaties had the desired effect. 

As Col Dodge and I rode up to Posey 's encampment, he pointed out to me 
the clump of hazle and other bushes in which those thirteen Indians- were con- 
cealed, waiting for him, as he rode alone on his way to Fort Hamilton, a short 
time before. That clump was in the angle of a right angle triangle, the hypoth- 
enuse of which he took to save time, instead of keeping on the big wagon 

I attended the treat}' made by General Winfield Scott on the Mississippi 
river directly opposite Rock Island, and procured through my influence with 
George Davenport, Antoine LeClaire, and the then made chief of the Sac 
and Fox Nation, Keokuk, two thousand acres of land as an indemnity to the 
widow and children of Mr. Felix St. Vrain. 




PON the 2oth of July last occurred the death of one 
early identified with the political history of the 
Territory of Wisconsin while Iowa was attached 

The "Dennison and Brunson Company," composed of Ne\v 
York capitalists engaged in land speculations in the west, 
selected a spot upon the east bank of the Mississippi known 
as Cassville, about 30 miles above Dubuque, as the most 
likely to become the Capital of the Territory on account of its 
central location. Wisconsin and Iowa were then united polit- 
ically. In the month of June, 1836, Nelson Dewey, as clerk 
for the company, commenced operations there. The first act 


was to build a " Council House " for the sessions of the 
Territorial Legislature. The building still stands and is occu- 
pied as a store. Then followed the erection of an immense 
hotel, called to this day, the " Dennison House." In the crash 
of 1837 the company failed, and Mr. Dewey entered upon law 
practice at Lancaster, in company with Hon. J. A. Barber. 
Their practice was large and remunerative. Mr. Dewey was 
elected Register of Deeds upon the organization of Grant 
county in 1837, was elected to the Territorial Legislature in 
1838, was speaker of the House in 1840 and 1841, was 
elected to the Territorial Council in 1842, and made President 
of the Council during its fourth session, was elected Governor 
of the State when first admitted to the Union in 1848, and 
served in that capacity until January, 1852. Many of the 
prominent features of administration still existing were intro- 
duced by Gov. Dewey. 

In 1855 Gov. Dewey purchased the property owned bv the 
company since its failure in 1837, and undertook to make a 
city of Cassville. He purchased additional property, built a 
magnificent residence, which was soon after destroyed by fire 
from defective heating apparatus, laid out fine walks and drives 
at great expense, More than seven miles of solid stone walls 
bordering the drives still remain in ruins. 

Disaster after disaster befell him. His home was broken 
up; he retired to the Dennison House, the building of which 
he had superintended in 1836, and there passed his last days 
in seclusion, shunning those whom he met. He made no one 
his confidant. He attended every State Convention of the 
Democratic party and was honored as a gentleman of the old 
school, whose counsels were timely. At his request his body 
was deposited in the Episcopal burying ground of Lancaster, 

Many of the present and past State officers attended the 
final services. All the officers of the State Historical Society 
of Wisconsin were present, as a tribute of personal regard for 
a fast friend of the Society. 





|T may not be out of place to relate a few anecdotes 
of some of our frontier men, showing their unique 
and peculiar manner and methods of business. 
Some of them are to-day among our promi- 
nent and best citizens. 

I will endeavor to give facts, but not names, in all instances, 
out of delicacy to some of the parties. 

About the year 1859 or 1860 a youthful M. E. minister, 
whom I will designate as A., was assigned by the North Iowa 
Conference to a work embracing Smithland, in Woodbury 
county, and the settlements north up the Little Sioux river to 

The preacher was a young man of exceptional native ability 
and promise, \vas of the true western type, and therefore 
cou'ld adapt himself to circumstances as occasion required, and 
address himself in a manner that he could be understood. In 
those days plain talk was sometimes necessary to tame down 
and corrall the festive youth. At one of Brother A.'s appoint- 
ments there were a number of these incorrigible festives who 
were very annoying during services. Brother A. not only 
believed soft words would turn away wrath, but were a good 
preventive. On one occasion he. concluded to administer a 
little reproof, by way of anecdote, that would amuse them as 
well as severely reprove. Said he, " My friends, there was 
once an idiotic young man who attended church and heard the 
preacher discourse on God forming Adam out of clay. The 
sermon made a deep impression on the mind of the idiot, as 
sermons should. When he returned home he resolved to 
imitate the master architect by making an Adam out of clay. 
So he hied himself to a cluster of tall weeds adjacent to the 
village where he resided. He prepared clay and began the 
construction of his Adam. After some davs when his Adam 


was nearly completed some mischievous boys in the village 
became curious to know what attracted the idiotic young man 
so frequently to the weeds. They held a council and resolved 
to investigate. Awaiting an opportunity when the idiot had 
returned home to his meal they took his trail and were soon 
at his place of operations, where they found his Adam near 
completion. That they might have some sport with the 
unfortunate young man, they at once carried Adam number 
two away to a secret place, that they might enjoy no little 
glee in seeing the proprietor make a vigorous search for 
it. In this thev were not disappointed. After a fruitless 
search the idiot returned to the village, where he met a verdant 
and exceedingly awkward youth from the rural district. The 
idiot followed the greeny wherever he went, for he felt that 
the lost was found. When the greeny started for home, his 
pursuer was close at his heels, when he turned and said, why 
do you follow me? The idiot replied, 'Why did you leave 
before you were finished?' "My friends," said Rev. A. "I fear 
that is the case with some of you, you left before you were 

Rev. A., in relating this anecdote to me, said it had the 
desired effect, and corrected the rude habits of that congrega- 
tion, for no one after that desired to leave the impression that 
he or she was not finished. Rev. A. is now a prominent 
presiding elder in the United Brethren church in Iowa. 

A personal friend of Rev. Dean relates the following anec- 
dotes of him, which occurred during a heated political canvass 
in Iowa. Dean was a dispenser of political issues as well as 
of the gospel. He was an ardent democrat and an acknowl- 
edged leader of his party, and one of Iowa's most brilliant 
orators. When upon the stump he was a terror to his political 
foes, for he cried aloud and spared not. 

During one of his political canvassing tours he was invited 
to fill the pulpit of a brother divine on Sabbath. W T hen he 
arose to announce his text some of his political enemies present 


arose also and started for the door to shake the dust from their 
feet as a testimony against the priest, if not against the house. 
Dean, observing them, said, " Hold on, do not leave, I tight 
republicans six days in the week and the Devil one this is 
the Devil's day." The explanation was not sufficient to check 
the retreat, nor the ejaculation of little "cuss-words" that orna- 
mented their views of the preacher. 

It is related of him that when he was Chaplain in the U. S. 
Senate he was rather a rigid observer of church etiquette and 
was not backward in reminding his hearers of little improprie- 
ties. Many of his audience were, in the habit of turning their 
heads toward the door when anyone entered. This was quite 
annoying to Mr. Dean, who did not like to preach to people 
whose heads worked on pivots. He concluded to correct this 
little impropriety by the following suggestion: "My friends," 
said he, " it is doubtless a little inconvenient and troublesome 
for you to turn and look at every person who enters the 
house. I'll relieve you of that trouble by announcing the 
names of each person as they enter, and you can thus give me 
your entire attention." He proceeded with the services, and 
was soon interrupted by an arrival, which he announced as 
Hon. B., of Virginia, Mrs. A., of the city, and so he continued 
until a stranger entered that he could not name, when he said: 
"It is a little, old man, with a drab coat and white hat, I don't 
know who he is, look for yourselves." It is said that this 
cured his congregation of the pivot-head complaint without 
further announcements. 


In the latter part of the summer of 1857 low water in the 
Missouri river made Sioux City the terminus of navigation for 
that season. All freight for points above was discharged at 
Sioux City and conveyed to the final destination by teams. 
Capt. Lyon (afterward General Lyon, who fell at Wilson's 
Creek) was stationed at Ft. Randall, above Sioux City, and 
was ordered to Sioux City with government teams for the 
supplies for that post. Ther came with him a citizen who 


had been in the Quartermaster's employ as teamster. On 
settling with the Quartermaster there was one month's wages 
of $30.00 due him which the Quartermaster did not pay, for 
the reason, as he stated, the want of funds. The teamster was 
not a little grieved over the loss of his month's wages, and 
determined to appeal to the majesty of civil law for his rights. 
On his arrival in Sioux City he laid his case before Mr. H., 
a newly fledged disciple of Blackstone, who was just beginning 
to plume his legal pinions for a lofty flight in the legal world, 
and was looking for an important case for a riser. Here was 
a citizen vs. Uncle Sam just what was wanted. But 
where and how to begin was a question not clear to the legal 
mind of H. While he was consulting all the legal authorities 
at his command for a settler on this point, his client walked 
down Pearl street. Passing a saloon he discovered a mule 
belonging to one of Capt. Lyon's teams tied to a post in front 
of the saloon. The mule had been sent to a blacksmith shop 
to be shod. The soldier in passing the saloon doubtless was 
drier than the mule, and went in to slake his thirst while his 
muleship was left to his own reflection. On seeing the mule 
new light flashed on the mind of the client, and he rushed back 
to the office of H., feeling confident that he had found a vul- 
nerable point to attack Uncle Sam by way of attachment. H. 
now saw his way clear to bring Uncle Sam to terms. An 
attachment was soon in the hands of the Sheriff and the -mule 
made a prisoner of war under lock and key, where he was to 
languish until the uttermost farthing was paid. The soldier, 
after finishing his last smile, bethought him of his country's 
mule, and hastened to its relief. He found the hitching post 
all right, but the mule non est. The soldier now rustled on a 
double quick and doubtless thought, "a mule, a mule, my king- 
dom for a mule." He was soon on his track and reported as 
soon as possible to his Captain. The Captain at once took up 
the line of march for the seat of war. When he entered the 
attorney's office H. greeted him with a triumphant smile, 
when the Captain said, "Mr. H., is it true that you have 


attached a government mule that is in my charger" H., 
"Yes." Lyon, "What for?" H., "Because you owe us 
$30.00." Lyon, musingly, "Thirty dollars, and for what?" 
H., " For labor as teamster in the Quartermaster department 
at Ft. Randall." Lyon, "I have nothing to do with that; that 
is a matter between your client and the Quartermaster." H., 
"The mule is government property and subject to attachment 
for debt the same as the property of a private citizen, and we 
will hold it until we get our money." Lyon, "Mr. H., when 
you swear out an attachment you have got to swear that the 
debtor is about to abscond or leave the country. Are you 

/ J 

prepared to swear that Uncle Sam is about to abscond?" H., 
"Well, we do not know what he might do, so we will hold on 
to the mule until we get our money." 

Capt. Lyon, finding mild persuasion ineffectual to regain 
his property, assumed a firm and decisive military air, for 
which he was noted, and said, "Now, sir, I'm not going back 
to Ft. Randall without that mule, you can just bring it out. If 
not, I have men enough to take it;" this was accompanied 
with a business look that convinced H. that he had caught a 
tartar and the wrong mule and th^t to demur would be use- 
less, and that he could not wing his way to legal fame on that 
case, and turning to the Sheriff said, " Bring out the mule." 
It was not long before his muleship stood in front of the 
attorney's office, looking none the worse for having been the 
subject of legal process, when Capt. Lyon ordered it sent to 
the corrall, and he turned away saying, " Well, I think young 
H. a very clever young man, but he does not know much 
about law. I can teach him some yet." 


The following anecdote was related to me many years since 
by one of Gen. Harney's soldiers who had served under him 
several years, and who vouched for the truth of his statement. 
Harney much resembled Gen. Anthony Wayne in his peculiar 
organization as well as an Indian fighter. His memorable 
battle with the Indians at -Ash Hollow rendered his name as 


much of a terror to the Indians of the northwest as Wayne's 
was to the Indians in his day. Harney was very strict and 
exacting in dicipline; the least deviation would afford him an 
opportunity to let fly a copious shower of invectives. It was 
upon an occasion of this kind at one of the military posts on the 
upper Missouri river, where, for some trivial offense by one 
of his soldiers, that the General poured forth a shower of 
invectives so highly polished with profanity that the soldier 
remarked, "If you were not my General I would not take 
that." "You would not take it, eh! by - - we'll see about 
that," said the General; so saving he doffed his military coat, 
threw it upon the ground, and pointing to it said, "There lies 
the General;" then bringing his fist to his breast, said, "Here 
is old Harney; just try him on." A second invitation was 
not necessary. The soldier sailed in on the first; although the 
General was an athletic and muscular man he soon found that 
for once at least he had got more than his match, and that a 
general clean out was inevitable. There was a general lay 
dozvn, which was soon followed by a general surrender and 
capitulation. The General, after expelling the dust from his 

clothes, said, "Well, you are a d d good soldier, to whip 

your General; now, sir, you go and get a jug and come to 
my quarters and I'll fill it for you." The victor went his way; 
when in a short time he appeared at the General's quarters 
with a quart bottle, the General seized the bottle and sent it 
whirling through the air with no little profanity flying after it. 
Turning to the soldier, he said, "Get something that will hold 
something; a soldier that can whip his General is entitled to 

more than that d d bottle will hold." Again the soldier 

skirmished through the camp and soon returned with a two 
gallon demijohn. "Now," said Harney, "that looks like 
corralling the enemy." Taking it he filled it with old Bour- 
bon, and handing it to him, he said, "Now, sir, you have a 
furlough to go to the brush and get drunk while that priming 
lasts." The victor saluted his general and retired to the 
shades of private life for a few days, when he again returned 
for his countrv's good. 



The Old Brigade! how warms the 

With memories ; glorious its part 

From Shiloh to the sea; 
From that baptismal day of blood 
Until the hour its veterans stood 
On treason's capitol, and gave 
" Old Glory " to the breeze, to wave 

There through eternity. 

The "Old Brigade" shattered its 

By hard-fought fields, worn by the 

Of weary march; but shattered and 


It stood united, thinned and torn 
By rebel balls; these Iowa men 
Always came together again, 
From Shiloh's field to the last hour 
Of the accurs'd slaveholders' power; 
And all that time right royally 
In march, in siege, in victory, 

It bore the Hawkeye name. 
It made a place in history ; 
For courage and for constancy 
It won a deathless fame. 

Five thousand miles it marched, and 

Was readv; "Crocker's Grevhounds" 


Pages of history which the pen 
Will never write; braver men 
Ne'er moved against an enemv 
Than this host of the Tennessee. 
At Corinth, Vicksburg, Nickajack, 
At each remove in looking back 
They looked back at a victory 
From Kenesaw down to the sea. 
Before Atlanta, in those days 
Of carnage, the unstinted praise 
Of foe as well as friend, has made 

A record for the " Old Brigade." 

There in the storm of shot and shell 

The well-beloved McPherson fell. 

A soldier paused amidst the tide 

Of battle, broken at his side 

His arm hung bleeding, but he knelt 

By the fallen hero, and felt 

His final breath, then onward sped 

To guide his comrades to the dead. 

Glory to him, and with the rest 
Of your heroes, bravest and best, 
Place Reynolds' name, and let it live 
In praise which noble actions give. 
Strong hearts and true, who perilled 


Their lives for self, but rather fought 
That other lives might grow as free 
As theirs; and the old flag might be 
Unshorn of a star; who for the right 
Takes arms, arms twice; his thought 

is might ; 
A coat of mail his breast, though 

bare ; 

His brow, a helmet visored there; 
High courage, which the armored 

Could never make its wearer feel. 

Oh, Army of the! 
Time thins thy ranks, and silently 

Thy heroes fall away. 
A soul upon McGregor's height 
Commingles with the winds of night, 

And naught is left but clay. 
The reaper comes, and spareth not 
His blade, yet cannot cut the knot 
Which binds thv glories up; thy 

Endures; death only crowns thy 

fame ; 
It lives not for a dav. 

*Read before the Reunion of Crockers Iowa Brigade at Council Bluffs, 
September 18-19, 1889, by G. B. Pray, of the i6th Iowa. 



COL. J. J. WOODS, who was Colonel of the i2th Iowa Volun- 
teers, died September 27th, 1889, at his home near Oswego, 
Kansas. In 1847 he graduated at West Point, having followed 
U. S. Grant to the Military Academy from the same Congres- 
sional District. Col. Woods served in the Mexican war. Soon 
after the outbreak of the rebellion he was appointed by Gov. 
Kirkwooo! Colonel of the i2th Iowa Infantry. He was twice 
wounded at the battle of Shiloh and taken prisoner with his 
regiment, but was recaptured by the Union forces the second 
day of the battle. After his wounds had healed and his 
regiment had been exchanged, he resumed command of it, 
and fought on to the end of the war. President Grant twice 
appointed him a visitor to West Point. He removed from 
Iowa to Kansas in 1869, and settled on the farm where he 

THOMAS HUGH NAPIER died October 24th, 1889, near 
Ains worth, Brown county, Nebraska. He was born July 
2oth, 1809, in Giles county, Virginia, came to Iowa Territory 
in 1839, settling first in Johnson county, but removing to Polk 
countv March, 1864, where he served four years as Justice of 
the Peace, two years as Sheriff, and one year as County 
Judge. He was strictly honest and discharged the duties of 
the offices he held with fidelity and to the satisfaction of the 

PERRY REEL, born in Putnam county, Indiana, in 1838, 
but a resident of Pottawattamie county since 1852, died at 
Council Bluffs, December loth, 1889. He served his county 
in the Board of Supervisors five years, as Treasurer two 
years, and as Sheriff ten years. In 1862 he married Miss 
Nellie Branson, who, with four children survives him. Upon 
the announcement of his death, the District Court, then in 
session, adjourned after appointing a committee of the bar to 
draft suitable resolutions, expressing the loss felt by the Court, 
the bar, and the people of Council Bluffs. 



THE Indian has not been generally credited with much 
paternal feeling. An incident which occurred not long ago 
at Fort Supply in the Indian Territory, however, goes to 
refute this impression. An Indian scout named Sweetwater, 
a full-blooded Cheyenne, lost a child by death, and brooded 
over his affliction so deeply that in his despondency he 
attempted to commit suicide with his rifle. The gun was 
aimed at his heart but the effort of pulling the trigger diverted 
it and no serious wound resulted. 

CAPT. N. LEVERING, formerly of Sioux City, but for some 
time a resident of Los Angeles, who has contributed many 
valuable papers to the publications of the State Historical 
Society of Iowa, has also done rriuch to establish the Histori- 
cal Society of California, which is now in a flourishing condi- 
tion. Its prosperity has been much increased by the bequest, 
about a year ago, of one hundred thousand dollars made to its 
treasury by a wealthy Mexican. 

AT a reunion of the Indiana Association of Iowa held on the 
campus of Drake University at Des Moines, in August, 1887, 
Gen. George W. Jones, of Dubuque, ex-U. S. Senator from 
Iowa, was present and made an appropriate speech, he being 
an Indianan, having been born in Vincennes in that State. 
After the exercises had been concluded, and before the Gen- 
eral had left the stand, two ladies, Mrs. M. and Miss J., went 
to the stand and requested the President of the Association, 
Hon. P. M. Casady, to introduce them to the witty and polite 
General, which he did. The General, shaking hands, kissed 
each of them heartily in the presence of the large audience 
there assembled. The ladies blushed, and those who witnessed 
the scene smiled, some of them audibly. It is improbable 
that the ladies would have solicited an introduction if they had 
known the General's failing. The General said to the Presi- 
dent he could not resist the temptation of kissing such good 
looking ladies. 

^ _~^ 


VOL. VI. APRIL, 1890. No. 2. 


THAT mine adversary had written a book," was 
the exclamation of the man whose life has become, 
to all the ages, the synonj-m of patience. Twenty 
and more centuries has but served to accentuate the 
wisdom of the remark to him who has read the lives of men 
with which our literature abounds. A more recent writer 
with a view of having the truth told, said, "paint me as I 
am;" which is too seldom done by either the brush or the pen 
of the artist, however skilled he may be in their use. We 
have had some little experience in the use of the latter instru- 
ment, and in the line of pencil sketches of friends. We have 
thought therefore that the living or the memory of the dead 
would fare quite as well at the hands of an " adversary " as to 
be "painted" by one whose friendship knew no abatement 
through the lapse of many long and eventful vears of social 
and public life in which the twain had acted no inconspicuous 

Difficult as it may be to portray the career of a personal 
friend, other friends have enjoined upon us the labor of sketch- 
ing from the briefest material of his early life the private and 
public career of THOMAS HUGHES, one of Iowa's pioneer 


printers, publishers and editors, for it was in this field of labor 
he first engaged, and rendered the most valued services to 
the Territory and Stale of his adoption. 

The parents of Mr. Hughes, Ellis and Wilhelmina Hughes 
were Quakers, whose ancestors had at an early day settled in 
the Colony founded by the leader and greatest patron of their 
sect, William Penn, and like him were of English or rather 
Welsh origin. The father had taken his family to, and made 
a home in the rural village of Catavsissa, where on the 22d of 
September, 1814, their son, the subject of this sketch was 
born. The parents gave to him the name of Thomas, not 
doubting he would adhere to the faith of the fathers as it had 
been given, in their belief, to the saints. In this however, 
although the son was ever peaceably inclined, they were dis- 
appointed as he wisely concluded later in life that a united 
household was better, and he died as he had lived, a Presby- 
terian of the strictest sect. 

The boyhood of our friend was passed among the foothills 
that border the mountain range of the old Commonwealth, 
and mid the woods of Penn, skirting a small stream that flows 
into her grandest river, the Susquehanna, the boy grew in 
health and ambition to become a man. The father and familv 


removed to Danville the seat of justice of Montour county, 
Penn., while he was yet a lad and there he attended the 
school taught by his father, acquiring a good knowledge of 
the English branches taught in the village schools of that 
day. This education was preliminary to the higher and more 
practical one he later sought in the printing office of this town, 
situated near enough to the Capital of the State to borrow 
somewhat of its ideas and ambitions so captivating to the 
country youth. 

The learning of a trade by the country boys was in accord 
with "the eternal fitness of things" in that period when 
parents were not educated up to the standard of spoiling first- 
class printers and followers of other vocations by making 
" poor rate " hangers on of the learned professions. Young 


Hughes became a Master of Art in type-setting, and acquired 
as all industrious printer boys do a wider range of knowledge, 
of books, of men, and things. With this increase of knowledge 
and an increased ambition to succeed in his calling, he wended 
his way to Harrisburg (and later Philadelphia), and entered 
an office there as "journeyman-printer" and worked at the 
case till inspired by glowing reports of the "New Countries," 
he, before Greeley's day, came West, and to Iowa Territory 
in the fall of 1838. 


Iowa had been organized as a territory in July (4), 1838, 
at which time there was published at Dubuque the News 
(by W. W. Cornell), the successor to the Dubuque Visitor, 
by Judge King, the first newspaper published in Iowa 
while it was Wisconsin, in 1836. The Iowa Territorial 
Gazette was published at Burlington, and also in the second 
year, at that date by James Clarke, afterward the third and 
last Territorial Governor. The Fort Madison Patriot, later 
in the fall of 1838 removed to Burlington and became the 
Haivkeye, was published by James G. Edwards, its founder. 

At the time of Mr. Hughes' arrival in Iowa, which was at 
Davenport, the 2 7th of October, 1838, there was published by 
Mr. Logan the Iowa Sun, and Davenport and Rock Island 
Neivs. All of these papers were edited by the publishers, 
and all except Mr. Edwards, who was a Whig, were Demo- 
crats of the Jacksonian school. The Sun was founded in the 
August (15) preceding Mr. Hughes' arrival in Davenport. 
The Rock Island in the title had reference to the island on 
which stood the ruins of Fort Armstrong, and not to the 
present city of that name, which was then called Stephenson, 
and the paper purported to be published "simultaneously" at 
both places, country villages of that day. 

Mr. Hughes entered the office of the Sun as a journeyman, 
bringing with him but little capital other than a strong deter- 
mination to succeed in his business. He worked in this office 


with Mr. Logan and his sons till in November, when the con- 
vening of the Legislature (the first territorial) promising a 
better prospect in the printing business, he went to Burlington, 
the Territorial Capital, and engaged with Mr. Clarke (also a 
Pennsylvanian) upon the Gazette. In that office, Mr. Paul, 
city postmaster (1890), also worked that winter, and like Mr. 
Hughes later removed to this (Iowa) City and engaged in the 
newspaper business. In the spring of '39, when the Legisla- 
ture had adjourned, and the river opened, Mr. Hughes moved 
to Dubuque, and entered the office of the Dubuque News 
upon which he worked until his removal to Bloomington, 
(Muscatine) in October, 1840. The Express is still published 
at Dubuque under the name of the Herald the Gazette and 
Haivkeye at Burlington, under their oM names. The Sun, 
previously mentioned, was in 1842 sold, removed, and became 
a Mormon paper, under the significant title of " The Bride and 
the LamUs Wife" as it was in the singular number it is pre- 
sumed that polygamy had not then become engrafted upon 
the Latter Day Saints church polity. It was here, and then 
that we became acquainted with Mr. Hughes and formed a 
friendship broken only by his death many years later (1881). 
While at work in Dubuque (if not before) he became 
acquainted with John B. Russell, ^also engaged in the News 
office, and the two agreed to go into business for themselves, 
and established a paper at Bloomington. Mr. Hughes in 
1840 returned to Penn., purchased the material and forwarded 
it by boat from Pittsburg to Bloomington, where, under the 
firm name of Hughes & Russell they published on the 2yth 
of October, 1840, the Bloomington Herald, the seventh paper 
published in Iowa. 

The Herald had been preceded four days by the publication 
of the Iowa Standard, at Bloomington, by Messrs. Crum and 
Bailey, from Pennsylvania also, whose first number had made 
its appearance on the 23d of October. The publication of the 
Herald had been delayed over a week, awaiting the comple- 
tion of a room they were to occupy, but they had temporarily 


set up their press and printed the tickets for the democratic 
party, at that October election. To guard against carping 
criticism, we may here state that the election that year, was 
by the law of 1839, ordained to be held in October, and not 
August as provided by general statute. Messrs. Hughes and 
Russell were Democrats and published, a Democratic paper, 
while the Standard was Whig in its politics." A few months 
later, the Standard was removed to Iowa City, and issued 
under the name of the Iowa City Standard, and for a time it 
purported to be issued "simultaneously" at Iowa City and 
Bloomington, until a wag of a devil in the office changed it to 
spontaneously, when it was dropped. 

In the fall (Nov. 20) of 1841, Mr. Hughes having sold his 
interest in the Herald to his partner, Mr. Russell, also removed 
to Iowa City. The. Herald was edited by the junior partner, 
Mr. Russell, while both worked at the case. Mr. Russell set 
up his editorials without writing them down, and in the selec- 
tion of his copy, of which the papers of that day were mostly 
made up, displaved remarkablv good taste, and used the scis- 
sors to a better advantage than the pen. A local historian of 
that county (Muscatine) says of Mr. R. that "he was the 
controlling spirit of the Herald" which is only true in the 
sense that he did the editorial work. The method of con- 
ducting a paper in those days was quite different from that in 
use at the present time. Then we had only a weekly mail, 
and no daily papers nearer than St. Louis and Cincinnati, at 
least none came to the office in exchange (as we know, having 
had more or less to do with the office as a writer in those 
days). With but little news from abroad or at home, the 
papers were mostly made up of selections and essays on moral 
and historical subjects, save during the election campaigns, 
when a little politics was infused by way of leaven to the 
whole lump. 

"Mr. Hughes, the senior partner," the same writer says 
"was of a retiring disposition, and filled his place honorably 
but without making any marked impression on the paper or 


town." To-day there is no instrumentality which exerts such 
an influence upon society as the Press. Its power for good 
or evil is unlimited, and the local press is justly considered 
among the most important institutions in our cities, towns 
and villages. In the early days of our history the circu- 
lation was much more limited, and in order to make our- 
selves known abroad, we had then recourse to what has since 
become a great and important factor of all our leading dailies. 
We well remember that in 1838, '39 and '40, we were a reg- 
ular correspondent for a Cincinnati daily with the sole view of 
advertising Iowa by "writing up" its promised advantages to 
the emigrant from the older states. In the latter year, we 
were also the regular weekly correspondent of the Herald 
during the third session of our Territorial Legislature. 

In view of the fact that the coming session of the Territorial 
Legislature was to convene at Iowa City (a temporary capitol 
building having been erected for the purpose by Walter Butler 
in behalf of the citizens) in December (6th) of this year, 
1841, Mr. Hughes formed a partnership with General Ver- 
planck VanAntwerp also of Bloomington, and arranged to 
establish a paper at the new c.ipltal, Iowa City. Mr. Van- 
An':werp was from Albany, N. Y., hid been appointed by 
President Van Buren, (his personal as well as political friend) 
Receiver of Public Moneys in the Land O.fice at Burlington 
the first established in the territory, and in 1838. He was not 
a practical printer. Tney took their material from Blooming- 
ton where it h id arrived from Burlington in the fall, and 


founded the old Iowa Capital Rep trier now the State Press,. 
In this office George Paul, now postmaster at Iow r a City 
and who had like Mr. Hughes worked in the Gazette office at 
Burlington in 1838, was the foreman. The paper was of 
course Democratic in its politics, and edited by VanAntwerp,. 
while its business affairs were superintended by the junior 
partner (Hughes). A Democratic paper had been previously- 
established, August ist, 1841, at the prospective capital by Dr. 
Nathan Jackson, of Ind., styled the Iowa City Argus, but its- 


vision was however, notwithstanding its hundred eyed name, 
of limited duration. In this office another of our old settlers, 
Isaac V. Dennis, was foreman, but though a "born printer" he 
could not with his editor, compete with the adversary for the 
"Public Printing" for which both papers had been started. 
The contest was short, sharp, and bitter, and the "Burlington 
party," as the proprietors of the Reporter were called, won the 
coveted prize, and the Argus was discontinued. In October, 
1842, Col. Jesse Williams, who had been a fellow clerk with 
the writer in Gov. Lucas' office in 1838, and later, 1846, 
became the Secretary of the Territory, purchased Gen. Van- 
Antwerp's interest, and became a partner with Mr. Hughes, 
and joint editor as well as publisher. 

Two years later, 1844, Mr. Hughes retired, having sold his 
interest to Col. -Williams, who became sole editor and propri- 
etor. This was the last venture of Mr. Hughes in the news- 
paper business as editor or publisher. Some years later, 
however (after the war), he returned to the case, and worked 
for a season. The foregoing statement needs a brief qualifi- 
cation. During the war, while the 28th Regiment, of which 
Mr. Hughes was quartermaster, was stationed at Alexandria, 
La., Col. Connell, its commander, confiscated the rebel press 
of that town. Mr. now Lieut. Hughes, being a practical 
printer, opened office, and issued for a while a "live" daily 
journal from the abandoned office, in the interest of the Union, 
and the Union Army of Occupation. 

It would be historically interesting to trace the subsequent 
career of the Herald and the Reporter founded by Mr. 
Hughes in part, but it would be foreign to our present pur- 
pose, which is to speak of him, and his ventures in the news- 
paper line. He had but little to do with the editorial depart- 
ment, though his name always appeared in connection with 
his partner, whether his junior, as in the case of Russell, or 
senior, as in' the case of VanAntwerp. He was a good and 
successful business manager, and had a thorough knowledge 
of the art preservative of all arts, and his papers always com- 


manded the respect of his party, and the business public. He 
was too modest and retiring in his disposition, and not suf- 
ficiently aggressive and combative in his character to control 
the editorial department of a political paper, the official organ 
of the party, and hence he shrank from the task, willing to 
devolve it upon his associates, who quite as willingly assumed 
the duty. We speak from personal and intimate knowledge 
of all the parties, for even in those years our partisan press 
contained too much of the controversial bitterness which has 
in later years detracted so much from their high character. 


Notwithstanding he had retired from the Press, he still took 
an active interest in politics, and public affairs. Iowa having 
in the winter (Dec. 27) of 1846, become a state, Mr. Hughes 
was elected a Senator to the first State Legislature from the 
counties of Muscatine, Johnson, and Iowa, and in November 
(3Oth) of that year took his seat as a Democrat, which party 
had a majority in both houses. Mr. Hughes was chairman 
of the Committees on Incorporations, and Enrolled Bills, and 
took an active interest in "schools and school lands," but was 
not known for his "much speaking." An extra session was 
held January 3d, 1848, when Mr. Hughes was elected Presi- 
dent. Not a little singular is the coincidence that his old 
associate at the case in Dubuque, and partner at Bloomington, 
John B. Russell, was elected Secretary of the Senate at both 
sessions. The Senate consisted of nineteen members, twelve 
Democrats and seven Whigs, when Mr. Hughes received 
fourteen of the nineteen votes. His addresses upon taking the 
chair as also at the close of the session when he pronounced 
the body adjourned sine die, were remarkable for their brevity 
(an example worthy of imitation by his successors), as "he was 
not" he said, "versed in the rule or practice of deliberative 

This extra session had been called to legislate upon the 
subject of the "School Law," the regular session having 


passed a law without providing for the election of school 
officers to carry into effect its provisions. With the close of 
this session he retired from state politics and devoted him- 
self to county and city affairs. 

In 1856, he, with Sam'l J. Kirk wood, and many other 
Democrats, switched off from the Democratic party on the 
Slavery question involved in the Kansas-Nebraska Bill, which 
agitated the whole country, and henceforth acted with the 
Republican party, in whose fold he died. From 1869-72 and 
again 1878-80, he served by annual and successive elections 
as City Clerk, which office he filled at the date of his death. 

He served the county as Treasurer for two terms, 1856-60, 
proving himself an efficient and faithful officer. 

He was an active and prominent Odd Fellow, having 
become a member at Muscatine about the year 1845. Later, 
in 1846, he became a charter member, and was one of the 
leading founders of Kosciusko Lodge, No. 6, at Iowa City. 
To his influence, personal efforts, and worthy example, this 
old and popular Lodge owes much of its reputation and high 
standing in the Order and in the Grand Lodge of the state. 
That his worth and services were duly appreciated is evi- 
denced by the fact that he was called successively to fill the 
position of N. G. at home, and of Grand Treasurer and Grand 
Master of the State Body as well as of Grand Representative 
in the National or Supreme Grand Lodge of the Order. 

In April, 1877, by election of the Board of Curators, he 
became the Secretary of the State Historical Society, holding 
the office till July, 1881. In this position he rendered valuable 
services in arranging and caring for the large collections of 
the Society. 

August 1 5th, 1862, he was commissioned Quartermaster of 

the 28th Regiment, Iowa Volunteer Infantrv, which rendez- 
voused at Iowa City. Of this regiment, Wm. E. Miller, a 
fellow-townsman, was the first Colonel. He was succeeded 
upon his resignation, March, 1863, by John Connell of Toledo, 


who led his regiment, as a part of the 3d Division of the 
Army under Gen. Banks, in the famous Red River Expedi- 
tion, in the spring of 1864. At the bloody battle of "Sabine 
Cross Roads" Gen. Banks was defeated "by bad general- 
ship," says Ingersoll in his "Iowa and the Rebellion," and 
Col. Connell wounded (losing his right arm) and captured. 

It was here too that Quartermaster Hughes was captured 
and carried by the forces under Gen. Dick Taylor (son of 
old Zach\ to Tyler in Texas, where he languished for many 
months (14) in the rebel prison from which he was not 
released till in July, 1865, when enfeebled by long confine- 
ment and prison hardships, he returned, broken in health, if 
not in spirit, to his Iowa home. The result of exposure on 
the march, and his sufferings in prison caused him the partial 
loss of an eye, and the same year he had a paralytic stroke 
from which he recovered, and later a second from which he 
never entirely recovered. 


During his residence in Dubuque, Mr. Hughes became 
acquainted with the lady, who later became his wife, Miss 
Louisa C. F. King, who had assisted her mother in teaching 
the first female school of a higher grade in Iowa and was in 
1839, teacher of modern languages in the classical (the first 
in Iowa) school of Col. Thos. H. Benton, jr. When Mr. 
Hughes had become settled in business at Bloomington as 
publisher of the Herald, he returned to Dubuque and married 
the lady of his choice, who became the mother of his children, 
and pr3ved a helpmeet indeed in all the qualities of a most 
estimable and devoted wife. Their marriage occurred Sep- 
tember 1 5th, 1841, and until death claimed the husband, forty 
years later, they shared each other's fortunes in a helping 
union at Iowa City, where the widow still lives beloved by 
all who have known her during these years. 

To them were born four children, Delia, the wife of Prof. 
James Gow, formerly of the State University, and now a large 


stock raiser and farmer of Greenfield, Adair county, Iowa, 
Ellis G., a prominent attorney of Portland, Oregon; Anna G., 
the prop and stay of her mother whose crippled condition 
from a fall, Thanksgiving day, 1881, has required and made 
the loving services of Miss Anna, essential to her comfort and 
usefulness, for neither age nor infirmity has abated her zeal 
in the labor of her hands, nor her interest in the welfare of 
her children; and Miss Louise E. (or Lou for short), long 
principal of the Iowa City High School, now of the High 
School at Des Moines. Children and grandchildren rise up 
to call her blessed, as a mother in Israel as of the family. 

She early became united, as in late years did her husband, 
with the Presbyterian church, which, while in health, they 
both served wjth a zeal that knew no abatement. Mrs. 
Hughes was a native of Baltimore, where she was born 
August 23d, 1823, and with her mother (her father having 
died during her infancy) removed to Dubuque in 1839, a vear 
later than the coming of him who was to be her life-long 

Mr. Hughes was truly a retiring and home man, always 
preferring the society of home life and friends to mingling 
among men of the world. And while for many years pub- 
lishing, and nominally editing prominent, and, at times, the 
official papers of the dominant party (in those days Demo- 
cratic in whose faith he had been reared) he vet ever shrank 
from an active participation in the party affairs necessary to 
party success. But when from a sense of duty to those whose 
leader he at times became, he hesitated not .to embark in 
political warfare notwithstanding the Quaker blood that 
coursed through his veins. 

He ever took a deep interest in the welfare of the city 
where he spent a majority of the years of his life, and strove 
by his efforts to promote the welfare of her people. 

Not ambitious for office for the mere honors of position he 
yet at times successfully sought the support of his fellow- 
citizens, rendering them an honest and faithful service in 
return for their suffrages. 


In the social organizations to which he belonged he was 
in his earlier years an active and useful worker to promote 
their success. Through his aid and that of kindred spirits the 
Lodge of Odd Fellows he had organized at an early day 
became very prominent among the secret societies of the city 
and state, numbering among its members many of our promi- 
nent citizens. 

In earlier years Mr. Hughes had been prosperous in busi- 
ness, and accumulated enough to lighten the burden of his 
declining years, but, through the failure of a city bank, and 
the betrayal of confidence reposed in friends (?) he lost the 
savings of years, and struggling on he labored to make com- 
fortable those depending upon him. Yet, during these years, 
we never heard him complain, but patiently endured to the 
end which came on the nth of March, 1881, when he suc- 
cumbed to an attack of paralysis of the lungs. The old 
settlers and many kind friends, old and new, bore his remains 
to yonder cemetery on the hill overlooking the beautiful Iowa, 
where repose so many of the old settlers of our city and state. 
To-day, there remain but few of the pioneer band who were 
his companions, but as they pass away, one by one, their 
work still lives, and generations unborn will enjoy the fruits 
of their labors. 

Of all his associates of the press, whether publishers, editors 
or journeymen at the case of 183^-41, during which years Mr. 
Hughes was one of them, at Davenport, Burlington, Dubuque, 
Muscatine, and Iowa City, all save two, George Paul, and 
Isaac V. Dennis, of this (Iowa) City have crossed the dark 
river, Logan, Clarke, Edwards, Cornell, Crum, Bailey, 
Jackson, VanAntwerp, and Williams, all of whom we have 
named in their proper connections, preceded him in their last 
call for copy. But the press , of each of those five places 
and five hundred others in the Iowa of to-day move on as 
though none had died. 

Although never a publisher and not till later years editor- 
ially engaged, we were then closely and intimately associated 


with Mr. Hughes and a majority of his associate editors and 
publishers, as a writer and a party worker from the first to 
his last connection with the early press of Iowa. And now 
when the Autumn leaves of fifty and one winters have fallen 
around us and we, standing almost alone, are led to exclaim 
with the poet 

"When I remember all 

The friends so linked together, 
I've seen around me fall, 
Like leaves in wintry weather; 
I feel like one 
Who treads alone 
Some banquet hall deserted; 
Whose lights are fled, 
Whose garlands dead, 
And all but one departed." 




JHILE the Black Hawk war was raging, Congress 
authorized the creation of a battalion of Mounted 
Rangers, by Act of June i5th, 1832, for the better 
protection of the frontiers. In supporting the 
measure in the House of Representatives, Hon. Joseph 
Duncan, afterwards Governor of Illinois, said that about the 
first proposition he ever submitted for the consideration of 
Congress was one for raising eight companies of mounted 
gunmen for this service in 1828; he believed that all the 
distress and bloodshed that had just been heard of in Illinois 
would have been avoided if Congress had adopted that plan; 
no number of U. S. soldiers on foot could restore confidence 
to the citizens residing in that country; families who have 
witnessed the shocking scenes which had just been acted on 
the frontier would never return to their homes until an efficient 


force was raised for their protection; he believed we should 
hear of no more Indian wars after this force was organized 
and placed in service. The President appointed Henry Dodge 
Major of the battalion. His commission was brought to him 
by express at the mouth of the Whitewater river, when at the 
head of his command in line of battle. 

As soon as the Black Hawk war was over, a Rangers' 
camp was established on the Mississippi near the mouth of 
Rock river. The cholera, which had been brought from the 
seaboard with the troops under General Scott, 1 broke out in 
the camp, and raged for three weeks. Thirteen of the 
Rangers died, and were buried in the woods without coffins. 
Upon this outbreak of the epidemic General Scott issued the 
following order: 

FORT ARMSTRONG, August 28th. 1832. \ 
Order No. 16. 

1. The cholera has made its appearance on Rock Island. The two first 
cases were brought by mistake from Capt. Ford's company of U. S. Rangers; 
.one of these died yesterday, the other is convalescent. A second death 
occurred this morning in the hospital in Fort Armstrong. The man was of 
the 4th Infantry, and had been some time there under treatment for debility. 
The Ranger now convalescent was in the same hospital with him for sixteen 
hours before a cholera hospital could be established outside the camp and Fort. 

2. It is believed that all these men were of intemperate habits. The 
Ranger, who is dead, it is known, generated the disease within him by a fit of 

3. This disease having appeared among the Rangers, and on this Island, all 
in commission are called upon to exert themselves to the utmost to stop the 
spread of the calamity. 

4. Sobriety, cleanliness of person, cleanliness of camp and quarters, together 
with care in the preparation of the men's messes, are the grand preventives. 
No neglect under these important heads will be overlooked or tolerated. 

5. In addition to the foregoing, the Senior Surgeon present recommends 
the use of flannel shirts, flannel drawers and woolen stockings; but the 
Commanding General, who has seen much of disease, knows that it is 
intemperance which in the present state of the atmosphere generates and 
spreads the calamity, and that, when once spread, good and temperate men 
are likely to take the infection. 

i Of about fifteen hundred officers and men of the regular troops ordered 
to the northwestern frontier, not less than two hundred died by the cholera. 
Report of the Secretary of War, Nov. 25, 1832. 


6. He therefore peremptorily commands that every soldier or Ranger, who 
shall be found drunk or sensibly intoxicated after the publication of this order, 
be compelled, as soon as his strength will permit, to dig a grave at a suitable 
burving place large enough for his own reception, as such grave cannot fail 
soon to be wanted for the drunken man himself or some drunken companion. 

7. This Order is given, as well to serve for the punishment of drunkenness 
as to spare good and temperate men the labor of digging graves for their 
worthless companions. 

S. The sanitary regulations now in force respecting communications 
between the camp near the mouth of Rock river and other camps and posts 
in the neighborhood are revoked. [They had provided for sending all the 
sick to the hospital on Rock Island]. Col. Eustis, however, whose troops are 
perfectly free from cholera, will report to the Commanding General whether 
he believes it for the safetv of 1iis command that these regulations should be 
renewed. By order of MAJOR GENERAL SCOTT, 

P. H/ GALT, Ass't Adjutant General. 

At this time there were three Sacs confined in the military 
prison at Fort Armstrong on a charge of having been parties 
to a murderous attack upon a Menominee camp near Prairie 
du Chien, on the 3ist of July, 1831. On account of the 
cholera Gen. Scott set them at liberty, taking their promise to 
return upon the exhibition of a certain signal to be hung from 
the limb of a dead tree at an elevated point of the island when 
the epidemic should be over. They kept their word, and 
reported themselves upon the exhibition of the signal. They 
were again placed on parole, and subsequently released. 1 


Special Order : ROCK ISLAND, September 6th, 1832. \ 

The General commanding directs the use of the following paroles and 
countersigns for the ensuing eight davs: 

Parole. Countersign. 

1832, Sept. 7. Caesar. Gaul. 

8. Hannibal. Capua. 

9. Napoleon. Corsica. 

10. Desaix. Marengo. 

11. Saladin. Palestine. 

12. Hamlet. Denmark. 

13. Atkinson. Bad Axe. 

14. Dodge. Quisconsin. 

R. BACHE, S Ass't Adjutant General. 
Commanding Battalion U. S. Rangers, 
Camp on Rock River. 

1 Autobiography of Lt. General Scott, Chap, xviii. 

2 Richard Bache was a descendant of Benjamin Franklin. 


Major Dodge was present at the treaty made by General 
Scott and Governor Reynolds with the Winnebagoes, on Rock 
Island, on the i5th of September and at the request of those 
Indians acted as their friend and adviser in the Council. Writ- 
ing a number of years afterward, Gen. Scott spoke of that 
occasion and of the course of Henry Dodge in the Black 
Hawk war, in the following manner: 

In the Black Hawk war Gen. Dodge displayed, as was generally acknowl- 
edged, the greatest vigor in pursuit, and prowess in conflict with the Indians. 
After Gen. Atkinson's battle of the Bad Axe, the Western Army came under 
my immediate command, and I know that Geft. Dodge was held in the highest 
dread by both the enemy and their secret abettors, the Winnebagoes. Yet, at 
the treaty held with the latter, Gen. Dodge was chosen as their councillor, and 
it gave me great delight to witness, the zeal and humanity he displayed in 
protecting their interests, a trait, in my humble judgment, as honorable to him 
as his victorious blade. I was upon the whole deeply impressed with his 
merits and have not since doubted that according to their merits, or demerits, 
he will ever be found the protector or punisher of the Indians about him. 1 

He was also present at the "treaty of peace, friendship, and 
cession," made on the 2ist of September with the Sacs and 
Foxes, upon the site of the present city of Davenport. His 
signature was appended as a witness to both treaties. These 
treaties were of great historical significance to the future State 
of Iowa. That with the Winnebagoes granted to them what 
was then known as the "Neutral Ground," in what is now 
Northern Iowa, in lieu of lands they had long occupied on the 
east side of the Mississippi, south and east of the Wisconsin 
river and of Fox river of Green Bay. By the treaty with the 
Sacs and Foxes, those confederated tribes ceded to the U. S. 
"a tract of the Sac and Fox country bordering on the invaded 
frontier, more than proportional to the numbers of the hostile 
band that had been conquered and subdued," viz., a strip of 
land on the east side of the Mississippi, about two hundred 
miles in length, extending from the boundary line of the State 
of Missouri on the south to the "Neutral Ground" on the 
north, and ranging from fifty to seventy-five miles in breadth, 
containing about six million acres of land; and they agreed to 

i Letter of Winfield Scott to A. C. Dodge, Feb. gth, 1841. 


remove from the ceded country on or before the first day of 
June, 1833, with the express understanding that they were 
not to reside, plant, fish, or hunt on any portion of it after that 
date. Thus that date became memorable in Iowa history 
as the day in which a portion of her territory first became 
open to occupation and settlement by the American people. 

The battalion of mounted Rangers consisted of six com- 
panies, three of which (Captains James D. Henry, Benjamin 
V. Beekes, and Jesse B. Browne 1 ) were assigned by Major 
General Scott to the Northwestern frontier, to range between 
the Wabash river, Chicago, Ft. Winnebago, and the mouth of 
the Wisconsin river, under the immediate instructions of Major 
Dodge. The other companies (Captains Lemuel Ford, Jesse 
Bean, and Nathan Boone 1 ) were ordered to Fort Gibson, on 
the Arkansas river, for the protection of the Southwestern 
frontier. The circumstances and discipline of the service are 
explained in the following orders of Major Dodge : 

September 23d, 1832. \ 
Order No. q. 

Capt. Browne will march his company from his present encampment to the 
vicinity of Danville, Illinois. He is permitted to make a proper selection of a 
position for erecting suitable buildings for the use of his officers and men for 
the next winter. In the choice of this position he will select the most suitable 
place for fuel, as well as forage for the horses; it being an object of the first 
importance that the corn and forage should be as cheap as possible. 

The greatest respect is to be paid to the private rights of citizens. The 
Rangers were intended for the defence and protection of the inhabitants of the 
frontiers, and it is strictly enjoined on each officer and Ranger not to trespass 
on the private rights of any citizen without paving a just equivalent for what 
may be received. 

Gambling and drinking to intoxication is prohibited. The Captain com- 
manding will order court martials for the trial of those found intoxicated, and 
punish them without delay ; as well as prevent gambling in his camp. 

Capt. Browne will report to me monthly, to be directed to Mineral Point, 

i Capt. Browne was a member from Lee County of the Council of the first 
four Legislative Assemblies of Iowa Territory, of the H. of R. of the 8th 
Legislative Assembly, and of the H. of R. and Speaker of the House, of the 
First General Assembly of the State. Capt. Boone was a son of Daniel 
Boone, the Kentucky pioneer. A sketch of their lives is in the Annals of 
Iowa, July, 1872, pp. 196, 226. 


Michigan Territory, the strength and condition of his company, as to arms, 
ammunition, provisions, as well as the state and condition of his horses. 

The Commanding Officer of the Rangers expects that each officer and 
Ranger will be prompt and diligent in the discharge of his duty. The govern- 
ment intends this corps as the vanguard for the frontier. This high expecta- 
tion must- not be disappointed. 

VANDALIA, ILL., October i3th, 1832. 
Capt. Jesse Browne, 

Commanding a Company of U. S. Rangers: 

I have this day received a letter from His Excellency, Governor Reynolds, 
stating that the Pottawattamie Indians had assumed an imposing and threaten- 
ing attitude on the northern frontier of Illinois. From the pressing manner the 
Governor writes me on this subject, you will without delay inarch your com- 
pany from the vicinity of Danville to the northern frontier of this State. You 
will range the country from Ottawa at the mouth of Fox river on the Illinois 
river, so as to completely cover the settlements on Beaver creek in the coun- 
ties of Putnam and La Salle. You will order the Pottawattamies out of the 
settlements, and drive them out of the range of the settlements, if they refuse 
to go. You will select such a position on Bureau as will enable you to procure 
corn and forage for your horses. Your assistant commissary will make the 
necessary purchases for the supply of the company, unless the company 
should find it more convenient to furnish themselves. You are not to 
make an attack on the Pottawattamies unless they should make an attack on 
the frontiers. Should they, however, shed a drop of white blood, you will not 
hesitate to kill the offenders, their aiders and abettors. Should the Indians 
leave that frontier, and the minds of the inhabitants be quieted, you will return 
to your winter quarters near Danville.' You will exercise your own judgment 
as to the proper time to leave the frontier, which will be governed wholly by 
the attitude assumed by the Indians. 

Early in 1833 Henry Dodge visited Washington. Regarded 
as the hero of the Black Hawk war, he was received with 
marked attention and honor. President Andrew Jackson 
greeted him with assurances of high appreciation and esteem. 
Senator Buckner, of Missouri, complimented him in the Senate 
chamber, as already quoted. Those were the squally days of 
nullification in South Carolina. Gen. Scott had been ordered 
to Charleston, also ships of war, and the President had signi- 
fied his determination, if matters grew worse, to appoint 
Henry Dodge Marshal of South Carolina, to insure the execu- 
tion of the laws of the United States in that State. The fol- 
lowing letter to Henry Dodge, from his half-brother, Lewis 
F. Linn, M. D., who, upon the death of Mr. Buckner by 


cholera the next summer, succeeded him as Senator from 
Missouri, relates to this period: 

SAIXTE GEXEVIEVE, February I5th, 1833. 

DEAR BROTHER: I had written you a few days before the reception of 
your letter announcing vour arrival at Washington. It is needless for me to 
say how much I was gratified at the friendly and distinguished manner of your 
reception by our venerable and truly great President, so every way qualified to 
judge of the relative merit of men. How contemptible his revilers must feel 
on seeing him every moment growing in greatness and increasing in the con- 
fidence and affection of the American people! Time, you know, is an indolent 
old fellow not fond of burthens, and, as he drives along the stream into the 
ocean of eternitv, freighted with the reputation of men, is ever and anon 
engaged in selecting from his overloaded bark such as do not deserve immor- 
tality, and casting them into oblivion. Among the retained will ever be found 
the name of Andrew Jackson. 

Your chivalrous conduct during the late Indian war has truly placed you on 
elevated ground, from whence you will be enabled to catch a glimpse of com- 
ing events, and turn them to your advantage and to that of our common 
country. It would be a sincere source of regret to find in our domestic 
troubles you might be compelled to shed American blood, but if stern necessity 
requires it I know your valor will be tempered with humanity. In a govern- 
ment like ours, made by the people and for the people, where the public will is 
the supreme arbiter, where the great mass of the people seldom err in judg- 
ment, every friend to his country, nay, every friend to liberty throughout the 
world, may still entertain a reasonable hope that the difficulty with South 
Carolina will yet be arranged without a resort to force ; but should it be other- 
wise I entertain no fear for the result, and none that you will conduct your- 
self, if engaged, in such a wav as to benefit vour country, and add to your well- 
earned reputation. 

In accordance with your wish I will write Col. Buckner, happy if any little 
influence I may possess could be of service to you; but I doubt much if he has 
weight at Washington. You know the President, and, knowing him, you can 
judge whether his wavering course heretofore is likely to gain him the esteem 
of General Jackson, whose judgment is so unerring as regards men; in fact 
his election was the result of a singular combination of circumstances, most of 
which Col. Benton is acquainted with. I might have been in his place, if I 
had not disdained to be elected by my political opponents; even if I was con- 
sidered of sufficient importance to be bid for. I had to choose between him 
and Wells, and I preferred Buckner, knowing that the southern part of the 
State had in some measure been overlooked heretofore. I must say he has 
shown every disposition to befriend me since. His subsequent opposition to 
Col. Benton is, I presume, part of the price he had to pay the Clay men for 
their support. In this I was completely deceived, or he would not have 
received my vote. 

I am aware of the many virtues of Gen. Ashley, of his sterling good sense, 
and of his sincere unfeigned friendship for^'ou; but, my dear brother, Col. 


Benton is the only man Missouri ever had in Congress whose splendid talents, 
unwavering purpose of soul, and expanded views entitled him to the character 
of a great man. It would not surprise me to see him President. At present I 
view Richard M. Johnson as the only man that stands between him and Vice- 
President. In support of him last summer, patriotism and personal regard 
were combined to induce me to contribute my mite toward his success. He 
ever to me manifested a sincere friendship for you, and for myself I owe him 
many acts of kindness. 

My constitution is much worn out by sickness and a harrassing profession; 
my head is tolerably well sprinkled with gray hairs, great muscular debility 
from palpitation of the heart, though I weigh what my father did when he 
died, 180 pounds. I endeavor to fulfil my duty to my profession, country, 
friends, and family, and will try to live without fear and die without reproach. 
After my time as Commissioner expires, I would be pleased to get some ap- 
pointment for which I might be qualified, that would relieve me from this 
unfortunate profession of mine to be looking always on man as an object of 
affliction and sorrow, to be compelled to examine him by piecemeal, every 
tendon, muscle, bone, nerve, and organ, but worst of all to be compelled to 
analyze his passions, trace them to their source, and view them in their naked 
deformity ; my soul yearns after getting rid of this. 

I have at present three fine children; my wife's health very bad; our old 
friend Scott is much under the weather; he appears to delight in your bright- 
ening prospects; sister is as usual, happy and cheerful; nothing can crush her 
fortitude; our town and section of country looking up. That your visit to 
Washington may be one of pleasure and profit is the sincere wish of your 
brother. L. F. LINN.* 


In his annual report, November 25th, 1832, the Secretary 
of War, Mr. Cass, recommended the conversion of the corps 
of rangers into a regiment of dragoons. Consequent upon this 
recommendation, an act for the more perfect defence of the 
frontiers was passed by Congress, approved March 2d, 1833. 
It provided for a regiment of ten companies, of one hundred 
men each. The President appointed Henry Dodge Colonel 
of the regiment. Thus honored with the confidence of the 
Government, Col. Dodge returned to his command. He 

i Dr. Linn was at this time one of three Commissioners to settle Spanish 
land claims in Missouri. His sister, Mrs. Mary Ann McArthur, removed to 
Michigan Territory in 1835, and kept hotel at Belmont during the first session 
of the First Legislative Assembly of Wisconsin Territory, 1836. Gen. Ashley 
was member of House of Representatives from Missouri, John Scott was 
delegate to Congress from Missouri Territory, 1817-1821. 


issued the following order to one of his Captains, who had 
been appointed in the place of Capt. Henry: 

ST. Loris, March 3ist, 1833. 
Capt. Matthew Duncan ^ 

Commanding- Company of U. S. Rangers: 

You will on hearing of the departure of the caravans for Santa Fe hold 
jour company in readiness, and march them to join the caravans at the nearest 
point from vour present encampment. Your command will act as an escort 
until you arrive at the Arkansas river, or the boundary line between the 
United States and Mexico. You will afford the caravans on their march all 
the aid and assistance in your power, and defend them against the attack of 
the hostile Indians. You will preserve the utmost harmony between the 
Rangers and the Santa Fe traders. On your march you will guard against the 
possibility of surprise. On your arrival at the southwestern boundary line of 
the United States, you will have an express understanding with the traders as 
to the time they will return, and you will meet them with your company on 
their return at the boundary line, and act as an escort until they pass the line 
of the State of Missouri. H. DODGE, 

Col. U. S. Dragoons, Commanding U. S. Rangers. 

Upon the Illinois frontier he found the people in a state of 
alarm from a wide-spread apprehension that the Winnebagoes 
and Pottawattamies were forming a combination to attack the 
settlements. He at once made a disposition of troops to quiet 
the public mind and protect the frontier. A low stage of 
water in the river preventing steamboats from passing the 
rapids of the Upper Mississippi, he travelled on horseback 
from St. Louis by way of Vandalia, Fort Clark and Dixon's 
Ferry to Dodgeville, a distance of 400 miles. The following 
letters explain the condition of the frontier at this period: 

VAXDALIA, April 3d, 1833. 
To Captains Beekes and Brtnvne: 

The threatening attitude of the Winnebagoes and the exposed situation of 
our Northwestern frontier makes it important for the safety of the citizens of 
that frontier, as well as to enforce a strict observance of the treaty made with 
the Winnebagoes, that you should march from your present position to Hen- 
nepin on the Illinois river, to arrive at that place by the 2oth of April, if pos- 
sible. Supplies for the Rangers will be sent up the Illinois river to that place 
by Gen. Atkinson. On your arrival at Hennepin, you will immediately report 
to me near Dodgeville, Michigan Territory. It is important that your move- 

i M. Duncan was publisher of the first newspaper in Illinois, the Illinois 
Herald, at Kaskaskia. He was a brother of Joseph Duncan, Governor of Illi- 
nois, 1834-8. 


ment should be made promptly. At Hennepin you will be about sixty miles. 
from Rock river, where you can march immediately to Rock river, or any other 
part of the country where it may be necessary to concentrate the Ranger?. 

DIXON'S FERRY, April 9th, 1833. 
To Gen. Atkinson, St. Louis: 

I arrived at this place at 10 o'clock last night, accompanied by Mr. Wood- 
bridge, after a ride of seventy miles. I found the people moving in every 
direction, much excited. There are no families on the road from Meredith, 
twenty miles this side of Fort Clark, except Thomas, and none between this 
place and Apple river. The information received through Dixon has directly 
operated on the great mass of the community living on this frontier. From 
his statements the conduct of the Winnebagoes is mysterious and doubtful. A 
short time will determine the course they will take. Lieutenant Wilson, of the 
U. S. Army, is going directly to Jefferson Barracks; he is from the mines, and 
can inform you as to the state of public feeling. It is certainly desirable that 
the Government should purchase as early as possible the Pottawattamie coun- 
try, 1 and enforce the treaty made with the Winnebagoes. Such is the state of 
feeling of the people, that the Indians must be removed to prevent war, the 
sooner the better. 

Should the Indians make any hostile movements, I will endeavor to be pre- 
pared for them. Their inquiries have been very particular where I was, and 
where my family were. I will advise the people of the mining country to 
form themselves into mounted companies, as many as can procure horses, and 
will post myself with them in advance of the settlements, if there is an appear- 
ance of danger. I will see Gratiot on my way home, and will send for the 
principal chiefs of the Winnebagoes, and have a talk wuth them, which I will 
communicate to you. 

NEAR DODGEVILLE, MICH. TY., April i3th, 1833. 
To Major General Macomb, 

Commanding U. S. Army at Washington City : 

The inhabitants of the Illinois frontier appear in much dread from an attack 
of the Pottawattamies, and are leaving the settlements; many of them I met 
in wagons. The}- appear in great dread of a premeditated attack from both 
Pottawattamies and Winnebagoes. I am convinced that nothing short of an 
extinguishment of the title of the Pottawattamies to the country bordering 
on the State of Illinois, and their removal from that frontier, will quiet the 
minds of the inhabitants. I consider it important to the future growth of this 

i The Pottawattamie country contained about five millions of acres lying 
alpng the western shore of Lake Michigan, and between that lake and the 
land lately ceded to the U. S. by the^ Winnebagoes. By a treaty made a fe\v 
months afterward at Chicago it was ceded to the U. S. September 26th, 1833, 
and the Pottawattamies agreed to remove to the country now constituting a 
part of Southwestern Iowa and of Northwestern Missouri, lying between the 
Boyer and Nodaway rivers, and embracing five millions of acres. U. S. 
Statutes at Large, rii, 431. 


country that the Winnebagoes should be forced to leave the country they have 
ceded to the U. S., and that there should be a separation of the Winnebagoes 
and Poltawattamies. Such is the dislike of the people of the frontier generally 
of these two nations, impressed as they -are with the belief that they partici- 
pated in the late war with the Sacs and Foxes, that war must be the inevitable 
result unless they are all removed. Whether the inhabitants are in danger or 
not, they appear confident of the hostile disposition of these Indians. I have 
seen Mr. Gratiot, sub agent, since my arrival. He savs no danger is to be 
apprehended from the Winnebagoes, that they say they will not go to war 
with the whites, but that they wish to remain on the lands they have ceded to 
the U. S., and raise corn, and that when they receive their annuity money in 
the fall they will cross the Wisconsin river to their country. This arrange- 
ment will not suit the people of this frontier. Nothing but the removal of the 
Rock River Indians will satisfy the 'people; and from the advantages the 
Indians have, their knowledge of the country, the extent of the swamps, as 
well as the thickets and fallen timber where they could secrete themselves and 
be free from an attack of a body of horses, unless the Winnebagoes go peace- 
ably it will take at least 700 mounted men to remove them to act. on foot or 
mounted, as this particular service may require. 

Gratiot states to me he saw among the Winnebagoes four of the murderers 
that made their escape from Fort Winnebago last fall. 1 If they are as friendly 
as they profess to be, why not give up the murderers? It would certainly be 
the best evidence of their disposition to act correctly. The people of the min- 
ing country are satisfied of the guilt of the Winnebagoes in having aided the 
Sacs in the war against us and the escape of the Winnebago murderers. It 
being known to all that the murderers of our people are protected by the great 
body of the Winnebagoes on Rock river will make it difficult to keep peace 
unless these murderers are given up. 

DODGEVILLE, April 22d, 1833. 
To Brigadier General H. Atkinson, 

Commanding the Right Wing of the Western Dept., U. S. Army: 

On my arrival at Gratiot's Grove on the loth inst., I proposed to Mr. Gratiot, 
who had returned from the Turtle village the evening before, to send imme- 
diately for the chiefs of the Winnebagoes on Rock river. My object was to 
ascertain the state of feeling among them. Mr. Gratiot states that they deny- 
any hostile feelings towards the whites, and that they have no ammunition, 
and are almost in a state of starvation. 

Mr. John Kinzie, sub-agent at Fort Winnebago, was with me last night; he 
is directly from that place by the way of Daugherty's, an Indian trader, who 

i These ^murderers were charged, some of them, with the murder of St. 
Vrain, in Illinois, others with the murder of Aubrey, Green, and Force, near 
the Blue Mounds. They made their escape from the black hole at the fort, 
by digging under the stone foundation with their knives through the earth, a 
distance of seven or eight feet outside the fort. Niles 1 Register, January rqt/t, 


is settled near the Four Lakes. He says the Winnebagoes are in great dread 
of the whites, and wish much to see me. I have agreed to meet Kinzie at the 
Four Lakes on this day week. He will notify the Indians, and will attend. I 
will 'endeavor to have Gratiot present, and Pauquette as interpreter. I will let 
the Indians know the necessity of their removal. 

Mr. Kinzie states, on his return from' Chicago recently, that he had seen and 
talked with Caldwell, the chief of the Pottawattamies, who says they are 
anxious to sell their country to the United States and move west of the Missis- 
sippi; and that they are anxious to explore the country west of the Mississippi, 
and want an escort of Rangers to accompany them, as the country west of the 
Mississippi is owned by different nations of Indians, with the exception of that 
portion recently purchased by the United States from the Sacs and Foxes. A 
treaty would have to be made with the Indians owning the country they might 
select, before their'removal could be effected. 

I received a letter from Capt. Beekes, dated from his camp near Vincennes 
on the 9th inst. He acknowledges the receipt of my order. He appears to 
think it will be impossible for him to reach Hennepin by the 2Oth inst. He 
states that Paymaster Philips had not arrived, that the Rangers were without 
money to buy forage for their horses, that he had selected Mr. Samuel Smith 
to purchase rations for the Rangers as well as forage for their horses, and was 
busily engaged in making the necessary preparations for their march, that he 
would reach Hennepin as early as possible, that the health of the men was 
good, their horses in excellent order, and that they were well armed and 
equipped for service. 

Capt. Browne will, I presume, be at Hennepin with his company by the 
time specified. I have no doubt the Rangers of these companies will be 
employed on this frontier during their term of enlistment. Supplies of provis- 
ions will be wanting for them at some convenient points, say Fort Winnebago, 
Fort Crawford, and at Helena, on the Wisconsin river. It is believed that the 
Winnebagoes will locate themselves at or near the old Sac village. Helena 
would be a central point between the Portage and the mouth of the Wisconsin 
river, and, as the Winnebagoes will be all removed north of the river, there 
will be no necessity for ranging the country on the Rock river, unless it should 
be necessary to watch the movements of the Pottawattamies on the Illinois 

I will immediately, after a meeting with the Winnebagoes, forward you 
copies of our talk with them. The large amount now to be paid the Winne- 
bagoes annually, and the conflicting interests of agents as well as Indian 
traders, make it difficult to come at the truth. 

NEAR DODGEVILLE, April 25111, 1833. 
Capt. Jesse Brotvnc, 

Commanding a Company of U. S. Rangers : 

I received your favor of the 2Oth inst. from Hennepin by express. Your 
arrival at that place was calculated to quiet the minds of the inhabitants on 
the Illinois frontier; the people have been kept in a state of agitation from con- 
flicting reports. 


With a view to ensuring the complete execution of the treaty with the 
Winnebagoes, I am directed to order your company to advance as early as the 
season will permit, to take such a position as will enable your command to be 
effective in reference to the removal of the Winnebagoes, should they hesitate 
to comply with the treaty. 

To facilitate the views of the Government, you will march your company to 
this frontier as early as possible, and as the supplies of provisions, arms and 
ammunition for the use of your company must be drawn at Fort Crawford, 
you will have to draw at least ten days rations at Hennepin; the distance from 
that place to Fort Crawford is 200 miles. As it will be necessary for me to 
communicate with Col. Taylor, the commanding officer at Fort Crawford, you 
will pass near my residence in the mining country, which is the direct route 
from Rock river to Fort Crawford, and report to me for further orders. 

I am to hold a talk with the chiefs of the Rock River Band of Winnebagoes 
at the Four Lakes on the 2gth inst., and will possibly get some information 
that may be depended on. From the statements of the Indian Agents it would 
seem the Winnebagoes are in great dread of an attack from the Rangers this 
spring. I will communicate to them what the views of the Government are as 
respects their removal from the lands they have ceded to the United States. I 
have no doubt it is absolutely necessary for the security of the frontier inhabi- 
tants both of Illinois and Michigan that the Pottawattamies and Winnebagoes 
should be separated, and that they should be obliged to leave their present 

Similar orders to those sent to Capt. Browne were sent to 
Capt. Beekes. Col. Dodge met the Winnebago chiefs at the 
Four Lakes on the 2pth of April, as is described in the fol- 
lowing letters: 

May 2d, 1833. 
Brigadier General Atkinson: 

I forward you a copy of the talk held with the Winnebagoes at the head of 
the Four Lakes on the 29th ult. Mr. Kinzie attended the council as well as 
Mr. Gratiot; Pauquette acted as interpreter. The White Crow and Whirling 
Thunder were anxious that I should speak first, no doubt with a view of ascer- 
taining if any advantage could be taken on their part. I told the chiefs I 
wished to know what their feelings and wishes were in relation to removal 
from the country they had ceded the United States last year. I replied to the 
talk of the chiefs, and then told them I would be glad to hear from them 
again. They made no reply to that part of my talk in relation to the mur- 

From all the information I can procure, the traders and some others have 
told the Indians that as they delivered the murderers onre, and the whites 
permitted them to escape, by the laws of nations the whites would have to 
retake them. 

I was informed about four days before I met the Indians in council, that 
one hundred and fifty of the Winnebagoes had been at Daugherty's trading 


house, which is about fifteen miles from the Four Lakes, to see me, under- 
standing I was to be there at that time. The Indian who killed St. Vrain, 
the Indian agent, was among the number, dressed very fine, and said he wanted 
to see me. Some steps should be taken to oblige the chiefs to deliver these 
murderers. I have received no instructions on that subject. I discovered a 
great unwillingness on the part of the Indians .to leave the country they have 
sold the United States. Nothing but a strong mounted force will drive them 
off. My opinion is, a few of the leading men will go to save appearances, and 
many will remain on the Upper Rock river, which is so well calculated to 
afford them shelter and protection. 

I had the honor of receiving your favor of the i5th ult. I had not intended 
organizing the militia of the mining country unless the hostile disposition of 
the Indians was apparent. I am much gratified that the steps I have taken in 
calling the Indians into council has met your approbation. I could devise nO' 
plan that appeared to me more advisable than to call them together, and have 
their agents present at a conference with them. 

I am exceedingly unwilling to assume responsibilities not warranted by the 
express letter of my orders. I have, however, frequently from necessity and 
not choice been obliged to act from circumstances. As this frontier is under 
your immediate direction I should not act without your oiders as the com- 
manding general, except in cases of great "^apparent danger. 

NEAR DODGEVILI.E, M. T., May 3d, 1833. 
Hon. Le^vis Cass, Secretary of War : 

[After communicating the same information as is contained in the above 

letter to Gen. Atkinson] You are much better acquainted with the 

Indian character than I can pretend to be, and can form more correct conclu- 
sions than I can. The Winnebagoes are the most difficult Indians to under- 
stand I have ever been acquainted with. If they could avoid a compliance 
with their engagements to leave the country they have ceded to the United 
States, they would do so. The Rangers will be here in a few days. Whether 
the two companies will be a force sufficiently imposing to oblige the Upper 
Rock River Winnebagoes to remove, I am unable to say, A few of the 
leading men I think will remove; but it is doubtful whether the major 
part of them will cross the Wisconsin river. Their chiefs appear to have less 
influence over them than any Indians I known. 

Upon the arrival of the two companies of Rangers at Col. 
Dodge's headquarters the latter part of May, they were 
ordered, after halting a week, to take a position suitable for 
camping in the neighbohood of the Four Lakes, in order to 
watch the Winnebagoes, and to insure their strict observance 
of the treaty made with them at Rock Island. They estab- 
lished a camp near the northwest side of Fourth Lake, and 
named it Belle Fountain; and subsequently a camp on the 


Wisconsin river, and named it camp Knox. Supplies of am- 
munition and subsistence were drawn from Fort Winnebago, 
and from Helena, on the Wisconsin river. The two compan- 
ies were under the command of Capt. Beekes, to whom Col. 
Dodge gave the following orders, June 4th : 

Captain Beekes will observe a mild but decided course towards the Winne- 
bagoes. He will order a detachment of twenty men under the command of 
an officer, who will take the main trail of the Sacs to where they crossed the 
muddy fork of Rock river; after crossing that branch of Rock river they will 
take the main trail made by the whites to where the volunteers under my com- 
mand reached Rock river from Fort Winnebago. By this movement you will 
ascertain if a part of the Winnebagoes are yet remaining on Rock river. You 
will keep detachments ranging the country to Whitewater on the Rock river, 
as well as to the Turtle village formerly occupied by the Winnebagoes, and 
ascertain, if possible, if any part of the Winnebagoes have removed to the 
lands of the Pottawattamies. Should you find a considerable number of the 
Winnebagoes yet remaining on the lands they have ceded the United States, 
vou willjmmediately send an express to Col. Taylor, commanding at Fort 
Crawford, under whose orders you are placed during my absence to the south- 
ern frontier, and no steps are to be taken until his arrival, as the removal of the 
Winnebagoes devolves exclusively on Col. Taylor, should they refuse to leave 
the country agreeably to the stipulations of the treat}' made at Rock Island. 

Should the U. S. Rangers meet the Winnebagoes, or find them located on 
the ceded lands, thev are to take no steps, but report the facts to the command- 
ing officer of the detachment, unless thev should be attacked by the Winne- 
bagoes. In that event they are to kill the offenders, their aiders and abetters, 
if possible. The parties sent on this service should be directed to be strictly 
on their guard against the possibility of surprise, by keeping their spies always 
in the advance and on their flanks and rear such a distance as to give the main 
party time to be prepared for action, should it become necessary. Silence is 
of the first importance where there is the possibility of danger; loud talking 
and laughing should be prohibited on a march; caution is the first duty of a 
soldier; the utmost vigilance will be necessary in preventing horses from being 
stolen by the Indians, or straying away; they must be well secured at all 

Discipline and subordination is of vital importance to all bodies of armed 
men. The drill for the Rangers as prescribed by the War Department must 
be practiced each day when the weather will permit; the dismounting motion, 
linking horses, advancing the Rangers in line, in open order, and at trail arms, 
is an important movement that should be well understood by the Rangers. 

The commanding officer of the Rangers directs that the rules and articles of 
war shall be observed and obeyed, and that the general regulations of the army 
be observed in all cases. A proper deference and respect from the officers to 
each.jother, it is expected, will-be strictlv observed in their respective relations. 
Combining as the officers of this detachment do a knowledge of the leading 


principles of their profession, as well as a practical knowledge of Indian war- 
fare, the most happy results may be expected in affording protection to the 
settlers on the frontiers. 

Ordered by Gen. Atkinson to make a demand upon the 
Winnebago chiefs for the murderers who had escaped the 
previous fall, Col. Dodge made arrangements to meet the 
chiefs at the Portage for that purpose. 

June 4th, 1833. 
To Gen. Henrv Atkinson: 

Yours of the 24th ult. I received this morning. I am much gratified that 
my course in relation to the Winnebagoes has met your approbation. Every 
facility has been afforded the Winnebagoes of Rock river to enable them 
peaceably to leave the country they have ceded to the United States; the corn 
promised them they have received, and Capt. Gentry hauled their canoes from 
the Four Lakes to the Wisconsin river. The Whirling Thunder, the Blind or 
White Crow, Little Priest, Little Black, and White Breast had crossed over to 
the Wisconsin with their canoes. The Man Eater, who is the principal chief 
on the Upper Rock river, and the Spotted Arm, it was understood, had not 
crossed the Wisconsin. Capt. Gentry saw about one hundred men, warriors. 
From all the information I have been able to procure, not one half of the 
Rock River Indians have crossed the Wisconsin; and the Indians that have 
crossed are no doubt waiting to see what steps will be taken as to the removal 
of those remaining on the lands they have ceded the United States. 

I will take a position near the Four Lakes, where I can march to any part 
of the Rock River country in two days. The large trails made last season will 
be easily followed by light parties that may be sent out to make discoveries. 
I have always been of opinion it would require an armed force to drive the 
Winnebagoes from Rock River. Should a spirit of resistance be shown on 
the part of the Indians, when I ascertain the probable number I can better 
determine what number of troops will be necessary to drive them, and will 
advise you immediately. I will get Pauquette, if possible, to accompany me 
as interpreter. It will be difficult at present to get the murderers. The course 
you have advised will be pursued. I have no doubt it will require the action 
of the chiefs to effect a delivery of them. I will immediately call the attention 
of the Indian agents to the subject, and meet the chiefs as early as possible. 
The Portage will be, I think, the better place to convene them. 

NEAR DODGEVII.LE, June 8th, 1832. 
To Brigadier General Atkinson: 

I leave this place early to-morrow morning for the Four Lakes. I will 
ascertain as early as possible the movements of the Winnebagoes, and advise 
the Indian agents of the time and place I will meet the chiefs to make a 
demand of the murderers. I learned from Mr. Goodale, sutler at Fort Winne- 
bago, that Mr. Kinzie, the Indian agent at the Portage, had gone to Green 
Bay, to meet Go vernor Porter, and that, he would not return to the Portage 
before the i5th inst. 


The Four Lakes, I think, will be a proper point to post the Rangers; the 
distance from Helena will be about thirty-seven miles. The Rangers have six 
wagons, and will be able with convenience to transport the necessary supplies 
for their use while at that place, and it will be within fifteen miles of the Wis- 
consin river, and where I can ascertain better the movements of the Indians, 
and range the country from the Blue Mounds to Fort Winnebago. 

In addition to his duties with the Rangers in connection 
with the removal of the Winnebagoes, Col. Dodge was also 
occupied with arrangements for the organization of the Regi- 
ment of U. S. Dragoons. The following extracts relate in 
part to those arrangements: 

DODGEVILLE, June 8th, 1833. 
To Major J. B. Brant, 

Quarter -master, St. Louis, Missouri: 

Every attention shall be paid for the safe keeping of the public horses. It is 
desirable, however, they should be removed as early as possible to where they 
might be wanting for the use of the Dragoons, as they are in fine order. 
Should any of the public horses stray off, or be stolen, I certainly ought not to 
be responsible for them. 

I am much gratified to hear the public horses purchased by me will be paid 
for, and that a settlement will take place for the mounting and equipping the 
Iowa County Militia. The responsibility I was obliged to take for the defence 
and protection of our frontier has been a source of great uneasiness to me. I 
have given to Major Kirby, the paymaster, all the information in my power, 
and, if my duties on the frontier will permit me, will do everything I can to 
assist Capt. Palmer, Special Agent for the Quartermaster's Department, in his 
settlement of the public accounts. 

In your letter of the 3oth ult., you stated you had received instructions for 
the erection of stables, store-houses, and for equipments, etc., for the Regiment 
of Dragoons. I fully agree with you in your views as to the propriety of 
regarding efficiency and durability in the outfit as essential to the future use- 
fulness of the corps, and that economy should be observed in the expenditure 
of the public money in the erection of stables. 

The Regiment of Dragoons was intended for the more perfect defence of 
this frontier. I do not know what the views of the Government may be as to 
the future disposition of the Regiment I presume, however, they will be sta- 
tioned after their organization on the frontier. It is not to be expected that 
Jefferson Barracks will be the permanent headquarters of the Regiment longer 
than may be necessary to complete its organization. 

On his return from Fort Winnebago he forwarded the fol- 
lowing report to Gen. Atkinson: 

DODGEVILLE, MICHIGAN TY., June 29th, 1833. 

GENERAL: I received your letter of i3th inst. yesterday evening on my 
return from Fort Winnebago. On the 9th inst. I started from this place for 



Fort Winnebago, reached the Rangers' camp near the Four Lakes on the loth 
inst., and arrived at Fort Winnebago on the i4th. Mr. Kinzie, sub-agent for 
the Winnebagoes, arrived on the 1 5th with twenty thousand dollars, the 
annuity money for the Winnebagoes. I waited on Mr. Kinzie, and sent for 
Mr. Pauquette, the interpreter, and had a confidential conference with them 
on the subject of the removal of the Winnebagoes, as well as the necessity of 
a prompt delivery of the eight murderers who made their escape from Fort 
Winnebago last fall; and that a refusal on the part of the Indians to remove 
from the ceded lands would oblige me to march with the mounted Rangers to 
drive them across the Wisconsin river, and that it might be necessary for me 
to call on the Government for aid, and, should it become necessary to do so, 
that the chiefs would be in danger of being taken and held as hostages until 
the murderers were delivered up, to be dealt with according to law. I was 
well apprised that Man Eater, the chief on the Upper Rock river, had not left 
his village, and that at least sixty lodges were yet remaining on the Upper 
Rock river. Mr. Kinzie having the annuity money in his possession, I 
thought it would be a favorable moment to call the attention of the chiefs to 
this subject, that the annuity money would not be paid them, until they com- 
plied with the demands of the Government. I desired Mr. Kinzie to notify 
the chiefs I would meet them on the 22d inst., at the Portage; in the mean- 
time, the Indians on the Rock river should be all notified, both as to their 
removal, as well as my course in relation to the murderers. 

I left the Rangers on the morning of the 22d inst., and arrived at Fort Win- 
nebago at about 10 o'clock. The Rangers arrived at the fort at about 12 
o'clock. I enclose you a talk held with the chiefs: 

To the Chiefs of the Winnebago Nation: 

When at the Four Lakes, on the 2gth of April, in my talk with you I told you that a cloud of dark- 
ness would rest on your Nation until you delivered up to justice the eight murderers taken by you 
last fall under a stipulation of the treaty made with the U. S. Commissioners at Rock Island. You 
acted in that respect with good faith. The murderers have made their escape; they have received 
your aid and protection. During the winter on Rock river, your agent, Mr. Gratiot, stated to me 
he had seen four of them; he identified the Indian who killed the U. S. agent of the Sacs and 
Foxes, Mr. St. Vrain. 

It becomes my duty to demand of you, the chiefs, that these men be delivered to me; their escape 
from justice is no acquittal of them. Is it right, is it just, that men who professed to be our friends, 
and when the Government of the U. S. was in a state of peace with their nation, that a part of them 
should unite with the Sac and Fox Indians, to kill our weak and defenceless citizens on this frontier 
and charge the crimes on the Sacs? The men who participated in killing the U. S. Indian agent, 
and his murderer, whom, as Mr. Gratiot, your agent, states, Mr. St. Vrain had fed and extended to 
him all the rights of hospitality and friendship at his house at Rock Island but two weeks before he 
was killed! the Indian who barbarously cut off his hands and feet before his death! have been 
permitted by you to go at large, covered with the blood of an innocent man, without any attempt 
since the escape of these murderers on your part to bring him and the rest of the murderers to that 
justice their crimes merit. This state of things is in direct violation of every principle of justice; and 
contrary to all usage among friendly nations, for one party to harbor and conceal murderers and 
culprits claimed by the other party, 

I now distinctly give you to understand that if you fail to adopt measures for the apprehension of 
the fugitives from justice, it will lead to a stoppage of your annuities by the Government and that 
your chiefs are liable to be arrested and detained until the delivery of the murderers. 

Your great father, the President of the United States, deals justly with all nations, whether a 
strong or a weak people; he asks nothing of them that is not right; and he will submit to nothing 
that is wrong. He will do justice to all the Red Skins. Had our frontier people killed any of the 


Winnebagoes in a time of peace, they would have been punished according to the laws of the coun- 
try where the crime was committed. If your people kill ours, they must be punished in the same 
manner that our citizens are punished. The laws are made for the protection of all, as well as for 
the punishment of all who violate them. 

If you deliver the murderers to us, to be dealt with according to law, you will give us a proof of 
your friendly disposition, and that you are disposed to observe and conform to those friendly rela- 
tions that should exist among different nations of people; then the bright chain of friendship will 
remain entire and unbroken between us. 

Should you fail to deliver these murderers, your road will be filled with thorns, and the sun will 
be covered with a dark cloud, which will rest over your nation until the blood of the innocent is 

Judge Doty, the former U. S. District Judge, now practicing as an attorney, 
had been at the Portage after my conference with Mr. Kinzie. He had been 
employed last fall by the murderers to defend them. He advised the friends 
of the culprits to deliver themselves up to Mr. Kinzie, who was the only acting 
magistrate at the Portage, before my arrival. As Mr. Kinzie lived in Brown 
county, the murderers would be committed to the gaol of that county, and they 
would not be taken to Prairie du Chien and confined, and would not have to 
be tried in Iowa county, where the alleged murders were committed, and 
where public opinion was decidedly against them. Mr. Kinzie directed the 
accused murderers to be placed in the guard house in the fort, under the ninth 
article of the treaty made at Rock Island. The names of the murderers were 
given, and three of them were given up as the murderers of Mr. St. Vrain, 
killed near Kellogg's Grove, in the State of Illinois, who must be tried in that 
State; and consequently a demand must be made by the Governor of 
the State of Illinois on the Governor of this Territory for the delivery of the 
murderers of St. Vrain I mention this subject in order that the proper steps 
may be taken in relation to the trial of these murderers. 

The Indians charged with killing Aubrey, Green, and Force, near the Blue 
Mounds, must be tried in the county where the murder was committed, unless 
the Judge orders the change of the venue. The Indians were marching to the 
fort on my arrival; seven of them have been committed; there is a hostage for 
the eighth, that is expected will be delivered. 

There is a large collection of the Winnebagoes at the Portage; Mr. Kinzie 
says about four thousand souls. They will be paid their annuity money on the 
first of July. Man Eater and the Indians of the Upper Rock river were all at 
the Portage. They are now camped on the Menominee lands, and say they 
have a right to remain. I think to remove the Rangers immediately from the 
frontier, many of the Winnebagoes will cross the Wisconsin below the Portage 
and return toward the Rock river. 

I would have remained at the Portage with the Rangers until the annuity